More reading on Sephardic Jews – caller.com

Nelida Ortiz

More reading on Sephardic Jews

RE: “Tracing roots of Sephardic Jews of Spain,” April 17

Recently, Herb Canales wrote a forum with Jackie Ben-Efraim on the Sephardic Jews and the Carvajal family. Luis Carvajal was a “converso,” one of the Spanish Jews who adopted the Catholic faith under pressure from the Spanish Inquisition.

If anyone is interested in learning more about this time period and this remarkable man, I recommend that they read a book in the genealogy reference section of the La Retama Central library. This book tells the story of the Carvajal family and how the Inquisition killed most of the members of the family. The book is called “The Carvajal Family, The Jews and The Inquisition” and was written by Alfonso Toro.

Editor’s Note: An earlier version of this letter included incorrect information about the founder of Monterrey. Diego de Montemayor was the founder.

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More reading on Sephardic Jews – caller.com

Anti-Defamation League | Santa Barbara | Serving: Santa …

DiversiTea Luncheon

The DiversiTea, ADLs most fun and fashionable event of the year, will take place at the Four Seasons, Coral Casino Beach and Cabana Club on May 10, 2016. The Luncheon raises awareness and funds for our local education programs to educate against hate and take a stand against bullying. We look forward to having you Read more

Join ADL and our community partners which include law enforcement and education professionals for Mediterranean-style fare while they strut their stuff on the runway in ADLs role model fashion show. The event will also feature a shuk-style market with the chance to bid on fashion-centric items. Read more

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Anti-Defamation League | Santa Barbara | Serving: Santa …

Judaism Online

Who are the Jews? What impact have they had on the world? A powerful short film that reveals the real story behind “The Mystery of the Jews”. With remarkable insights by renowned historians, world leaders and perceptive authors. “The Mystery of the Jews” challenges the normative conception of human history.

RELATED: A Rational Approach to the Torahs Divine Origin

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Judaism Online

Corbyn: Labour Will Not Tolerate Anti-Semitism

Jeremy Corbyn has said Labour will not tolerate anti-Semitism following the row over Ken Livingstone’s Hitler comments.

The Labour leader said the remarks were being investigated and would be dealt with by the General Secretary and the National Executive.

Backbencher John Mann has also been given a dressing down after launching a face-to-face attack on the former London mayor, accusing him of being a “Nazi apologist”.

Speaking during a visit to Hull, Mr Corbyndenied Labour has a problem with anti-Semitism- as some claim.

“No, there is not a problem,” he said. “We are totally opposed to anti-Semitism in any form within the party.

“The very small number of cases that have been brought to our attention will be dealt with swiftly and immediately, and they will be.”

Mr Livingstone was suspendedfor “bringing the party into disrepute” after he took to the airwaves in an attempt to defend Bradford West MP Naz Shah from allegations ofanti-Semitism.

Ms Shah was suspended on Wednesday over controversial social media posts about Israel she made before becoming an MP.

:: NazShah Issues ‘Wholehearted’ Apology

Mr Livingstone insisted that while her remarks were “over the top”, she was not anti-Semitic and he had never encountered anti-Semitism in 40 years in the party.

He sparked fury among colleagues by going on to claim that Adolf Hitler had supported Zionism “before he went mad and ended up killing six million Jews”.

::’Red Ken’ No Stranger To Damning Headlines

Within minutes of his BBC London interview, some Labour MPs – including several members of the shadow cabinet – demanded his suspension or removal from the party.

Labour’s London mayoral candidate Sadiq Khan described his comments as “appalling and inexcusable”, while shadow cabinet member Chris Bryant told MPs he was “sick and tired” of people trying to explain awayanti-Semitism, adding: “Yes, I’m talking to you, Ken Livingstone.”

The chairman of the left-wing Momentum group of Corbyn supporters, Jon Lansman, said it was time Mr Livingstone “left politics altogether”, adding: “All political lives end in failure and he should now depart voluntarily.”

Former Labour fundraiser Lord Levy told Sky News: “There is no place for him any longer in the Labour Party. I don’t think our party can tolerate that sort of behaviour.”

Mr Livingstone was harangued by Mr Mann when the pair arrived for separate interviews at broadcast studios in Westminster.

As the former London mayor attempted to give a radio interview, the Bassetlaw MP jabbed his finger at him and accused him of being a “Nazi apologist” and attempting to “rewrite history”.

Labour said in a statement later the chief whip had “made it absolutely clear to John Mann that it is completely inappropriate for Labour Members of Parliament to be involved in very public rows on the television”.

A number of Jewish groups have also called for Mr Livingstone’sexpulsion from the party.

Gideon Falter, chairman of the Campaign Against Anti-Semitism, said: “He is a hardened politician who has spent his political career accommodating anti-Semitic extremists and making anti-Semitic gaffes.”

Jonathan Arkush, president of the Board of Deputies of British Jews, said: “Ken Livingstone’s comments were abhorrent and beyond disgraceful. He denies anti-Semitism in Labour when the evidence is there for all to see.”

Baroness Neuberger, cross-bench peer and senior rabbi to the West London Synagogue, has called on Mr Corbynto set up a cross-party commission to investigate anti-Semitism in his party.

She told Sky News he has failed to “get a grip” on the “very damaging” problem, which dated backto February when members of Oxford University’s Labour Club voted to endorse Israel Apartheid Week.

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Corbyn: Labour Will Not Tolerate Anti-Semitism

Jrgen Graf – Holocaust Revisionism and its Political …

Holocaust Revisionism and its Political Consequences

Jrgen Graf

I was born in Basel, Switzerland, on August 15, 1951. My father was a bank employee, my mother a housewife. Both of them are still alive and well; my father, who celebrated his 80th birthday on 12 December 2000, retired from his job many years ago.

After finishing school, I went to Basel University, where I studied French, English, and Scandinavian philology. In 1979, I acquired a master’s degree which entitled me to teach languages at a school in Basel. In 1982, I went on a journey to South East Asian from where I did not return before 1988, as I had got a job as a university teacher of German in Taipeh, Taiwan. Back in Switzerland, I gathered some professional experience in fields unrelated to teaching before returning to my former profession in 1990. Until March 1993, when I was fired in the aftermath of the publication of my first revisionist book, I taught Latin and French in Therwil, a small town near Basel.

In October 1994, I got a job as a teacher of German for foreign students at a private language school in Basel. Though badly paid, my work greatly appealed to me because most of my students were highly motivated adults. While the director of the school, Mr. Remo Orsini, did not share my views about the holocaust and Zionism, he was tolerant of my revisionist activities (which I never talked about in class). In August 1998, after the infamous Baden trial in which my editor Gerhard Foerster and myself were sentenced to stiff prison terms because of our revisionist publications, Mr. Orsini reluctantly dismissed me in order to prevent the ruin of his school which would have become the target of a relentless media smear campaign had he kept me as a teacher. Apart from some translation jobs, I was unable to find any work in Switzerland after the Baden trial because no employer would have dared to hire me. I left Switzerland on August 15, 2000, my 49th birthday, and I do not intend to return there before the political situation has changed and Switzerland is a free country again. (Should I go back now, I would face immediate arrest.)

Before 1991, I did not know anything about revisionism. While I thought that the six million figure might be somewhat exaggerated, I never had the slightest doubts as to the reality of the Nazi extermination program and the homicidal gas chambers. I was dimly aware that there were some authors who questioned even the approximate truth of the official holocaust version,

but I thought they were just a bunch of Neo-Nazis eager to whitewash Hitler, so I made no effort to find out what there arguments were. However, I was already quite anti-Zionist at that time. First of all, I was profoundly disgusted by Israel’s inhuman treatment of the Palestinians, and secondly, I was greatly angered by the fact that the Jews shamelessly exploited the tragedy which had befallen them during World War Two to extort huge sums of money from Germany and to malign the entire German nation. Because I had many German relatives (my father, though a Swiss citizen, was born in Germany and did not come to Switzerland before 1947), I was a Germanophile from earliest childhood and found it totally inadmissible to blame the German people as a whole for Hitler and his holocaust. Although greatly interested in contemporary history in general and the Second World War in particular, I always tried to keep away from the holocaust subject. The holocaust was an ugly and shameful episode of European and German history, and I felt no desire whatsoever to know the gory details.

All this changed in April 1991 when I made the acquaintance of a elderly Swiss gentleman, Mr. Arthur Vogt. Vogt, a retired teacher of mathematics and biology who was born in 1917, has been my close friend and generous sponsor ever since. At our first meeting, he introduced himself as a revisionist and gave me a tape with a revisionist text authored by himself. Even if this text did not convince me entirely, it came as a serious shock to me. I realised that the revisionists had some valid arguments and could not simply be dismissed as crackpots or charlatans, so I asked Vogt for more information. He sent me the three revisionist books which, at that time, were the best existing ones: Serge Thion’s Verite Historique ou Verite Politique? (La Vieille Taupe, Paris 1980), Arthur Butz’s The Hoax of the Twentieth Century (Institute for Historical Review, Torrance/California 1977) and Wilhelm Staeglich’s Der Auschwitz Mythos (Grabert Verlag, Tuebingen 1979). Even before studying these books, I read the German translation of an article I also had got from Vogt. It had appeared in the Soviet Communist Party’s newspaper Pravda on February 2, 1945, one week after the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp by the Red Army. (Four years later, in Moscow, I got hold of the Russian original.) The author of that article, Soviet Jewish reporter Boris Polevoi, who had visited Auschwitz immediately after its liberation, wrote about an “assembly line killing installation where hundreds of people were killed simultaneously with electrical current”. Polevoi also mentioned gas chambers in the eastern sector of the Auschwitz camp. Nowadays, nobody claims that the German made use of electric current to kill people, and according to the official Holocaust version, the Auschwitz gas chambers were at Birkenau, west of the main camp, and not in the eastern sector. Having read this article, I knew that the revisionists were right: The gas chamber and mass extermination story had been fabricated by propagandists, and the first versions did not tally with the later ones.

On that day, April 29, 1991, I decided to dedicate my life to the struggle against the most monstrous fraud ever concocted by human brains.

I had long discussions with Arthur Vogt who appreciated my enthusiasm and often gave me useful advice. In order to have sufficient time for my historical studies, I only taught about 15 hours a week which of course meant a reduced, though still decent salary. (In Switzerland, state school teachers are exceedingly well paid.) At that time, there already were numerous revisionist books and articles, but most of them dealt with specific aspects of the holocaust. As there was no easily understandable introduction to revisionism and its arguments, I decided to write one myself. The title of the book was to be Der Holocaust-Schwindel (“The Holocaust Swindle”). In March 1992, I visited the world’s most renowned revisionist, professor Robert Faurisson, at his home in Vichy, France. Faurisson, who had been a respected professor of French literature, had his career ruined because of his revisionist writings; he had been put on trial numerous times, had been fined exorbitant sums, and in 1989, he was brutally beaten up and almost killed by a gang of Jewish thugs who called themselves “Sons of Jewish Memory”. Faurisson corrected the manuscript of my future book. I was deeply impressed by his brilliant intellect and even more by his extraordinary courage and uncompromising search for the truth.

I eventually realised that Der Holocaust-Schwindel would be much too long to serve as a mere introduction to revisionism, so I wrote an abridged version which was published in early 1993 under the title Der Holocaust auf dem Pruefstand (“The Holocaust under the scanner”). The book was later translated into French, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Bulgarian, Arabic, and Swedish. Immediately after its publication, I lost my job in Therwil for alleged unethical behaviour. Der Holocaust-Schwindel was published shortly after the first book. Many readers especially liked the last three chapters in which I analysed the political implications of the hoax more stringently than any other revisionist had done before. The introduction, written by Faurisson, was also greatly appreciated by the readers.

In April 1993, only a few days after being dismissed as a teacher, I made the acquaintance of German-born engineer Gerhard Foerster who at that time was 73 years old. Foerster, who made his living in Wuerenlos near Zurich, had been a revisionist for many years. His father, a Silesian, had perished during the brutal expulsion of about 12 million Germans from the eastern German territories annexed by Poland after World War Two, and Foerster was deeply hurt by the fact that nobody seemed to care about the terrible tragedy of his nation while the media made a big fuss about the spurious Jewish holocaust every day. As Foerster was unable to write a historical book himself – he was a highly gifted engineer, not a writer -, and as I already had a good grasp of the subject, he urged me to write a book about the eyewitness reports upon which the Auschwitz gas chamber story is exclusively based. (As I will explain later, there is no material or documentary evidence for the existence of even one single homicidal gas chamber in any German concentration camp, and the official holocaust version totally relies on eyewitness accounts.)

While some of the sources I needed for the new book were readily available, others were very difficult to get at. In September 1993, I visited Italian revisionist scholar Carlo Mattogno who makes his living near Rome with his family. Mattogno had already been studying the holocaust for over a decade when I first met him, and he possessed an impressive collection of rare documents. Many of them were in Polish (I had learned this difficult language because of its importance for students of the holocaust). I copied the material I needed for my book. Since my first visit, I have been closely co-operating with Mattogno; I have translated many of his writings, we have made six trips together and co-authored two books. Mattogno’s knowledge of the holocaust subject is second to none, but his books are not easy to read because of their highly academic and arcane style. Since there is no anti-revisionist law in Italy, he has never been persecuted. He is one of my best friends, and whenever I come to his house, I am treated like a member of the family.

My book Auschwitz. Taetergestaendnisse und Augenzeugen des Holocaust (“Auschwitz. Perpetrator confessions and eyewitnesses of the holocaust”) was published by Foerster in August 1994, a few month before the ignoble “anti-racism law” (Article 261b of the Swiss penal code) was enacted. It contained a critical analysis of 30 key eyewitness reports about the alleged homicidal gassings at Auschwitz. My conclusion was unambiguous: The “eyewitnesses” had all lied. Their accounts flagrantly contradicted each other, and in those cases where they agreed, they regularly contained the same logical and technical impossibilities. For example, numerous witnesses claimed that at Auschwitz it took 20 minutes to incinerate three corpses in a crematorium muffle. Even in modern crematoria, it takes about one hour to burn one corpse, and as we know from the documents, the same thing applied to the German wartime crematoria. As the witnesses could not possibly have invented the same absurdities independently of each other, it was obvious that they had either been instructed to lie (many of them testified before Polish, British and American kangaroo courts, which had been entrusted with the task to “prove” the existence of the homicidal gas chambers), or that one witness had simply parroted what he had heard from another one or read in a book. As virtually all of the eyewitnesses were former Jewish concentration camp inmates, they were keen on taking revenge upon the Germans who had deprived them of their liberty and gladly told all sort of wild atrocity tales to ruin the reputation of the German nation for decades, if not for centuries.

In September 1994, I attended a revisionist conference in California which was organised by the Institute for Historical Review (P.O. Box 2739, Newport Beach, CA, 92659, USA) The I.H.R. publishes the scholarly Journal of Historical Review.) At that conference, I made the acquaintance of US historian Mark Weber, the director of the I.H.R. I also met Bradley Smith, Ernst Zuendel, and other leading figures of holocaust revisionism.

In October 1995, Foerster published my fourth revisionist book, Todesursache Zeitgeschichtsforschung (“Cause of death: Research of contemporary history”). This book could be called a novel because of its fictitious background: In a German school, two groups of students discuss about the holocaust and other delicate historical subjects. One group believes in the orthodox holocaust story, while the other one does not, and both groups present their best arguments. At the end of the debates, which the revisionists win, the teacher, Miss Margarethe Laemple, is converted to revisionism. She loses her job for having encouraged an controversial debate on the holocaust and is later murdered; hence the title of the book. While Todesursache Zeitgeschichtsforschung is certainly not the most scientific book I have written, it has ever since been my most popular one. I was aghast to discover that some readers believed the story had happened in real life – one German lady even wanted to know where Miss Laemple, the unfortunate heroine of the novel, was buried, so that she could put flowers on her grave!

In July/August and November/December 1995, I made two long visits to Moscow with Carlo Mattogno in order to work in Russian archives. We found heaps of wartime documents about Auschwitz and other National Socialist concentration camps and made thousands of photocopies many of which Mattogno has used in his books since. During our first trip, we were accompanied by our faithful friend Russ Granata, an elderly American gentleman of Italian descent. Granata, who has published several books by Carlo Mattogno in English, has now his own revisionist website (www.russgranata.com).

In 1996, the manuscript of a book which was never to be printed in German – a summary of revisionist arguments much superior to The Holocaust under the Scanner – was translated into Russian. The title was Mif o Kholokoste – “The Myth of the holocaust”. The book, which was first published as a special issue of the nationalist and anti-Zionist monthly Russki Vestnik, was hugely successful. The German manuscript was later translated into English. This English version does not exist in print, but it is available on the internet under the title Holocaust or Hoax? The arguments (Historical Review Press, http://ety.com/HRP).

In January 1997, I published an essay called Vom Untergang der Schweizerischen Freiheit (“The decline of Swiss freedom”), a scathing attack upon the “Anti-racism law” which had been enacted two years earlier. I showed that the law was a purely Zionist creation and that its main purpose was the repression of holocaust revisionism. Two and a half years later, in October 1999, this booklet was to cause a political storm. Christoph Blocher, a populist politician who leads the right wing of the conservative Swiss People’s Party, had got a copy of Vom Untergang der Schweizerischen Freiheit from one of my friends and thanked him in a short personal letter, stating that Juergen Graf was right. One week before the October 1999 elections, in which Blocher’s party was expected to score massive gains, the Sunday newspaper Sonntagsblick published the letter and castigated Blocher because of his alleged pro-revisionist sympathies. For several days, Switzerland resembled a madhouse as the media were talking about nothing but the Blocher letter. Predictably, Blocher threw the towel; he claimed that he had committed a regrettable error and that he had never read the book. The smear campaign backfired, and Blocher’s party won an impressive victory.

In the summer of 1997, I travelled to Poland, Lithuania and White Russia with Carlo Mattogno. In Poland, we did research in the archives of the former concentration camps Majdanek and Stutthof and made many photographs of the purported homicidal gas chambers. After returning from this journey, Mattogno and I wrote a book about Majdanek. KL Majdanek. Eine historische und technische Studie (“Concentration camp Majdanek. A historical and technical study”) was published by Germar Rudolf’s Castle Hill Publisher (Hastings, TN34 3ZQ, UK) in September 1998. About two thirds of the book were written by Mattogno. He was the author of the very difficult technical chapters about the gas chambers and the crematoria which I could not have written because my technical knowledge would have been totally insufficient for such a task.

In May 1998, Mattogno and I made a trip to Belgium and Holland. In Antwerpen, Belgium, we visited one of our best friends, the indefatigable revisionist publisher Siegfried Verbeke, a key figures of European revisionism. In Amsterdam, Holland, we spent some days in archives where countless war time documents – also about the German concentration camps – are being kept.

On July 16, 1998, my editor Gerhard Foerster and myself went on trial in Baden, Switzerland, for alleged violation of the Swiss “anti-racism law”. The law forbids “denying, minimising or justifying a genocide”, but mentions neither gas chambers nor the six million figure nor, indeed, the Jews and the holocaust. Being open to all sorts of interpretations, the wording of the “anti-racism law” enables the judges to condemn everybody for everything. I was sentenced to 15 months in jail without probation, whereas Foerster got 12 months; in addition we were both fined astronomical sums. I was even punished for the books I had written before the law was enacted! An English-language documentation about this trial can be found in the last chapters of my book Holocaust or Hoax? The arguments (http:www.ety.com/HRP).

Foerster, who was so sick at the time of the trial that he had to be brought into the courtroom in a wheelchair, died nine weeks later, on September 23, 1998. I had visited him in hospital three days before his demise. He is buried in Wuerenlos where he had spent the last decades of his eventful life. May he rest in peace!

My lawyer, Dr. Urs Oswald, had done an excellent job, but as the trial was a political one, the sentence was fixed in advance, and no lawyer in the world could had influenced it. Of course, Dr. Oswald appealed the verdict. On June 23, 1999, the court of the canton of Aargau confirmed the sentence, whereupon Dr. Oswald appealed to the highest court, the federal court in Lausanne. In April 2000, I learned that the appeal had been rejected, and I was ordered to report to prison on October 2. But at that time, I was in Moscow with my fiancee. – The Swiss organisation Verite et Justice, which is headed by Rene-Louis Berclaz, Philippe Brennenstuhl, and myself, has published a documentation about my case (Un proces politique au scanner. L’affaire Juergen Graf, “A political trial under the scanner. The case of Juergen Graf”). The booklet was translated into German under the title Inquisitoren in Aktion (“Inquisitors in action”). Both versions are available at Verite et Justice, C.P. 355, 1618 Chatel-St. Denis, Switzerland, and on the Internet Website Wilhelm Tell (www.ety.com/tell). The English trial report mentioned earlier is based upon this documentation, but it only covers the first trial, the one held in Baden, while the brochure published by Verite et Justice also covers the second one held in Aargau and contains a lot of background information about the nefarious “anti-racism law”.

In March 1999, Mattogno and I made yet another trip to Poland for further research in the archives. We also visited archives in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. During the first part of our journey, we were accompanied by Australian revisionist Dr. Fred Toben. Toben, the director of the Adelaide Institute, was later arrested in Germany and kept in jail for seven months because he had published revisionist material on his internet website in Australia (where there is no anti-revisionist law). According to a recent decision of the German “Bundesverfassungsgericht” (Supreme court), anybody who posts revisionist material on an internet website in any country of the world can be arrested and sent to prison for five years as soon as he enters Germany.

Upon returning to Italy, we wrote a book about Stutthof, Das Konzentrationslager Stutthof und seine Funktion in der nationalsozialistischen Judenpolitik (“The concentration camp Stutthof and its function in the Jewish policy of the National socialists”), which was published by Castle Hill Publisher, Hastings, in the fall of the same year. As well as our book about Majdanek, the one about Stutthof has already been translated into English but is not yet available in print. The English versions of both books will appear in 2001.

In early of 2000, Castle Hill Publisher published my book Riese auf toenernen Fuessen. Raul Hilberg und sein Standardwerk ueber den Holocaust (“Giant on clay feet. Raul Hilberg and his standard work about the Holocaust”), a devastating attack upon the Austrian-born American Jew Raul Hilberg whose three-volume study The Destruction of the European Jews(the “definitive” version of which appeared in 1985) is universally praised as the standard work about the holocaust. I exposed the blatantly fraudulent methods used by the swindler Hilberg in order to substantiate the orthodox holocaust claims. – This book will appear in English in the spring of 2001.

In 1999 and 2000, I engaged in numerous activities on behalf of Verite et Justice, an organisation fighting for the restoration of intellectual freedom in Switzerland. In March 2000, Verite et Justice published its second booklet, Le Contre-Rapport Bergier (“The Anti-Bergier Report”), which soundly refuted the mendacious Bergier Report. (In late 1999, a group of Zionist and pro-Zionist propagandists headed by professor Bergier had published the so-called Bergier Report denigrating Switzerland as a country heavily involved in the Nazi holocaust. This tendentious report, which contained countless distortions and downright lies, was to serve as an ideological justification for further Jewish financial claims against our country.) Both the French and the German version of our answer to Bergier are available at Verite et Justice and on the Internet Website Wilhelm Tell (www.ety.com/tell). In September 2000, Verite et Justice documented the atrocious trial of 79 years old revisionist publisher Gaston-Armand Amaudruz, whom a court in Lausanne had sentenced to one year in prison for disputing the six million figure and questioning the existence of the Nazi gas chambers, in its third brochure Le proces Amaudruz. Une farce judiciaire (“The Amaudruz trial. A parody of justice”, German version: Der Amaudruz-Prozess. Eine Justizfarce).

In April and May 2000, Mattogno and I visited Moscow for the third time in order to finish our work in the archives. In late May, I attended the 13th conference of the Institute for Historical Review in California where I delivered a speech on the subject “What happened to the Jews who were deported to Auschwitz but were not registered there?” (The text of this speech was printed in the Journal of Historical Review, Volume 19, Number 4, July/August 2000). Three months later, in the second half of August, I accompanied Richard Krege, a young and brilliant Australian engineer, to Poland. The purpose of this trip will be explained later. – From Poland, I went to Russia and later to Ukraine to do research in the archives of Lemberg (Lwiw). – I should like to point out that all these journeys were made possible by generous sponsors.

Revisionism has radically changed my life. Although my existence has become perilous and precarious, it is now more interesting and more meaningful than ever before as I know that I am fighting against something fundamentally evil. Discovering the truth about the holocaust was a singular intellectual adventure and opened my eyes. Having ascertained that the Jewish extermination and homicidal gas chamber story is but a monstrous hoax, I understood the true nature of the so-called “Western democracy”, and I became aware of the fact that a hostile alien minority is the driving force behind the decadence and corruption corroding Western society. The holocaust is but the most extreme case of the lies the Jewish-run media are continuously poisoning the world with. A very significant example is the vicious propaganda against the Islamic Republic of Iran. The Jews and their stooges bitterly hate Iran because that country has dared to challenge the political, military and cultural imperialism of the world’s only remaining superpower, the Zionist-led USA. It is of paramount importance to remember that the people who are constantly lying about “gas chambers” and “six million” are the same ones who relentlessly vilify Iran and the Islamic Revolution. They are, incidentally, the same people who propagate abortion, gay rights (including the right of homosexuals to marry a partner of their own sex and the right of homosexual couples to adopt children), hard-core pornography, and similar abominations.

“Achieving our quest for a new world order depends upon our learning the Holocaust’s lesson.” (Ian Kagedan, director of government relations for the Jewish Bnai Brith organisation, as quoted by the Toronto Star, 26 November 1991.)

a) The transformation of the holocaust into a religion

The orthodox holocaust story can not possibly be defended with rational arguments because its absurdity is overwhelming. We are asked to believe in the fata morgana of a vast slaughter in killing factories which left no traces whatsoever – no documents, no bones, no teeth, no ashes – nothing! We are further asked to believe that the Allies, who had a large network of informers all over Europe and a spy in the German leadership (Admiral Canaris, the head of the German intelligence), did not become aware of this gigantic genocide until the end of the war, for if they had known about the mass murder, they would have acted to stop it. Finally, we are asked to believe that the Jews in Poland, the epicentre of the holocaust, did not know anything about the Auschwitz gas chambers as late as in August 1944, otherwise the Jews from the Lodz ghetto would not have gone to Auschwitz voluntarily – which is precisely what they did, as related by Raul Hilberg in his standard work about the holocaust (Die Vernichtung der europaeischen Juden, p. 543/544).

As the Zionist-controlled system of the “Western democracies” is woefully unable to counter the revisionists with arguments, it resorts to censorship and brute force in order to silence the dangerous heretics. And the Jews are gradually transforming the holocaust into a religion. This is a very clever strategy, for as Robert Faurisson aptly remarks, one cannot refute a religion with scientific arguments. Thus, the holocaust museums and holocaust monuments spreading like mushrooms all over America and Europe are really temples of the new religion, whereas professional “holocaust survivors” such as Elie Wiesel are the priests of the new religion. To prove this assertion, we only have to quote Wiesel himself: “The Holocaust is a holy mystery, the secret of which is limited to the circle of the priesthood of survivors” (Peter Novick, The Holocaust in American Life, 1999, p. 211, 212, retranslated from the German). Another high priest of the holocaust cult, Simon Wiesenthal, goes even further: “When each of us comes before the Six Million, we will be asked what we did with our lives… I will say: I did not forget you” (Simon Wiesenthal in Response, Vol. 20, Nr. 1).

No critical questions about the holocaust are allowed because they are a blasphemy: They cause immense distress to the eternal victims of persecution, the Jews, and are an attempt to whitewash National Socialism – the most evil ideology of all times which made the holocaust possible! In today’s Germany, it is even considered inadmissible to compare the holocaust with the atrocities of communist tyrants such as Stalin or Cambodian dictator Pol Pot because this is regarded as a “relativisation” and “trivialization” of the worst crime in history.

French Zionist propagandist Claude Lanzmann, the producer of a long and unspeakably dull film about the holocaust (the title of this film is Shoa, the Hebrew word for “catastrophe”, which is often used by Jews as a synonym for “holocaust”) makes no effort to conceal that the holocaust cult is to replace Christianity:

“If Auschwitz is something other than a horror of history, then Christianity totters in its foundations. Christ is the Son of God, who went to the end of the humanely endurable, where he endured the cruellest suffering. (…) If Auschwitz is true, then there is a human suffering with which that of Christ simply cannot be compared. (…) In this case, Christ is false, and salvation will not come from him. (…) Auschwitz is the refutation of Christ.” (Les temps modernes, Paris, December 1993, p. 132, 133.)

Nowadays, a large percentage of the Jews do not believe in God any more, but virtually all of them believe in the Six Million. The Zionist leadership cunningly exploits the holocaust to unite the World’s Jews by keeping them in a constant state of hysteria and persecution mania, insinuating that only if the Jews stick together will they be able to ban the threat of a new holocaust.

It goes without saying that very few Non-Jews are willing to embrace the murky holocaust religion. While the overwhelming majority of people in the West still believe that the official holocaust version is essentially true (even if they suspect that the figures might me somewhat inflated), they are thoroughly fed up with the eternal lamentation about Jewish victims and Jewish suffering. They simply don’t want to hear it any more. In Germany, opinion polls showed that a vast majority of the population was against the planned holocaust monument in Berlin (which not a single major party, not a single leading politician and not a single big newspaper dared to oppose). Privately, the politicians are probably as profoundly disgusted with the endless holocaust litany as the rest of the population, but they cannot possibly afford to let the revisionists win because this would shatter the very foundations of the “democratic” system to which they own their careers and their wealth.

b) The function of the holocaust in the world since 1945

The political consequences of the holocaust since 1945 have been tremendous. When I speak about the “holocaust”, I do not mean a historical fact, as the extermination of the Jews in chemical slaughterhouses did not actually take place. But in the mind of the populace, this extermination is as real as the Second World War or the Egyptian pyramids, while real genocides, such as the artificially provoked Ukrainian famine in which several million people were deliberately starved to death by the Communists in 1932/1933, are all but forgotten. Let us have a close look at these consequences:

– The creation of the state of Israel “Without the Holocaust, there would be no Jewish state.” This candid statement was made by a Jew, Robert Goldman (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 19 December 1997, p. 9). Goldman was right. Without the holocaust, the world would never have permitted the founding of a Jewish state in Palestine three years after the war. The colonial era was coming to an end at this time. The British had already decided to give India her independence, while dozens of Asian and African territories were striving to shake off the rule of the White Man. While other powers were rushing to grant independence to their colonies, the Jews in Palestine were allowed to embark on a colonial adventure par excellence, with the blessing of both the West and the Soviet Union. In order to ensure that their state would have a Jewish majority, the Zionists proceeded with ruthless brutality; whole villages were levelled, thousands of Arabs were murdered (Deir Yassein was but one of many massacres), and a great proportion of the Palestinians were expelled from the land of their ancestors. The ones who remained behind have been subject to severe repression ever since. According to the very pro-Zionist Swiss weekly Die Weltwoche (22 October 1992), no less than 15.000 Palestinian political prisoners were languishing in Israeli jails in 1992, and the use of torture was officially sanctioned by the Israeli supreme court in November 1996. As I am writing these lines, Israeli soldiers are shooting unarmed Palestinian demonstrators, many of whom are children, every day.

Jewish terror in occupied Palestine is not actually encouraged or approved by world opinion, but it is tolerated. After all, the Jewish people need a homeland to protect them from a new holocaust, and what are the sufferings of the Palestinians compared to those of the Jews under Hitler? Let us beware of illusions: As long as people in the West believe in the six million and the gas chambers, they will always support Israel in principle, even if they criticise the Israeli treatment of the Palestinians as being unnecessarily harsh.

Without outside assistance, the Zionist parasite state would not be viable. Its chief source of revenue consists of financial injections from America, support from international Jewry and German reparations. According to official sources, the Federal Republic of Germany had paid 85,4 billion Deutschmarks by 1992 (Der Spiegel, 18/1992), but the real sum is much higher. In addition, there have been enormous deliveries in the form of commodities. Nahum Goldmann, long-time chairman of the Jewish World Congress, made no secret of this fact; he wrote:

“Without the German reparations that started coming during its first ten years as a state, Israel would not have half of its present infrastructure. All the trains are German, and the same goes for electrical installations and a great deal of Israel’s industry” (Nahum Goldmann, Das juedische Paradox, Europaeische Verlagsanstalt, 1978, p. 171).

In 1999, Germany provided Israel with ultra-modern submarines which can carry nuclear missiles. The Israelis did not have to pay a penny – the submarines were another token of German atonement for the holocaust!

– Jewish Immunity of the Jews from criticism. Before 1945, criticism of Jews was legitimate. Today, that is no longer the case. Even the slightest criticism of Jewish power and Jewish arrogance – for example the heavy influence of the Jews in the mass media of the West, the staggeringly high number of Jews in the Clinton administration, or the impertinent behaviour of the Central Jewish Council in Germany – is immediately shouted down with screams about Auschwitz. The effectiveness of this intimidation is demonstrated by the following fact: The most obnoxious criminal organisation in the world is regularly referred to as the “Russian Mafia” although virtually all bosses are Jewish, often with Israeli passports. This is irrefutably demonstrated by Juergen Roth in his documentation Die Russen-Mafia (Rasch und Roehring, Hamburg 1996). The title of the book translates as “The Russian Mafia”, for if it were “The Jewish Mafia”, the author would have gone to a German jail, and his book would have been burnt. In today’s Russia, five or six out of the seven big “oligarchs” who made their fabulous fortunes with money stolen from the Russian people are Jews. This is never mentioned in the Western media.

– Creating contempt for the German nation. Since 1945, the German people have been branded with a mark of shame. Self-contempt and self-hatred is the prevailing trend, while self-respect and patriotism are held in contempt.

After the 1991 war against Iraq, George Bush senior, who was then president of the USA, publicly spoke of a “New World Order” which he did not care to define. As a matter of fact, the “New World Order” means that America, as the undisputed superpower, can impose its policy and its dubious values on all other countries. And America is nowadays largely ruled by the Jews. (Even if Jewish influence is much less pervasive in the Republican party than in the Democratic one, the Jews still own virtually every major newspaper and most of the television chains so that no Republican president can afford to govern against them. In modern society, nobody can govern against the media, as Richard Nixon learned to his disadvantage a quarter of a century ago.)

c) What would happen if the holocaust were publicly exposed as a fraud?

If the holocaust were publicly exposed as a shameless fraud, if people all over the world learned that, while the Jews undoubtedly were brutally persecuted during the Second World War, there was no attempt to exterminate them, that the death factories, gas chambers and gas vans were a Jewish swindle, and that the six million figure was a fantastic exaggeration, the Zionist-led “New World Order” would be all but finished.

Germany would become ungovernable; the German people would feel nothing but hatred and contempt for the politicians, intellectuals and journalists who betrayed and humiliated them day after day. The whole establishment of the country would be hopelessly discredited. This the representatives of the establishment know. On August 15, 1994, journalist Patrick Bahners, commenting on the trial of revisionist Guenter Deckert who was sent to prison for “holocaust denial”, wrote in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: “If Deckert’s attitude on the holocaust were correct, the Federal Republic of Germany would be based on a lie. Every presidential speech, every minute of silence, every history book would be a lie. Therefore, he [Deckert], by denying the genocide of the Jews, disputes the legitimicy of the Federal Republic of Germany.” The problem could hardly be stated more aptly. Some German opinion makers now openly declare that the Holocaust is the foundation of the post-war German state. This is shown by a quotation from the influential newspaper Die Welt (28 April 1994): “Whoever denies the truth about the National socialist extermination camps relinquishes the foundations upon which the Federal Republic of Germany was built.”

But also in other Western countries, the belief in the so-called “democratic system” would be profoundly shaken as people would ask themselves why this charade had to be propped up with censorship and naked terror for decades.

While the consequences of a public exposure of the holocaust as a fraud would be most serious for the Western system as a whole, they would be catastrophic beyond repair for international Jewry and the State of Israel. There would be a world-wide wave of anti-Jewish feeling, and no non-Jew would be willing to support the Zionist parasite state any more. German reparations would stop overnight, and the USA would have to reduce its financial aid to Israel so drastically that it would be bankrupt after no more than a year. The Jews in Israel would be utterly demoralised, as they would instinctively understand that a state founded upon such a colossal fraud has no moral right to exist. Since the holocaust religion, which unites Jews all over the world, would collapse, international Jewish solidarity would be a thing of the past. And the anger of the Palestinians would assume gigantic dimensions as they would understand that they had their country stolen and their sons shot in the name of a lie.

d) The ultimate weapon against Zionism and the state of Israel

At the end of the year 2000, Israel is a besieged country, but from the military point of view, it is still vastly superior to its neighbours, and it enjoys the unconditional support of the United States. Should any of the Islamic states grow strong enough to seriously threaten Israel, it would most probably be attacked and militarily annihilated by America. Russia is not likely to risk a confrontation with the USA for the sake of the Palestinians. We can certainly admire the bravery of the Palestinians resistance fighters who are willing to sacrifice their lives to liberate their homeland from the alien intruders, but realistically, they have no chance to win. The Palestinians have stones and slings. The Israelis have helicopters and tanks. You can’t destroy helicopters and tanks with stones and slings.

When fighting one’s enemy, one should always look for his weakest spot. The weakest spot of Israel, its Achilles heel, is the holocaust lie to which it owes its existence. The revisionists can give the adversaries of Israel and international Zionism a terrible weapon. It is quite true that many revisionists are by no means guided by political considerations. Some of them – Carlo Mattogno is a good example – are only motivated by intellectual curiosity: They want to ascertain what really happened to the Jews during the Second World War. But even if revisionism is not a political movement, its political implications are tremendous. The revisionists are endeavouring to find out the truth, and truth is the deadliest enemy of Israel and international Jewry. Thus, the revisionists objectively work against Israel and Zionism, even if subjectively their goals are often purely scientific and devoid of any political ambition. This is, of course, the reason why they are persecuted and their books burnt in more and more countries.

In view of the total Jewish media control and the ever-growing anti-revisionist repression in many Western countries, it is very difficult indeed to achieve a revisionist breakthrough. We revisionists are facing an uphill struggle which can only partly be explained by our total lack of financial resources. Fortunately the internet, which the Jews are unable to censure, has greatly improved our possibilities to make the results of our research known to the World, but all the same, we should not cherish naive illusions: Not every citizen of the Western world who is informed about the revisionist arguments will automatically become revisionist and anti-Zionist. The average person in the West – and particularly in Germany – has been so thoroughly brainwashed that a sudden exposure to the truth can provoke a nervous breakdown or stomach cramps. I have repeatedly witnessed this myself. Other people would gladly accept the truth about the holocaust, but as they know that even the slightest suspicion of revisionism leads to social ostracism, economic ruin and legal persecution, they understandably prefer not to get involved. However, if we want to win the war against those whom one of my Russian friends called “the enemies of God and mankind”, we have no choice but to destroy the Big Lie, lest the Big Lie destroy us.

The logical consequence of all this is that those countries which are authentically anti-Zionist and real friends of the oppressed Palestinian people should make the breakthrough of holocaust revisionism their foremost priority. A tank costs millions of dollars, yet one soldier can destroy it with a single missile. The revisionists can provide anti-Zionist freedom fighters with a weapon not even a thousand missiles can destroy.

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Jrgen Graf – Holocaust Revisionism and its Political …

When Ashkenazi Jews Eat Kitniyot on Passover, Is It Cultural …

How do millions of Ashkenazi Jews react when, after hundreds of years, they finally get permission to eat kitniyot on Passover?

Were about to find out.

Last December, the Conservative movements Committee on Jewish Law and Standards approved a teshuvah , a Jewish legal ruling, permitting the consumption of kitniyot on Passover. Kitniyot foods like rice, corn, lentils and beans, which are not technically hametz have long been forbidden to Ashkenazi Jews, but theyre staples of the Sephardic Passover diet. This year marks the first time that many American Jews will learn to include these foods at their holiday table.

My Ashkenazi friends, I have tasted your Passover foods of bitterness. I know you have suffered many years enslaved to a diet of matzo brei with cinnamon and sugar. As a college student, I went back to school after the Seder with Tupperware containers filled with rice and beans so that I wouldnt starve in a pluralistic Hillel that catered to Ashkenazi customs and palates. I am happy that more American Jews will soon be enjoying kitniyot on Passover. For one thing, that makes it more likely that a wider variety of Passover products will be available for my family in my local grocery store.

But after reading the teshuvah , I also have some concerns. Part of my worry stems from the approach with which the Sephardic dietary laws are being adopted: a mix of cultural appropriation and noblesse oblige . Borrowing from the practices of your neighbors is natural; no religious tradition exists in a vacuum. But borrowing has ethical overtones, especially when youre not attuned to whos borrowing from whom and to the relationships of power between those groups. While the Conservative movement in Israel permits Ashkenazi Jews to eat kitniyot partly in order to facilitate positive relationships between Jews of different ethnic backgrounds, that line of argumentation is absent from the American teshuvah.

The heritage of Sephardic Jews does not exist just to make the Passover practices of our Ashkenazi neighbors less burdensome and expensive, and more delicious and nutritious. Kitniyot on Passover is not just food, its foodways . That is, the eating of kitniyot is one piece of a large and diverse culture, spanning centuries and continents, and embedded in history, memory, language, stories and other social practices.

Thats why I think the adoption of Sephardic traditions for Passover food should include some acknowledgement of actual Sephardic tradition. Perhaps any Ashkenazi Jew wishing to eat kitniyot on Passover should have to pass a basic Sephardic cultural literacy test? While Israeli Jews see the vitality of other ethnic Jewish communities every day, in the United States the experiences of Sephardic Jews are rarely taught or even acknowledged, and Jewish is almost always synonymous with Ashkenazi.

Obviously, an actual test would be impractical and silly. But I dont think its silly for Ashkenazi Jews to respectfully try to learn from living American Sephardic Jews how they determine the permissibility of kitniyot on Passover.

In tracing the permissibility of kitniyot , the authors of the CJLS ruling took into account both classical sources and the perspectives of contemporary Ashkenazi Jews who seek a joyful, affordable and kosher holiday. But as far as I can see, there is no account of the local practices of Sephardic American Jews and how they approach eating kitniyot . Its as though Sephardic experience, expertise and life ends in the 16th century with Joseph Caro and the codification of his major legal work, the Shulchan Aruch.

The CJLS released some basic guidelines in order to help members determine which foods are permitted. Of course, Sephardic Conservative Jews have been eating these foods for decades without any guidance from our rabbinate. Weve relied on lists published by Orthodox Sephardic organizations in order to have a kasher vsameach holiday, a kosher and happy Passover.

For now, lets put aside the question of why the Conservative movement in the United States never attended to the needs of Sephardic Conservative Jews and only became interested in the kashrut of kitniyot once it was permissible for Ashkenazim. Instead, let me give an example of the practical perspective I can offer as a result of having kept abreast of the guidelines of Orthodox Sephardic communities.

An important consideration involving the consumption of rice on Passover in the United States is that not all kinds of rice are kosher for all kinds of Sephardic Jews. (And by the way, some Sephardic Jews dont eat rice at all during the holiday.) In order to be considered kosher for Passover by most Sephardic Jews here, rice must not contain additives that may bear hametz. Brown rice is generally fine, but white rice is trickier as it is often enriched with additives, including wheat starch. The CJLS guidelines treat rice as though it is an unprocessed food, but for much of the rice on the shelves in American stores that is not true. To be kosher for Passover for many Sephardic Jews in this country, white rice without special Passover certification should be unprocessed and unenriched.

I am not a rabbi or kashrut scholar. But my point is that its valuable to learn about how Sephardic tradition continued to evolve and play out in the world inhabited by contemporary Sephardim. It seems that the authors of the CJLS guidelines, while purporting to follow the example set by Sephardic tradition, did not think to do that.

Finally, its worth mentioning that some Ashkenazi Jews might not want to eat kitniyot on Passover. They have their own rich cultural heritage, one that has been sustained for hundreds of years, and they may wish to continue the traditional practices of their ancestors. But if Ashkenazi Jews do wish to avail themselves of kitniyot , maybe they can seek to acknowledge the larger culture out of which these foodways emerged. Even better, they can appreciate the legal, artistic and philosophical not just culinary contributions of Sephardic Jewry to Jewish culture and to its ongoing vitality.

Otherwise, my Ashkenazi friends, the rice and lentils youre cooking smell a little like cultural appropriation.

Arielle Levites is a doctoral candidate in education and Jewish studies at New York University, and an alumnus of the Wexner Graduate Fellowship.

See more here:
When Ashkenazi Jews Eat Kitniyot on Passover, Is It Cultural …

Ashkenazi Jews Can Now Eat Sushi During Passover

This year, the Passover menus of many American Jews may feature rice and beans or sushi for the first time, thanks to new rules taking them off the list of foods forbidden during the elaborate meals prepared for the long holiday, which begins on Friday.

The change, approved by Judaism’s Conservative movement in November, lifts a rule in place since the 13th century that prohibited Ashkenazi Jews outside Israel from eating a group of foods known as kitniyot – rice, corn, peanuts, beans and other legumes – during Passover.

The move comes partly in response to the growing popularity of gluten-free and vegan diets, said Rabbi Elliot Dorff, chair of the Conservative movement’s Committee on Jewish Law and Standards. But he said it is also a recognition of a changing composition and traditions of the Jewish faithful in the United States, which has the world’s largest Judaic community outside Israel.

Jews of Ashkenazi descent, typically from Eastern Europe, are still in the majority in the United States. But a growing number are of Sephardic descent, typically from Spain, Portugal, North Africa and the Middle East. And Sephardic Jews never had a ban on eating kitniyot during Passover.

This year’s Passover menusmight include sushi, rice and beans, hummus, chicken satay with peanut sauce and other once-forbidden foods.

Passover, which starts on Friday with a holiday meal known as a seder and ends on April 30, commemorates the flight of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery.

Conservative Judaism, one of the religion’s three major branches, observes Jewish law but not as strictly as Orthodox Judaism or as loosely as Reform Judaism.

For Conservative Jews who have observed the centuries-old prohibition against eating kitniyot over Passover, this year’s seder promises to be like no other they have experienced.

Menus might include sushi, which is made with rice; rice and beans; hummus; chicken satay with peanut sauce and other once-forbidden foods. The new variety may satisfy seder guests who balked in the past at traditional dishes like beef brisket, gefilte fish and matzo ball soup.

“For vegans, it was really a matter of not having protein for eight days,” said Dorff, a philosophy professor at American Jewish University in Los Angeles.

Still taboo for all Jews during Passover are any foods that are leavened – called hametz – including such grains as wheat, barley, oats, rye and spelt. The only approved way to consume grains is in the form of matzo, a cracker-like food that symbolizes the Jewish flight from slavery, when there was no time for bread to rise.

Changing rules is one thing; changing tradition another, said Rabbi Amy Levin, interim rabbi at Congregation Rodeph Sholom in Bridgeport, Connecticut, whose research supported the decision to make kitniyot kosher for Passover.

“I’ll make lentil soup in the pots I bought myself,” Levin said. “But the pot I inherited from my grandmother, I don’t know. She never wanted to put lentils in that thing!”

Link:
Ashkenazi Jews Can Now Eat Sushi During Passover

Paradesi Synagogue – The Synagogues of Kerala

By Jay A. Waronker

The world-renowned Paradesi Syngagogue, first built in 1568 and reconstructed in part and enlarged over the years, can be found in the Mattancherry area of Kochi. The road that it was built on came to be known as Jew Street or Synagogue Lane, and the surrounding neighborhood as Jew Town. The Rajah of Cochin generously allotted the community land in Cochin da Cima, or Upper Cochin, next to his own palace (now a city museum) and an adjacent small Hindu temple to service himself and his royal family. The synagogue, today the only functioning one in Kerala, was erected for a congregation whose core had migrated from Cranganore to the north of Kochi where they were then joined by a larger group of relative newcomers from Europe and Western Asia. The diverse influx of Jews to Mattancherry led to its designation as the Paradesi, or Foreigners Synagogue.

By the early years of the sixteenth century, there was already a flourishing Jewish community in Kochi composed mainly of Malabari Jews. Within half a century, the citys Jewish community had expanded considerably through the arrival of refugees from the Portuguese religious persecution of Jews locally from Cranganore and farther a field originating from Spain and Portugal. To serve this growing congregation, the Paradesi Synagogue was constructed in 1568 by Samuel Castiel, David Belila, and Joseph Levi.

The Kerala Jewish community had the protection and friendship of the Rajah of Cochin, but was still exposed to the enmity of the Portuguese, who had established a trading post in Fort Cochin in the sixteenth century. The Portuguese attacked the Jews again in 1662 since they had sided with the Dutch in a skirmish for control over local territory. This was the result of attempts by the Dutch in 1661-62 to challenge the Portuguese for the European supremacy in South India. In February 1661, the Dutch took the fortress at Palliport near Cranganore, in December they captured Quilon, and a month later Cranganore fell into their hands. They next laid siege to Cochin. The Portuguese, however, defended Fort Cochin to all means, and in March 1662 the Dutch withdrew for Ceylon. With the Dutch defeat, the Portuguese took revenge on the Jews. The Paradesi Synagogue was set on fire and partially destroyed. It is believed that other Kerala (Malabari) synagogues were attacked and damaged by the Portuguese forces as well. The Jews gained security again once the Dutch were finally able to oust the Portuguese in 1665 and take control for the next one hundred and thirty years. The Paradesi Synagogue, which had been in derelict condition during the period of Portuguese hegemony, was then repaired.

The Paradesi Synagogue is a grouping of white washed and painted thick-walled chunam (a polished lime plaster) over laterite (a soft reddish-brown local stone) structures with pitched roofs featuring deep eaves to avoid damage from the annual monsoons, wooden lattice screens and enclosures, pronounced gablets (where hip and gable roofs intersect), exposed rafters, flat wall surfaces, clay tiled roofs, shuttered windows and clerestories, cusped arches at the sanctuary buildings entryway, a decorated tray ceiling within the sanctuary, and understated and limited detail. The synagogue is a tight complex featuring a series of rooms and passages linked or surrounded by outdoor spaces.

The Paradesi Synagogue sits at the north end of Synagogue Lane, a narrow street lined on both sides with houses that were once Jewish owned and occupied; as of 2010 only ten Jews reside in this neighborhood. Many of the former Jewish residences are now Muslim owned, and several operate as souvenir or antique and curio and shops on the ground level, creating a true tourism zone. After a slight bend in the road, Synagogue Lane abruptly dead ends at the synagogue property. From this point, however, one see very little of the Paradesi Synagogue compound. Nearly all of it is hidden behind tall, mostly solid walls. The only hint of the synagogue standing on the lane is the clock tower directly ahead. That three-story structure, nearly square in plan, with a gabled clay tiled roof capped by a cupola, is most prominent and photographed feature of the Paradesi Synagogue compound. On first impression, based on its strategic position and height, many believe this to be the synagogues prayer space, but the free-standing sanctuary is located to the west and not seen at all from the street.

The Paradesi Synagogues three-story clock tower is not original to the compound but was erected nearly two centuries later. Dating from 1761, it was built under the direction of Ezekial Rahabi, a leading figure of the Kerala Jews at that time and the representative of the Dutch East India Company. The clock tower is sometimes labeled as fully Dutch, although it is better described as an Indo-colonial design and does not represent a distinct and pure style. As with many other colonial period buildings throughout India, the clock tower incorporates local design and construction elements such as the thick laterite stone load bearing walls veneered in chunam, then fused with various colonial influences popularized by both the Portuguese and Dutch, such as the brackets, clay roof tiles, and cupola details.

The clock towers faades along three sides feature clock faces at the uppermost level. The towers massing is covered by a gabled clay tiled roof supported by wooden brackets. The roof is then crowned by an open cupola in the form of a small widows walk that is capped by another gabled roof also with deep overhangs. Here copper, an indigenous material used in other local buildings including some roofs of smaller Hindu temples, is the finished roofing material. A finial featuring two spherical copper balls, filigree, and a metal mast and flag resembling a weather vane rests on the apex of the copper roof. The square cupola includes four rounded-arched openings set within a painted wooden structure with quoins at the four corners. A solid rail fills in the lower section of each of the arches. On the surface of cupola is an inscription in Hebrew indicating that it was constructed in the year 1761. There used to be a bell within the cupola which would be rung every day except on the Sabbath (when Jewish law forbids the ringing) to call the Jews to prayer. In 1986 the bell stopped working, the community never had it repaired, and it was removed a short time later. There was an attempt to bring the bells back when the clock tower was restored in 1998-99 through the World Monuments Fund, but the effort was unsuccessful.

The clock tower has three existing dials; they are made of teak and painted blue. To the north, facing the maharajahs place, the characters are Malayalam; to the south, viewed from Jew Town, they are Roman numerals; and to the west, from the synagogue side, Hebrew letters are used. According to I. S. Hallegua, a member of the Paradesi Jewish community, it is likely that there once was a fourth dial on the east side, facing the water, with numbers (Weil: 43). The only existing pointer is on the Roman dial and is made of copper. The clock mechanism, operated via heavy stones, pulleys, and gears, worked until the early 1940s, and there was never a serious effort to repair or replace the mechanism. From that point, the non-working clock faces began to deteriorate, and by the 1990s they were in poor condition. Like the bell, there was a plan to bring the clock back to working order when the clock tower was being stored in 1998/9, but the work was too costly.

The entrance to the synagogue compound is not through the narrow doors at the clock towers base, but along the adjacent wall to the west along the street. Opposite to the east, accessed via large and heavy iron gates, is a walled grassy outdoor area that was once used as a playground for Jewish children living in the neighborhood and attending school here.

The synagogue compound is laid out as a cluster, with spaces built or linked around a series of small indoor and outdoor rooms. Entering the synagogue, the visitor goes through a gradual progression from secular life to the sacred domain, finally reaching the sanctuary proper and lastly the heckal (ark). Yet, in contrast to the synagogues at Ernakulam-Kadavumbhagam, Parur, or Mala when they were intact, the journey to the sanctuary is not straight and flowing, but a bit contorted, with tight turns. Along the way are places for ritual practice, community purposes, and Jewish education. The first space to be entered from the street is the tallam, a rectangular gatehouse space. Today this small room functions as an office where tourists purchase their entry tickets, but its intended purpose was as a transition zone from inside to outside, where synagogue meetings were once held, and for a staircase leading up to the womens seating area and the educational spaces within the clock tower. From the tallam, the visitor makes a tight turn and passes through a narrow opening leading to a choice of spaces. Ahead, although not on a direct axis, is a short corridor that connects to a small room that was originally intended as a storeroom. In the late 1960s, the members of the synagogue commissioned the Kerala Hindu artist S. S. Krishna to paint ten canvases portraying the Paradesi communitys historical events over the centuries to celebrate their quatro-centennial in 1968. The paintings have been exhibited to visitors in this windowless space ever since.

Returning to the point just off the tallam, a short covered yet unenclosed breezeway leads directly ahead to the sanctuary building. The courtyard which surrounds the sanctuary building can be accessed from either side of this breezeway. The walled court not only protects and separates the sanctuary from the outside secular world, but it served as a gathering area for holiday and life-cycle activities. Most famous of these celebratory events was when the congregation circumambulated the courtyard on the Jewish festival of Shimhat Torah, or Rejoicing of the Law, during the service, singing, dancing, and clapping while carrying the Torah scrolls. The ground surface of the space is partially finished in granite stone pavers, a hard material not readily available to the region yet used in important secular and religious spaces, and the walls are chunam over soft laterite stone (Salem: 19). Within the courtyard are a loose collection of scrubs, overhanging trees, and a well which is near the northeast corner. Water from the well served the communal needs of the Paradesi community for centuries, and similar ones can be found at other Kerala synagogues. The sanctuary building is a two-story structure constructed of thick load-bearing laterite stone walls veneered with chunam that are pierced with windows and openings. The structure is covered by a steeply pitched roof (gabled to the east end and hipped at the west elevation) finished with flat-profiled clay tiles set over a framing system fabricated from local wood. The sanctuary building is made up of a various spaces: the azara and sanctuary proper on the ground floor, and balcony and womens seating area upstairs. The azara, an anteroom found in all Kerala synagogues, and mentioned in Biblical descriptions of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem, is entered directly off the breezeway linked to the earlier described spaces. It is rectangular and finished in whitewashed chunam over laterite walls, terracotta tiled floor, a wooden beamed and planked ceiling, and shuttered windows on all sides. In the center of the azaras west elevation is the opening to the sanctuary. Its most prominent feature is its multi-foil cusped arch, a design often associated with Islamic, Moorish, and Mughal architecture. No other Kerala synagogue contains such a design, nor does it exist in any synagogue elsewhere in India.

The azara in all Kerala synagogues has various functions. It served as a transition space where the women would pass through and enter the sanctuary before ascending to the gallery level, and it was also the room where the Cohanim performed important rituals. As the direct patrilineal descendants from the Biblical Aaron, the Cohanim since the period of the Temple in Jerusalem have for two millennia performed many duties set forth in the Torah (Weil: 44). In the Paradesi Synagogue, they ritually washed their hands in a brass basin before blessing the congregation. In a purely functional sense, the azara acts as a waiting or holding area where latecomers. The room has also been where mourners and women gathering at weddings other celebrations would sit. The azara has always contained charity boxes for contribution to the synagogue and other needy causes, and it was also the place where its members and guests would sit on the built-in benches lining its walls and remove their shoes before entering the sanctuary.

The Kerala Jews have always removed their footwear, a practice unfamiliar in most Jewish communities around the world. There are various theories about the origin of this practice, ranging from adopting the custom from Hindu, Jain, and Muslim communities in India for entering their respective houses of prayer, the general tradition of removing shoes for hygienic reasons before entering an Indian dwelling, to the remembrance of the divine command to Moses on Mount Horev to remove his shoes, for the place where he stood was holy ground (Weil: 44). The azara also once served another less than noble purpose which reflected local class prejudices. According to Ruby Daniel, who was born and lived in Kerala before immigrating to Israel in the mid-1950s, the Paradesi community included a group of Meshuharim (commonly translated from Hebrew as liberated slaves) Jews who until the 1940s were not allowed into the sanctuary or into the womens seating area on the gallery level. The men in this community were delegated to the azara during prayers, and the women sat outside the sanctuary building altogether, on benches lining the edges of the breezeway (Johnson).

The largest and most important space of the Paradesi Synagogue compound is the sanctuary. In the tradition of all Kerala Jewish houses of worship, it is rectangular in plan and double height. Measuring 27 (8.2 m) wide, 42-8 (12.8 m) long, and 19 (5.8 m) high, the sanctuary, the focus of all religious worship, is a centralized space where the bench seating, never fixed in placed or in the form of individual seats, surrounds the central tebah, or podium where the Torah scrolls are routinely read and the service is conducted. The shallow tray ceiling is detailed in a grid of square panels of painted wood each featuring a lotus pattern (a distinct Indian motif), and walls of the sanctuary are white-washed chunam. During select Jewish holidays and life-cycle celebrations, the walls of Paradesis sanctuary are adorned with colorful fabrics which give the space its sense of place. Unique to this synagogue and well renowned is its tile floor made up blue and white Chinese tiles.The hand painted, willow pattern tiles, each slightly different, were imported by Ezehiel Rahabi in the 1760s and hence are not original to the synagogue. Accounts vary as to why and how they were purchased and installed. One reveals that they were to be used by the local Rajah, but when he learned that they were fabricated using unholy cow parts taboo to Hindus, he sold them at a good price to the Jews. Some sources claim that the tiles were not from China but rather from the Netherlands.

The Paradesi Synagogues tebah, shaped like a lyre or curved keyhole, is contained by a stepped railing featuring twenty-five profiled polished brass balustrades of waist height that rest on the carpeted floor of the tebah and are capped by a polished brass banister. The banister is topped by a two-tiered secondary series of slimmer and shorter polished brass balustrades. At the curved end of the tebah, the side closed to the heckal, the railing is at its highest level before its arms symmetrically step down twice. These curved arms intersect with the straight lines at the entry to the tebah, which feature flanking polished brass scrolls. At the end of the tebah and wherever the railing steps up, short brass balustrades with glass domes are positioned. These provide lighting to the tebah and definition to the space. Surrounding the outside perimeter of the tebah is a very low wooden bench that is normally draped in a colorful fabric. Here, since it is so low to the floor, boys would often sit.

Unique among synagogues throughout the world is the second tebah found in all Kerala synagogues. It is located on the gallery level in a shallow space overlooking the sanctuary that is supported by two brass columns that flank the entry doors to the sanctuary. While their architectural function is to support the gallery, over the years these twin profiled pillars have come to represent or recall the pairs of columns known as Boaz and Jachin that are believed to have existed in the ancient temple in Jerusalem. The special tebah is reached via a steep wooden stair that is located in the corner of the sanctuary to the right when entering the space. The stairs are used by the men who remove the Sefer Torah from the heckal and carry it upstairs to the second tebah during Shabbat and holiday services. At other times, the Torah is read from the ground floor tebah. The second tebah is placed in the center of the gallery, where it is defined by the wood balustrades of the railing that bump out towards the sanctuary. Adjacent to the gallery and second tebah is the womens seating area. This room, measuring 27 (8.2 m) in length and 9-5 (2.7 m) in width, is accessed via a pair of doors that swing into the womens area on an axis with the second tebah. The gallery and womens seating area are adjacent to one another, but they are separated by a wooden mechitza, a perforated screened partition. This partition allows for the sights and sounds of the service to filter into the womens area but provides a degree of visual privacy and separation common to other orthodox synagogues throughout the world.

The heckal, a cabinet for storing and displaying the Torah scrolls, is normally the most sacred and hence embellished feature of synagogues throughout the world, and in the Paradesi Synagogue this tradition is maintained. Its heckal is located in the wall opposite the entrance. In Jewish tradition, the heckal is placed in the sanctuary along the wall closest to Jerusalem. Since Jerusalem is west of Kochi, the heckal in the Paradesi Synagogue is on its western wall. 8-6 (2.4 m) in width, it is beautifully hand-carved from local teak wood, stained, and highlighted with gold, red, and some green paint. Many of the carvings on the surfaces of the heckal are organic and floral in nature, popular motifs in many synagogues and also popular in other secular and religious architecture in Kerala. Topping the heckal is large panel featuring a series of festoons and swags surrounding a crown. The crown, a popular motif on heckalot/arks in all regions of the world, represents the sacred and high place of the Torah in the Jewish religion, not the majesty of a Jewish king.

According to an emissary from Jerusalem who visited the Paradesi Synagogue in 1850, the sanctuary wall engaged with the heckal was made from a compound of clay(mixed) with the fat milt of the nuts of the kukus, in other words coconut water instead of plain water, for the cement was mortar, so as to withstand many days and to honor the greatness that was among them. (Weil: 45). Draped in the front of the heckal is a beautiful parokhet, or curtain. It can be drawn to reveal the carved and painted doors of the heckal. The Torah scrolls kept in the heckal, capped with beautiful crowns, are each housed in a rounded wooden case which is covered with hammered silver. To Jews, the Sefer Torahs are the equal of royalty, and are thus ornamented as such. One of these crowns was presented by the Rajah in 1805. In front of the steps leading up to the heckal is a rug presented to the synagogue by Emperor Haile Sallassie of Ethiopia in 1956.

In the Paradesi Synagogue near the heckal are two special chairs, one for the Prophet Elijah and the other for the brit mila, or circumcision ceremony. Both are made from carved and stained teak with a plush cushion and perhaps a richly colorful fabric draping it entirely. Also hanging inside the sanctuary from the shallow sloped ceiling are, in true Kerala synagogue fashion, many glass lanterns — clear, cobalt blue, emerald green, ruby red, and other colors. These lanterns, some blown in Belgium, France, and the Netherlands and others locally fabricated, are popular in many secular and religious buildings throughout India. Intended for burning the coconut oil readily available in Kerala, they have never been electrified. Other ceiling-suspended brass, silver, pewter, bronze, or other metal alloy fixtures in the Paradesi Synagogue are also prevalent in Indian synagogues, including the ner tamid, a fixture that stays lit all the time. Ceiling fans, common throughout the country, also hang in the synagogues. No Indian synagogue is air-conditioned, and today the fans, which were installed only in the 1970s, provide the sole source of cooling other than cross-ventilation. The whirling of the ceiling fan blades, both hypnotic and soothing, is a familiar and comforting sound of the Kerala synagogue experience. Before the fans were hung, a non-Jew was employed to pour water over the stone pavers around the perimeter of the synagogue and on the walls themselves to keep the building as cool as possible.

Today the Paradesi Synagogue is said to be the oldest functioning Jewish house of prayer not only in southern India, but in the whole country, and even the entire British Commonwealth. It is visited by thousands of tourists from India and abroad each year six days a week, except on Friday afternoons and all day Saturday when the synagogue is closed, visitors can make their way down Jew Street, enter the gatehouse, pay a small entry fee (ten rupees), and make their way around the synagogue compound. A no photography policy was enacted a few years ago at the synagogue, and visitors are kindly asked to observe this rule.

Johnson, Barbara C. and Daniel, Ruby. Ruby of Cochin: An Indian Jewish Woman Remembers. Philadelphia and Jerusalem: The Jewish Publication Society, 1995.

Salem, A. B. Jew Town Synagogue. Cochin, 1929 and Haifa: Eliya Ben Eliavoo Beit Eliahu Vleah, 1972.

Weil, Shalva. Indias Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art, and Life-Cycle. Mumbai: Marg Publication, 2002/2006.

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Paradesi Synagogue – The Synagogues of Kerala

The Sephardic House Hotel – Hotels in Jerusalem

A unique hotel in Jerusalem’s Jewish Quarter in the Old City.

The Sephardic House hotel nestles at the very heart of the Jewish Quarter of Jerusalem’s Old City an exquisite jewel offering the ultimate hospitality in the magical atmosphere of Jerusalem. The building was first built some 200 years ago and completed towards the end of the 19th century. From the residence, there are superb views of the Old City and the City of David. The complex boasts 51 guest rooms located in three separate wings, each offering a different level of accommodation and hospitality: Deluxe wing – offers superb and luxurious accommodation in 12 rooms and 3 suites. The entire storey of deluxe accommodations faces towards the charming patio with its echoes of a traditional Spanish courtyard orchard. Rishon LeTzion wing a wing suitable for private events, such as family gatherings, with 6 rooms. Economy wing with 30 standard guest rooms for dual and single occupancy. Our guest rooms have been designed meticulously in order to carefully conserve their historical features create a harmonious blend with modern luxury and comfort, so that guests can enjoy a truly unique holiday experience. Sephardic House is a unique building in the Jewish Quarter, located within walking distance of the magical alleyways of the Old City of Jerusalem, the ancient Hurva Synagogue, the Kotel (Western Wall), Mt. Zion, the Kotel tunnels, the Armenian Quarter, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, the Mamilla District, the Jerusalem Cinemathque and town center. This location provides an extremely convenient starting point for walks around the Old City, while its proximity to the Western Wall transforms it into an attractive venue for hosting Bar/Bat Mitzvahs and other family events. We invite you to come and enjoy the attention of our friendly, professional team and experience our exceptional standard of service and hospitality. Take in the magical views, the atmosphere of holiness and peacefulness, alongside the life of a vibrant modern city that offers you countless leisure options and facilities

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The Sephardic House Hotel – Hotels in Jerusalem

Jews for Judaism – YouTube

http://www.jewsforjudaism.ca DONATE: https://www.canadahelps.org/dn/24741 Rabbi Michael Skobac’s 15-part Counter-Missionary Survival Seminar refutes popular Christian missionary claims and sheds new light on the age-old arguments of trying to prove that Jesus was the messiah. You will learn to respond confidently to any Christian missionary who challenges your Jewish beliefs.

JEWS FOR JUDAISM counters the growing multi-million dollar efforts of Christian missionary groups that target Jews, the impact of cults, eastern religions, assimilation and other challenges to Jewish continuity. We strengthen Jewish pride and identity and win back Jews who have been influenced by missionaries and cults through FREE educational programs, materials and counseling services that connect Jewish people to the spiritual depth, beauty and wisdom of Judaism. For help, please contact: RabbiSkobac@JewsForJudaism.ca

VISIT: http://www.jewsforjudaism.ca FACEBOOK: http://www.facebook.com/jewsforjudaismcanada YOUTUBE: http://www.youtube.com/user/JewsforJudaismCanada TWITTER: https://twitter.com/JewsforJudaism1 DONATE: http://www.canadahelps.org/CharityProfilePage.aspx?Charit…

Today over 1,000 Christian missionary groups spend millions annually, targeting Jews for conversion worldwide. In recent years, over 500,000 Jews have been converted. In an effort to win Jews, many of these organizations camouflage themselves to appear Jewish to lessen resistance by Jews to convert to Christianity. They may call their clergy “rabbis” and their churches “messianic synagogues.” They refer to Jesus Christ as Yeshua HaMashicah, or and the New Testament as the Brit HaChadasha or .

Members of this movement may refer themselves as Jews for Jesus, Hebrew Christians, Messianic Jews, Messianic Jewish Christians or and present Christianity in the guise of Judaism to attract Jews. They often celebrate Jewish holidays with a Christian interpretation. They hold Shabbat services and wear Jewish skullcaps and prayer shawls to create the impression that a Jew can become a Christian and still maintain their Jewish identity. Using Torah Scrolls, Shabbat candle lighting, Hamotzei and Kiddush they make unaffiliated Jews feel very welcome in their churches. These missionaries operate widely over the Internet, through TV and radio programs, run large public events, send their workers in the streets to distribute missionary literature and visit people at their home or work.

You may benefit from these other counter-missionary professionals, unaffiliated with Jews for Judaism, who work in this unique field: Rabbi Tovia Singer of OutreachJudaism.org and Rabbi Asher Meza of BeJewish.org as well as YouTube channels SpiritualBabies and Tenak Talk.

This video was created in response to A Rood Awakening, Ahavat Ammi, Art Katz, Asher Intrater, AYZTyler, Barry and Batya Segal, Beth Yeshua, Chosen People Ministries, ChosenPeopleUSA, City of David Messianic Synagogue, Congregation Melech Yisrael, Dan Juster, David Brickner, Discovering the Jewish Jesus, Dr. Michael Brown, ASKDrBrown, First Fruits of Zion (FFOZ), Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry, HaDavar Ministries, Hebraic Roots Network, Israel Restoration, Its Supernatural, Itzhak Shapira, Jacob Bek, Jewish Voice, Jewish Voice Today, JewishTestimonies, Jews for Jesus, jfjweb, Joel Chernoff, Jonathan Bernis, Jonathan Cahn – Hope of the World, Jonathan Settel, Karen Davis Ministries, Kehilat Melech Yisrael, Maoz Israel, Marty Goetz, messiah ofIsrael, Messiah of Israel, Messiah of Israel Ministries, Messianic Hour, Messianic Jewish Bible Institute, MJBIUSA, Messianic Mondays, Messianic Vision, Michael Rood, Nehemia Gordon, ONE FOR ISRAEL, Passion for Truth Ministries, Paul Wilbur, Phillip Goble, Rabbi Hadassah Ryklin, Rabbi Itzhak Shapira, Rabbi Jeff Forman, Rabbi Jonathan Cahn, Rabbi Schneider, Revive Israel Ministries, ReviveIsraelTV, RockofIsrael, Shabbat Night Live, Sid Roths Its Supernatural, Ted Pearce, The Health Watchman, Tikkun International, TikkunMinistries, Tikkun Olam Ministries, Tom Cantor, Torah Life Ministries, Messianic Jewish Alliance of America MJAA ROI, Messianic Jewish Alliance of Israel MJAI, UMJC, Yeshua HaMashiach, Yeshua Chai, Yeshuas Harvest, Zola Levitt Presents, Ron Cantor, Reach Tel Aviv, XRabbi.co.il, iGod.co.il, Messiah.co.il, imetmessiah, Messianic Torah Observant Israel, , kehilajaffa, Avner Valer , CrownofMessiah, answers4rabbis, , Ask Isaiah, imetmessiah.com, , , Ruth Israelite Torah et Yshoua, Dan and Melissa David or Dani David, YeshuaTV, Jerusalem Assembly, Seeking Truth in Torah, Shema TV, The Messianic Drew, TBN Israel, Meda brim, – – –

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Jews for Judaism – YouTube

Jews and Judaism – The New York Times

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Jews and Judaism – The New York Times

Jew – Zionism & Israel

This Jew Page

This Jew page is not intended to give a thorough explanation of the origins and history of the Jews, our nation or the Jewish faith. It is here to counteract hate materials about Jews that abound on the Internet, but it is not joke or filibuster. This is the truth about Jews.

Jews are members or descendants of members of the Jewish faith or the Jewish people, that had a kingdom in ancient Judea and Israel and were then called Hebrews, Judeans or children of Israel (Bnei Yisrael).Jewish orthodox religious law recognizes anyone whose mother is Jewish as a Jew. Reform Jews also recognize as Jewish anyone whose father was a Jew. Israeli Law of Return recognizes anyone who had at least one Jewish grandparent, and who has not converted to a different faith, as a Jew. Non-Jews often use a much looser definition, so that even Jews who are are descendants of converts, like Karl Marx, or Benjamin Disraeli may be called a “Jew.” The Nazi regime used a pseudo-scientific criterion of racial descent, so that a Jew with one Jewish parent was a “half Jew,” a Jew with a Jewish grandparent was an eighth Jew.

A Jew may thus be a person, who believes in the Jewish faith, a person who identifies themselves as a member of the Jewish people, or a person defined by others as a Jew, or all any of the above in combination. Members of the Jewish faith believe that there is one God, who is omnipotent and indivisible, and with whom the Jews have a covenant, a special relationship of ethical and moral obligations and of protection. Jews do not allow any images of their God. The foundations of the Jewish faith are given in the The Old Testament Bible and in the later law books, particularly the Mishna, theTalmud and the Shulchan Aruch.

The word Jew first appears in Middle English about 1000 A.C.E. and is probably derived from similar forms in Old French, such as giu and juieu. These in turn are probably from the Latin “Judeaus” which is the Latin form of the Hebrew word “Yehuda” – Judah, which was the name of one of the Jewish tribes and of the ancient Jewish kingdom. The word “Jew” or similar words, are used in many European languages, often as pejoratives. Thus, the more polite Russian word for “Jew” is evrei, while Zhid is the word used by Jew haters.

The Jewish religion does not, as a rule, actively seek converts, but it is possible for a non-Jew to become a Jew — convert to Judaism — either following the stricter Orthodox rules, or the more lenient courses of study and preparation followed by Conservative, Reform or Reconstructionist Judaism. If you are curious about conversion, further information is at Converting to Judaism.

Notice – If you link to this page or any page at Zionism-Israel.com and tell us (mail to info(at)zionism-israel.com – ( change (at) to @)), you will get a reciprocal link from an appropriate page.

The many meanings and overtones of the word “Jew” in English betray the history of racism and prejudice that has beset the Jewish people for about 2,000 years. “Don’t Jew me down” and “Don’t be such a Jew” are linguistic legacies that attest to the attitudes and the facts about Jew hate, not about Jews.

The Jew has been considered the epitome of evil in Western society for over 2,000 years. Anti-Semitism (see also Time-Line: Anti-Semitism), the term used for Jew hate, was coined in the 19th century, but Jew hate originated before Christianity. Pagan authors insisted that the Jews worshipped a golden donkey in the temple. This myth was repeated by Tacitus. The fathers of the Christian church spread rumors that Jews engaged in cannibalism. One of these was quoted by Edward Gibbon in the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Jew-Hate has periodically erupted in violence, expulsions and religious persecution. Jews were expelled from Jerusalem in the time of the Romans, they were expelled from Spain several times, they were expelled from medieval Britain. During the rusades, the Jews of several German towns were murdered, and the Crusaders expelled the Jews from Jerusalem. Jews were treated better in Muslim countries, but they also underwent periodic persecution and forced conversions. As Arab and Muslim society declined, the position of the Jew declined in Muslim society, In the nineteenth century, many observers reported that it is customary for Muslim children to throw rocks at Jews. (see Jews in Arab Lands ),

In medieval Europe and until the 19th century in fact, Jews were confined to ghettos and the occupations permitted to them were often restricted. Forced religious conversions were frequent. The “ghetto Jew” became a standard stereotype. The Shakespearean play, “The Merchant of Venice,” immortalized the European stereotype of the Jew as a crafty and evil money lender.

Emancipation freed the Jew from the ghetto, but the Jew soon found his way barred in many areas of modern society: clubs, universities and professions were often closed to Jews, or had a quota for Jews. In modern times, Jew hatred was exacerbated by the rise of nationalism. The Czarist Russian government forced Jews to live in a pale of settlement. Czarist secret police helped to incite massacres of Jews in the nineteenth century, called Pogroms.

In the early twentieth century Jew hate was rife in most of Europe. Western culture took stereotypes of Jew hate for granted. The novels of Dorothy Sayers, Agatha Christie and Scott Fitzgerald portrayed the Jew as crafty, pushy and dishonest. In his youthful diary, Somerset Maugham described the Jew as crafty, dishonest and ugly, and “Jewesses” as sexy and promiscuous.

In France, the Jew Alfred Dreyfus was disgraced, dismissed from the French army and banished to exile on a false espionage charge at the end of the nineteenth century. The Jew became the target of numerous right wing groups in Central and Eastern Europe. European Jew hate culminated in theHolocaust, perpetrated by the Nazi regime in Germany, in which six million Jews were murdered. The Holocaust was perpetrated by the Germans, but they were eagerly assisted by Jew haters in the territories they occupied, and by the fact that almost no country in the world was willing to take in Jews fleeing Nazi persecution.

The Holocaust also spawned a new Jew hate libel, Holocaust denial: the perverse claim that Jews fabricated the story of the Holocaust.. Anti-Semites variously refer to the “Holocaust Myth,” and “Holocaust Hoax.” Massive documentation, confessions of war criminals, accounts of survivors, physical evidence of the gas chambers, documentary records, population statistics, crematoria and death camps are all dismissed as “inventions” by Holocaust deniers.

Following the Holocaust, outright Jew hate became less fashionable in the West, and therefore the same product is often served up in the guise of “anti-Zionism.” In the USSR, the Jew was attacked as a “rootless cosmopolitan,” and “Zionist” was used consistently as a substitute for “Jew.” The Soviets invented an anti-Semitic “science” of Zionology. This practice spread, so that myths of Zionist control of the world substituted in many places for myths of Jewish control.

However, in the Arab world some Jew haters are more honest, and use the Jew word unabashedly. For example, in Al Ahram, Khaled Amayreh recently quoted a Palestinian official as saying of German Chancellor Angela Merkel :”This woman, like all German leaders since [Konrad] Adenauer, feels enslaved by the Jews.” Al-Ahram also reported that Jimmy Carter lashed out against “the Jews” at an award ceremony.

Copies of the forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Hitler’s Mein Kampf, Henry Ford’s International Jew, and other hateful works, many produced in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, continue to circulate, especially in the Arab world. These and other books perpetuate Jew hate, and harp on the following classic themes:

Jews are all powerful.

Jews are taught by the Talmud to be deceitful, to hate non-Jews and to plot the conquest of the world.

Jews practice ritual murder of Christians. This is called the blood libel. It was condemned by some popes but affirmed by others (See Papal Bulls about Jews). Even today there are groups and Web sites that support the cults of child “saints” likeAndreas of Rinn and Simon of Trent allegedly murdered in fictitious Jewish rituals. The blood libel is widely believed in the Arab world and supported by a popular book by Moustapha Tlass, former Defense Minister of Syria.

Jews start all the wars, including World War I, World War II, the Iraq War and the French Revolution.

The Jews have secret lore, including hidden plots against Christians, revealed in a “secret” book called the Hesronot Shas, which only Jews are allowed to read.

There is a powerful Jewish conspiracy, the Elders of Zion, that is plotting to take over the world.

Jews bake Matzot or Purim pastries from the blood of Christian children. This medieval accusation appeared in a Saudi Arabian journal not long ago.

“The Jews” are responsible for World War I, World War II, the Russian Revolution and the French Revolution. These accusations recur in various places, including the charter of the Hamas movement.

Jews invented the Holocaust, in order to gain concessions from the world, and in particular, to get a Jewish state.

A novel form of Jew Hatred has been invented by a Jew. We shall call it Jew denial. Shlomo Zand, a professor of French history, insists that Jews are all impostors and not descended from the ancient Jews. Jews, according to Zand, were never exiled from Roman Palestine, and all those people in the Diaspora were converts. The “real” Jews of ancient times are the Arabs of Palestine. Hitler killed the wrong people, it seems. More about Zand and his ideas: Jewish people: Do we exist?

Medieval and renaissance churches in Germany and a few other places in Europe are decorated with a common motif called the Judensau – Jew Pig or Jews Pig. This shows Jews performing various indecent acts with pigs. A particularly odious one was reproduced in a book published in Frankfurt Am Main in the 18th century. It shows Jews copulating with a pig and suckling it, while a goat copulates with a Jewess and the Devil looks on. The top panel represents the blood libel. showing the child “martyr” Simon of Trent.

Jew Gold is a superstition that may have originated with the satirical animated show, South Park. The claim is that Jews have a bag of gold that they wear around their necks, or perhaps that Jews wear one fake bag that is fairly visible and contains only rocks and a different one that is real and concealed and contains the gold. Unfortunately, the “joke” is believed in one form or another by many people, such as for example, a Dr. William Pierce who wrote about it here: natvan.com/free-speech/fs987c.html. You can see the clip of the Jew Gold episode from Southpark here

Although Google and other search engines do not feature the Jew hate Web sites as prominently as they once did, it is still very easy to find anti-Semitic propaganda on the Web. Some of these sites are returned for keyword “Zionism.” Some of the principle purveyors of racism today include these Web sites among others:

jewwatch.com/ – Features Jewish conspiracies, Protocols of the Elders of Zion, Henry Ford’s “International Jew,” Zionist Occupied Government (see ZOG). Claims that Leon Trotsky was a Zionist, a claim that might surprise a lot of Trotskyites. This site was once returned by Google as number 1 for keyword “Jew.” It now seems to be listed only for its main page domain name.

biblebelievers.org.au – Protocols of the Elders of Zion and similar materials.

serendipity.li/zionism.htm – Portrays “Zionism” as a “pernicious” conspiracy precisely the way Judaism is described by anti-Semites. Google returns this site as number 3 currently when people search for “Zionism.”

stormfront.org – American Nazi Party.

ziopedia.org – An up and coming Australian anti- “Zionist” Web site that features standard anti-Semitic shibboleths. At one point the owner threatened to close the site for lack of funds. It seems that this problem was quickly remedied by eager donors.

rense.com – Claims to be anti-”Zionist.” Features links to the defunct ABBC.COM Web site. Sample material:

Zionists Made A Deal With The Devil Accepting The ‘Protocols of the Elders of Zion’

radioislam.org – Features Jew-Hate and Jew Hate disguised as anti-Zionism.

ihr.org/ – Holocaust Denial.

jewscontrol.com/ – Charges that Jews control the media, the government etc.

zundel.org – Web site of an infamous Holocaust denier

http://www.zundelsite.org/english/101/101toc.html – features the “Holocaust Myth” (see Holocaust Myth

http://www.natall.comis prominently featured in search engines for keyword “Holocaust Hoax”

Note – if you write about these sites on the Web, please do not link to them, as that will increase their popularity in search engines.

And of course there was the Iran Holocaust Contest – a virtual event that may be a preparation for the real thing.

The Talmud is the oral exegesis of Jewish law. Anti-Semites claim that the Talmud teaches hatred of gentiles, and that it is the basis of Zionism. However, the “gentiles” of the Talmud were pagans and not monotheists, and the claims often cite non-existent books of the Talmud such as “Libbre David” invented by anti-Semites. The claim that Zionism originated in the Talmud, is absurd. Many of the founders of Zionism, including Theodore Herzl, were not religious Jews and did not follow the Talmud. There are several non-Zionist and anti-Zionist Jewish sects, such as the Neturei Karta and the Satmar Hassidim (originating in the Transylvanian town of Satu Mare) (see also Jews against Zionism). All of them follow Talmudic law, and include many Talmudic scholars. None of them are Zionists. The same Web sites that claim that the Talmud is the basis of Zionism often proudly link to Neturei Karta and Jews against Zionism Web sites, which explain why, in their view, the Talmud forbids Zionism!

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a document fabricated by the Czarist Okhrana secret police in the nineteenth century. It claims that the Jews plan to take over the world in conjunction with the Freemasons. The document was apparently concocted by plagiarizing from an 1864 non-anti-Semitic satire by Maurice Joly, about Louis Napoleon, and from an 1868 anti-Semitic novel by one Hermann Goedche written in 1868. In 1921, the New York Times revealed the protocols as a hoax, based on a book by Lucien Wolfe published in London, on research by Alan Dulles and information supplied by an anti-Semitic Russian emigre.The Protocols of the Elders of Zion are sometimes entitled “The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion.”

A version of the document and elaborations on the theme of the “International Jew” were published by Henry Ford’s Dearborn Independent newspaper in a series of articles in the 1920s. Ford had printed 500,000 copies of the Protocols, but he later retracted and apologized. Nonetheless, racists cite Ford as an “authority” for the authenticity of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. The Protocols of the Elders of Zion have been translated into many languages including Arabic, and regrettably enjoy a wide readership in Arab countries. The Hamas Charter assumes that they are factual.

In addition to our own article about the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, you may be interested in these sources: Wikipedia – Protocols of the Elders of Zion Christian Action: The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (quotes Ford’s repudiation) The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Anti-Semitic Conspiracism The Protocols of the Elders of Zion among Palestinians. A Web site that give the texts of protocols are biblebelievers.org.au/przion1.htm which calls it the “Zionist” plan for conquest. This site – biblebelievers.org.au/intern_jew.htm publicizes the “International Jew” articles of Henry Ford. This page documents Egyptian publicity for a television series based on the: Protocols of the Elders of Zion. This article by an Egyptian comments on the TV Series: “Knight without a Horse” that dramatized the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.

More about the above at Jew, Talmud Zionism – sense and nonsense about the Jewish religion.

First, some pictures of actual Jew-Zionists. We come in all shapes, colors and sizes.

Below are some fanciful portrayals of Jews.

The idea that the “Israel Lobby” controls the United States is not new. Though it is now popularized by Jimmy Carter, it was already a pillar of attitudes to Israel in 1967, on the eve of the Six Day War, as revealed in recently declassified documents. Actually, US policy at the time was probably more influenced by the pro-Arab Aramco lobby, which pressured the government, apparently successfully, to renege on its commitments to support Israeli rights to navigation in the Straits of Tiran. In Britain popular journals recently pictured the Jews taking over Europe, but a reformed terrorist revealed that actually, British authorities had made a deal with Islamist terrorists to allow them to operate freely, so long as they do not perpetrate acts of terror in Britain.

Attention Jew Haters. Here are some famous Jews to hate:

Remember that, Mr. Mel Gibson and Biblebelievers. Since someone wrote and asked if Jesus was really a Jew, we should emphasize that indeed he was a Jew, born of a Jewish mother and therefore Jewish by Halachic law even today. This must be true according to Christian belief as well as historically, since Christians believe that Jesus is a descendant of King David.

Jesus celebrated the Passover holiday with his disciples before the Roman authorities crucified him. That was “The last supper.”

Jesus said He was a Jew and was very proud of it:

John 4:22 Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.

Jesus said “we.” It was not an accident.

A few more “evil” Jews in modern times:

Albert Einstein – Famous Jew-Zionist.

Jonas Salk – Inventor of the polio vaccine – a Jew.

Albert Sabin – Inventor of the oral polio vaccine – a Jew.

Edwin Land – Inventor of the Polaroid Camera – a Jew.

Carl Sagan – Astronomer, Author – a Jew.

Norbert Wiener – Invented Cybernetics – a Jew. …..

There are hundreds and hundreds of these people and you hate all of them. Too bad for you! Too bad for Hitler, who forced all the Jewish or part-Jewish scientists in Europe to flee – these included, among many stars – Albert Einstein, Lisa Meitner, Max Born and a host of others. This was a great blow to the Nazi war effort, and fortunate for the allies. Among those forced to flee was Fritz Haber, a Jew who originally had the delusion he could be a German. Haber’s work was crucial to the German war effort in World War I. He had haughtily turned down all requests to back Zionism, as he was a proud German, but in the end, stripped of his honors, his position in the university and in society, he had to admit, too late, that the Zionists were right.

See also Jewish Scientists and Philosophers Jewish Nobel Prize Winners

Uncyclopedia: Jew

Ikey is reading a newspaper on a park bench. His friend Mo sees him and says:

“Ikey, why are you reading that anti-Semitic newspaper?”

“Mo, I like to read good things about the Jews.”

“Good things?”

“Certainly. It says right here that we Jews control the banks, Jews control the newspapers, Jews control the government and all Jews are rich. So what could be bad?”

It’s 1932. Ikey and Morris the Jews haven’t had work in a year. They are hungry. They see a sign on a church,

“Converts to the Catholic Faith get $100.

$$$ One Hundred Dollars!! $$$”

Here is the original post:
Jew – Zionism & Israel

The Jews by Gandhi | Jewish Virtual Library

(November 26, 1938)

Several letters have been received by me asking me to declare my views about the Arab-Jew question in Palestine and the persecution of the Jews in Germany. It is not without hesitation that I venture to offer my views on this very difficult question.

My sympathies are all with the Jews. I have known them intimately in South Africa. Some of them became life-long companions. Through these friends I came to learn much of their age-long persecution. They have been the untouchables of Christianity. The parallel between their treatment by Christians and the treatment of untouchables by Hindus is very close. Religious sanction has been invoked in both cases for the justification of the inhuman treatment meted out to them. Apart from the friendships, therefore, there is the more common universal reason for my sympathy for the Jews.

But my sympathy does not blind me to the requirements of justice. The cry for the national home for the Jews does not make much appeal to me. The sanction for it is sought in the Bible and the tenacity with which the Jews have hankered after return to Palestine. Why should they not, like other peoples of the earth, make that country their home where they are born and where they earn their livelihood?

Palestine belongs to the Arabs in the same sense that England belongs to the English or France to the French. It is wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs. What is going on in Palestine today cannot be justified by any moral code of conduct. The mandates have no sanction but that of the last war. Surely it would be a crime against humanity to reduce the proud Arabs so that Palestine can be restored to the Jews partly or wholly as their national home.

The nobler course would be to insist on a just treatment of the Jews wherever they are born and bred. The Jews born in France are French. If the Jews have no home but Palestine, will they relish the idea of being forced to leave the other parts of the world in which they are settled? Or do they want a double home where they can remain at will? This cry for the national home affords a colourable justification for the German expulsion of the Jews.

But the German persecution of the Jews seems to have no parallel in history. The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler seems to have gone. And he is doing it with religious zeal. For he is propounding a new religion of exclusive and militant nationalism in the name of which any inhumanity becomes an act of humanity to be rewarded here and hereafter. The crime of an obviously mad but intrepid youth is being visited upon his whole race with unbelievable ferocity. If there ever could be a justifiable war in the name of and for humanity, a war against Germany, to prevent the wanton persecution of a whole race, would be completely justified.

But I do not believe in any war. A discussion of the pros and cons of such a war is therefore outside my horizon or province.But if there can be no war against Germany, even for such a crime as is being committed against the Jews, surely there can be no alliance with Germany. How can there be alliance between a nation which claims to stand for justice and democracy and one which is the declared enemy of both? Or is England drifting towards armed dictatorship and all it means?

Germany is showing to the world how efficiently violence can be worked when it is not hampered by any hypocrisy or weakness masquerading as humanitarianism. It is also showing how hideous, terrible and terrifying it looks in its nakedness.

Can the Jews resist this organised and shameless persecution? Is there a way to preserve their self-respect, and not to feel helpless, neglected and forlorn? I submit there is. No person who has faith in a living God need feel helpless or forlorn. Jehovah of the Jews is a God more personal than the God of the Christians, the Mussalmans or the Hindus, though as a matter of fact in essence, He is common to all and one without a second and beyond description. But as the Jews attribute personality to God and believe that He rules every action of theirs, they ought not to feel helpless. If I were a Jew and were born in Germany and earned my livelihood there, I would claim Germany as my home even as the tallest gentile German may, and challenge him to shoot me or cast me in the dungeon; I would refuse to be expelled or to submit to discriminating treatment. And for doing this, I should not wait for the fellow Jews to join me in civil resistance but would have confidence that in the end the rest are bound to follow my example. If one Jew or all the Jews were to accept the prescription here offered, he or they cannot be worse off than now. And suffering voluntarily undergone will bring them an inner strength and joy which no number of resolutions of sympathy passed in the world outside Germany can. Indeed, even if Britain, France and America were to declare hostilities against Germany, they can bring no inner joy, no inner strength. The calculated violence of Hitler may even result in a general massacre of the Jews by way of his first answer to the declaration of such hostilities. But if the Jewish mind could be prepared for voluntary suffering, even the massacre I have imagined could be turned into a day of thanksgiving and joy that Jehovah had wrought deliverance of the race even at the hands of the tyrant. For to the godfearing, death has no terror. It is a joyful sleep to be followed by a waking that would be all the more refreshing for the long sleep.

It is hardly necessary for me to point out that it is easier for the Jews than for the Czechs to follow my prescription. And they have in the Indian satyagraha campaign in South Africa an exact parallel. There the Indians occupied precisely the same place that the Jews occupy in Germany. The persecution had also a religious tinge. President Kruger used to say that the white Christians were the chosen of God and Indians were inferior beings created to serve the whites. A fundamental clause in the Transvaal constitution was that there should be no equality between the whites and coloured races including Asiatics. There too the Indians were consigned to ghettos described as locations. The other disabilities were almost of the same type as those of the Jews in Germany. The Indians, a mere handful, resorted to satyagraha without any backing from the world outside or the Indian Government. Indeed the British officials tried to dissuade the satyagrahis is from their contemplated step. World opinion and the Indian Government came to their aid after eight years of fighting. And that too was by way of diplomatic pressure not of a threat of war.

But the Jews of Germany can offer satyagraha under infinitely better auspices than the Indians of South Africa. The Jews are a compact, homogeneous community in Germany. They are far more gifted than the Indians of South Africa. And they have organised world opinion behind them. I am convinced that if someone with courage and vision can arise among them to lead them in non-violent action, the winter of their despair can in the twinkling of an eye be turned into the summer of hope. And what has today become a degrading man-hunt can be turned into a calm and determined stand offered by unarmed men and women possessing the strength of suffering given to them by Jehovah. It will be then a truly religious resistance offered against the godless fury of dehumanised man. The German Jews will score a lasting victory over the German gentiles in the sense that they will have converted the latter to an appreciation of human dignity. They will have rendered service to fellow-Germans and proved their title to be the real Germans as against those who are today dragging, however unknowingly, the German name into the mire.

And now a word to the Jews in Palestine. I have no doubt that they are going about it in the wrong way. The Palestine of the Biblical conception is not a geographical tract. It is in their hearts. But if they must look to the Palestine of geography as their national home, it is wrong to enter it under the shadow of the British gun. A religious act cannot be performed with the aid of the bayonet or the bomb. They can settle in Palestine only by the goodwill of the Arabs. They should seek to convert the Arab heart. The same God rules the Arab heart who rules the Jewish heart. They can offer satyagraha in front of the Arabs and offer themselves to be shot or thrown into the Dead Sea without raising a little finger against them. They will find the world opinion in their favour in their religious aspiration. There are hundreds of ways of reasoning with the Arabs, if they will only discard the help of the British bayonet. As it is, they are co-shares with the British in despoiling a people who have done no wrong to them.

I am not defending the Arab excesses. I wish they had chosen the way of non-violence in resisting what they rightly regarded as an unwarrantable encroachment upon their country. But according to the accepted canons of right and wrong, nothing can be said against the Arab resistance in the face of overwhelming odds.

Let the Jews who claim to be the chosen race prove their title by choosing the way of non-violence for vindicating their position on earth. Every country is their home including Palestine not by aggression but by loving service. A Jewish friend has sent me a book called The Jewish Contribution to Civilisation by Cecil Roth. It gives a record of what the Jews have done to enrich the world`s literature, art, music, drama, science, medicine, agriculture, etc. Given the will, the Jew can refuse to be treated as the outcaste of the West, to be despised or patronised. He can command the attention and respect of the world by being man, the chosen creation of God, instead of being man who is fast sinking to the brute and forsaken by God. They can add to their many contributions the surpassing contribution of non-violent action.

Segaon, November 20, 1938

Sources: GandhiServe Foundation – Mahatma Gandhi Research and Media Service (reprinted with permission)

See the original post:
The Jews by Gandhi | Jewish Virtual Library

Why did Hitler hate Jews? – Anne Frank House

An important term to mention here is scapegoat. Hitler and the Nazis said the Jews were responsible for huge events like losing World War One and the economic crisis. This was totally untrue.

Three key reasons why Adolf Hitler hated Jews

The Anne Frank Guide offers a wealth of information on Anne Frank and the persecution of the Jews.

Visual history on the Timeline

This book explores many of the questions and controversies surrounding the complex phenomenon of antisemitism in a concise manner.

But by giving the Jews the blame Hitler created an enemy. Hitler said that all Germanys problems had been caused by the Jews. Many people believed him.

The solution to all these problems was to banish the Jews from society. With this political message and the promise to make Germany a large and economically powerful country Hitlers party won the 1932 election. In 1933 he and his party came to power.

Did Hitler invent hatred of Jews? No, Hitler built on and used antisemitic ideas that already existed. He was Austrian and grew up in Vienna where the mayor was extremely antisemitic and where hatred of Jews was widespread. His hatred of Jews cannot be tied down to a specific event in his life, for example a Jewish childhood friend, as many children think.

Hitler and the Nazis also thought that people could be divided into different races and that there was a struggle going on between these different races. According to the Nazis the Aryan race was the best and strongest race. Jews were of another inferior race. In fact so inferior that they were not considered to be people by the Nazis.

You need to know plenty about the subject to be able to answer this question. When explaining it note important words such as scapegoat and enemy

Recognize this question from your own class?

Tell us about how you dealt with it.

Go here to see the original:
Why did Hitler hate Jews? – Anne Frank House

The Jewish Declaration of War on Nazi Germany: The …

The Economic Boycott of 1933

Article from The Barnes Review, Jan./Feb. 2001, pp. 41-45. The Barnes Review, 645 Pennsylvania Ave SE, Suite 100, Washington D.C. 20003, USA. By M. Raphael Johnson, Ph.D., assistant editor of TBR; published here with kind permission from TBR. This digitized version 2002 by The Scriptorium.

The war by the international Jewish leadership on Germany not only sparked definite reprisals by the German government but also set the stage for a little-known economic and political alliance between the Hitler government and the leaders of the Zionist movement who hoped that the tension between the Germans and the Jews would lead to massive emigration to Palestine. In short, the result was a tactical alliance between the Nazis and the founders of the modern-day state of Israel – a fact that many today would prefer be forgotten.

To this day, it is generally (although incorrectly) believed that when Adolf Hitler was appointed German chancellor in January of 1933, the German government began policies to suppress the Jews of Germany, including rounding up of Jews and putting them in concentration camps and launching campaigns of terror and violence against the domestic Jewish population.

While there were sporadic eruptions of violence against Jews in Germany after Hitler came to power, this was not officially sanctioned or encouraged. And the truth is that anti-Jewish sentiments in Germany (or elsewhere in Europe) were actually nothing new. As all Jewish historians attest with much fervor, anti-Semitic uprisings of various degrees had been ever-present in European history.

In any case, in early 1933, Hitler was not the undisputed leader of Germany, nor did he have full command of the armed forces. Hitler was a major figure in a coalition government, but he was far from being the government himself. That was the result of a process of consolidation which evolved later.

Even Germany’s Jewish Central Association, known as the Verein, contested the suggestion (made by some Jewish leaders outside Germany) that the new government was deliberately provoking anti-Jewish uprisings.

The Verein issued a statement that “the responsible government authorities [i.e. the Hitler regime] are unaware of the threatening situation,” saying, “we do not believe our German fellow citizens will let themselves be carried away into committing excesses against the Jews.”

Despite this, Jewish leaders in the United States and Britain determined on their own that it was necessary to launch a war against the Hitler government.

On March 12, 1933 the American Jewish Congress announced a massive protest at Madison Square Gardens for March 27. At that time the commander in chief of the Jewish War Veterans called for an American boycott of German goods. In the meantime, on March 23, 20,000 Jews protested at New York’s City Hall as rallies were staged outside the North German Lloyd and Hamburg-American shipping lines and boycotts were mounted against German goods throughout shops and businesses in New York City.

According to The Daily Express of London of March 24, 1933, the Jews had already launched their boycott against Germany and her elected government. The headline read “Judea Declares War on Germany – Jews of All the World Unite – Boycott of German Goods – Mass Demonstrations.” The article described a forthcoming “holy war” and went on to implore Jews everywhere to boycott German goods and engage in mass demonstrations against German economic interests. According to the Express:

The whole of Israel throughout the world is uniting to declare an economic and financial war on Germany. The appearance of the Swastika as the symbol of the new Germany has revived the old war symbol of Judas to new life. Fourteen million Jews scattered over the entire world are tight to each other as if one man, in order to declare war against the German persecutors of their fellow believers. The Jewish wholesaler will quit his house, the banker his stock exchange, the merchant his business, and the beggar his humble hut, in order to join the holy war against Hitler’s people.

The Express said that Germany was “now confronted with an international boycott of its trade, its finances, and its industry…. In London, New York, Paris and Warsaw, Jewish businessmen are united to go on an economic crusade.”

The article said “worldwide preparations are being made to organize protest demonstrations,” and reported that “the old and reunited nation of Israel gets in formation with new and modern weapons to fight out its age old battle against its persecutors.”

This truly could be described as “the first shot fired in the Second World War.”

In a similar vein, the Jewish newspaper Natscha Retsch wrote:

The war against Germany will be waged by all Jewish communities, conferences, congresses… by every individual Jew. Thereby the war against Germany will ideologically enliven and promote our interests, which require that Germany be wholly destroyed. The danger for us Jews lies in the whole German people, in Germany as a whole as well as individually. It must be rendered harmless for all time…. In this war we Jews have to participate, and this with all the strength and might we have at our disposal.

However, note well that the Zionist Association of Germany put out a telegram on the 26th of March rejecting many of the allegations made against the National Socialists as “propaganda,” “mendacious” and “sensational.”

In fact, the Zionist faction had every reason to ensure the permanence of National Socialist ideology in Germany. Klaus Polkehn, writing in the Journal of Palestine Studies (“The Secret Contacts: Zionism and Nazi Germany, 1933-1941″; JPS v. 3/4, spring/summer 1976), claims that the moderate attitude of the Zionists was due to their vested interest in seeing the financial victory of National Socialism to force immigration to Palestine. This little-known factor would ultimately come to play a pivotal part in the relationship between Nazi Germany and the Jews.

In the meantime, though, German Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath complained of the “vilification campaign” and said:

As concerns Jews, I can only say that their propagandists abroad are rendering their co-religionists in Germany no service by giving the German public, through their distorted and untruthful news about persecution and torture of Jews, the impression that they actually halt at nothing, not even at lies and calumny, to fight the present German government.

The fledgling Hitler government itself was clearly trying to contain the growing tension – both within Germany and without. In the United States, even U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull wired Rabbi Stephen Wise of the American Jewish Congress and urged caution:

Whereas there was for a short time considerable physical mistreatment of Jews, this phase may be considered virtually terminated…. A stabilization appears to have been reached in the field of personal mistreatment…. I feel hopeful that the situation which has caused such widespread concern throughout this country will soon revert to normal.

This New York Daily News front page headline hailed the massive anti-German protest rally held in Madison Square Garden on March 27, 1933. Despite efforts by the German government to alleviate tensions and prevent the escalation of name-calling and threats by the international Jewish leadership, the rally was held as scheduled. Similar rallies and protest marches were also being held in other cities during the same time frame. The intensity of the Jewish campaign against Germany was such that the Hitler government vowed that if the campaign did not stop, there would be a one-day boycott in Germany of Jewish-owned stores. Despite this, the hate campaign continued, forcing Germany to take defensive measures that created a situation wherein the Jews of Germany became increasingly marginalized. The truth about the Jewish war on Germany has been suppressed by most histories of the period.

It was in direct response to this that the German government announced a one-day boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany on April 1. German Propaganda Minister Dr. Joseph Goebbels announced that if, after the one-day boycott, there were no further attacks on Germany, the boycott would be stopped. Hitler himself responded to the Jewish boycott and the threats in a speech on March 28 – four days after the original Jewish declaration of war – saying:

Now that the domestic enemies of the nation have been eliminated by the Volk itself, what we have long been waiting for will not come to pass. The Communist and Marxist criminals and their Jewish-intellectual instigators, who, having made off with their capital stocks across the border in the nick of time, are now unfolding an unscrupulous, treasonous campaign of agitation against the German Volk as a whole from there…. Lies and slander of positively hair-raising perversity are being launched about Germany. Horror stories of dismembered Jewish corpses, gouged out eyes and hacked off hands are circulating for the purpose of defaming the German Volk in the world for the second time, just as they had succeeded in doing once before in 1914.

Thus, the fact – one conveniently left out of nearly all history on the subject – is that Hitler’s March 28, 1933 boycott order was in direct response to the declaration of war on Germany by the worldwide Jewish leadership just four days earlier. Today, Hitler’s boycott order is described as a naked act of aggression, yet the full circumstances leading up to his order are seldom described in even the most ponderous and detailed histories of “the Holocaust”.

Not even Saul Friedlander in his otherwise comprehensive overview of German policy, Nazi Germany and the Jews, mentions the fact that the Jewish declaration of war and boycott preceded Hitler’s speech of March 28, 1933. Discerning readers would be wise to ask why Friedlander felt this item of history so irrelevant.

The simple fact is that it was organized Jewry as a political entity – and not even the German Jewish community per se – that actually initiated the first shot in the war with Germany.

Placard text: “Germans! Defend yourselves! Don’t shop at Jewish stores!” Photo not part of original TBR article – added by The Scriptorium.

To understand Hitler’s reaction to the Jewish declaration of war, it is vital to understand the critical state of the German economy at the time. In 1933, the German economy was in a shambles. Some 3 million Germans were on public assistance with a total of 6 million unemployed. Hyper-inflation had destroyed the economic vitality of the German nation. Furthermore, the anti-German propaganda pouring out of the global press strengthened the resolve of Germany’s enemies, especially the Poles and their hawkish military high command.

The Jewish leaders were not bluffing. The boycott was an act of war not solely in metaphor: it was a means, well crafted, to destroy Germany as a political, social and economic entity. The long term purpose of the Jewish boycott against Germany was to bankrupt her with respect to the reparation payments imposed on Germany after World War I and to keep Germany demilitarized and vulnerable.

The boycott, in fact, was quite crippling to Germany. Jewish scholars such as Edwin Black have reported that, in response to the boycott, German exports were cut by 10 percent, and that many were demanding seizing German assets in foreign countries (Edwin Black, The Transfer Agreement – The Untold Story of the Secret Pact between the Third Reich and Jewish Palestine, New York, 1984).

The attacks on Germany did not cease. The worldwide Jewish leadership became ever the more belligerent and worked itself into a frenzy. An International Jewish Boycott Conference was held in Amsterdam to coordinate the ongoing boycott campaign. It was held under the auspices of the self-styled World Jewish Economic Federation, of which famous New York City attorney and longtime political power broker, Samuel Untermyer, was elected president.

Upon returning to the United States in the wake of the conference, Untermyer delivered a speech over WABC Radio (New York), a transcript of which was printed in The New York Times on August 7, 1933.

Untermyer’s inflammatory oratory called for a “sacred war” against Germany, making the flat-out allegation that Germany was engaged in a plan to “exterminate the Jews.” He said (in part):

…Germany [has] been converted from a nation of culture into a veritable hell of cruel and savage beasts. We owe it not only to our persecuted brethren but to the entire world to now strike in self-defense a blow that will free humanity from a repetition of this incredible outrage…. Now or never must all the nations of the earth make common cause against the… slaughter, starvation and annihilation… fiendish torture, cruelty and persecution that are being inflicted day by day upon these men, women and children…. When the tale is told… the world will confront a picture so fearful in its barbarous cruelty that the hell of war and the alleged Belgian atrocities pale into insignificance as compared to this devilishly, deliberately, cold-bloodedly planned and already partially executed campaign for the extermination of a proud, gentle, loyal, law-abiding people… The Jews are the aristocrats of the world. From time immemorial they have been persecuted and have seen their persecutors come and go. They alone have survived. And so will history repeat itself, but that furnishes no reason why we should permit this reversion of a once great nation to the Dark Ages or fail to rescue these 600,000 human souls from the tortures of hell…. …What we are proposing and have already gone far toward doing, is to prosecute a purely defensive economic boycott that will undermine the Hitler regime and bring the German people to their senses by destroying their export trade on which their very existence depends. …We propose to and are organizing world opinion to express itself in the only way Germany can be made to understand….

Untermyer then proceeded to provide his listeners with a wholly fraudulent history of the circumstances of the German boycott and how it originated. He also proclaimed that the Germans were bent on a plan to “exterminate the Jews”:

The Hitler regime originated and are fiendishly prosecuting their boycott to exterminate the Jews by placarding Jewish shops, warning Germans against dealing with them, by imprisoning Jewish shopkeepers and parading them through the streets by the hundreds under guard of Nazi troops for the sole crime of being Jews, by ejecting them from the learned professions in which many of them had attained eminence, by excluding their children from the schools, their men from the labor unions, closing against them every avenue of livelihood, locking them in vile concentration camps and starving and torturing them without cause and resorting to every other conceivable form of torture, inhuman beyond conception, until suicide has become their only means of escape, and all solely because they are or their remote ancestors were Jews, and all with the avowed object of exterminating them.

Untermyer concluded his largely fantastic and hysterical address by declaring that with the support of “Christian friends… we will drive the last nail in the coffin of bigotry and fanaticism….”

The Biggest Secret of WWII? Why Germany Began Rounding Up Jews and Deporting Them to the East

However, during this same period there were some unusual developments at work: The spring of 1933 also witnessed the beginning of a period of private cooperation between the German government and the Zionist movement in Germany and Palestine (and actually worldwide) to increase the flow of German-Jewish immigrants and capital to Palestine.

The modern-day supporters of Zionist Israel and many historians have succeeded in keeping this Nazi-Zionist pact a secret to the general public for decades and while most Americans have no concept of the possibility that there could have been outright collaboration between the Nazi leadership and the founders of what became the state of Israel, the truth has begun to emerge.

Dissident Jewish writer Lenni Brennar’s Zionism In the Age of the Dictators, published by a small press and not given the publicity it deserves by the so-called “mainstream” media (which is otherwise obsessed with the Holocaust era), was perhaps the first major endeavor in this realm.

In response to Brennar and others, the Zionist reaction has usually consisted of declarations that their collaboration with Nazi Germany was undertaken solely to save the lives of Jews. But the collaboration was all the more remarkable because it took place at a time when many Jews and Jewish organizations demanded a boycott of Germany.

To the Zionist leaders, Hitler’s assumption of power held out the possibility of a flow of immigrants to Palestine. Previously, the majority of German Jews, who identified themselves as Germans, had little sympathy with the Zionist cause of promoting the ingathering of world Jewry to Palestine. But the Zionists saw that only the anti-Semitic Hitler was likely to push the anti-Zionist German Jews into the arms of Zionism.

For all the modern-day wailing by worldwide supporters of Israel (not to mention the Israelis themselves) about “the Holocaust”, they neglect to mention that making the situation in Germany as uncomfortable for the Jews as possible – in cooperation with German National Socialism – was part of the plan.

According to Jewish historian Walter Laqueur and many others, German Jews were far from convinced that immigration to Palestine was the answer. Furthermore, although the majority of German Jews refused to consider the Zionists as their political leaders, it is clear that Hitler protected and cooperated with the Zionists for the purposes of implementing the final solution: the mass transfer of Jews to the Middle East.

Edwin Black, in his massive tome The Transfer Agreement (Macmillan, 1984), stated that although most Jews did not want to flee to Palestine at all, due to the Zionist movement’s influence within Nazi Germany a Jew’s best chance of getting out of Germany was by emigrating to Palestine. In other words, the Transfer Agreement itself mandated that Jewish capital could only to go Palestine.

Thus, according to the Zionists, a Jew could leave Germany only if he went to the Levant.

The primary difficulty with the Transfer Agreement (or even the idea of such an agreement) was that the English [!!!; Scriptorium] were demanding, as a condition of immigration, that each immigrant pay 1,000 pounds sterling upon arrival in Haifa or elsewhere. The difficulty was that such hard currency was nearly impossible to come by in a cash-strapped and radically inflationary Germany. This was the main idea behind the final Transfer Agreement. Laqueur writes:

A large German bank would freeze funds paid in by immigrants in blocked accounts for German exporters, while a bank in Palestine would control the sale of German goods to Palestine, thereby providing the immigrants with the necessary foreign currency on the spot. Sam Cohen, co-owner of Hanoaiah Ltd. and initiator of the transfer endeavors, was however subjected to long-lasting objections from his own people and finally had to concede that such a transfer agreement could only be concluded on a much higher level with a bank of its own rather than that of a private company. The renowned Anglo-Palestine Bank in London would be included in this transfer deal and create a trust company for [this] purpose.

Of course, this is of major historical importance in dealing with the relationship between Zionism and National Socialism in Germany in the 1930s. The relationship was not one merely of mutual interest and political favoritism on the part of Hitler, but a close financial relationship with German banking families and financial institutions as well. Black writes:

It was one thing for the Zionists to subvert the anti-Nazi boycott. Zionism needed to transfer out the capital of German Jews, and merchandise was the only available medium. But soon Zionist leaders understood that the success of the future Jewish Palestinian economy would be inextricably bound up with the survival of the Nazi economy. So the Zionist leadership was compelled to go further. The German economy would have to be safeguarded, stabilized, and if necessary reinforced. Hence, the Nazi party and the Zionist organizers shared a common stake in the recovery of Germany.

Thus one sees a radical fissure in world Jewry around 1933 and beyond. There were, first, the non-Zionist Jews (specifically the World Jewish Congress founded in 1933), who, on the one hand, demanded the boycott and eventual destruction of Germany. Black notes that many of these people were not just in New York and Amsterdam, but a major source for this also came from Palestine proper.

On the other hand, one can see the judicious use of such feelings by the Zionists for the sake of eventual resettlement in Palestine. In other words, it can be said (and Black does hint at this) that Zionism believed that, since Jews would be moving to the Levant, capital flight would be necessary for any new economy to function.

The result was the understanding that Zionism would have to ally itself with National Socialism, so that the German government would not impede the flow of Jewish capital out of the country.

It served the Zionist interests at the time that Jews be loud in their denunciations of German practices against the Jews to scare them into the Levant, but, on the other hand, Laqueur states that “The Zionists became motivated not to jeopardize the German economy or currency.” In other words, the Zionist leadership of the Jewish Diaspora was one of subterfuge and underhandedness, with only the advent of German hostility towards Jewry convincing the world’s Jews that immigration was the only escape.

The fact is that the ultimate establishment of the state of Israel was based on fraud. The Zionists did not represent anything more than a small minority of German Jews in 1933.

On the one hand, the Zionist fathers of Israel wanted loud denunciations of Germany’s “cruelties” to the world’s Jews while at the same time demanding moderation so that the National Socialist government would remain stable, financially and politically. Thus Zionism boycotted the boycott.

For all intents and purposes, the National Socialist government was the best thing to happen to Zionism in its history, for it “proved” to many Jews that Europeans were irredeemably anti-Jewish and that Palestine was the only answer: Zionism came to represent the overwhelming majority of Jews solely by trickery and cooperation with Adolf Hitler.

For the Zionists, both the denunciations of German policies towards Jews (to keep Jews frightened), plus the reinvigoration of the German economy (for the sake of final resettlement) was imperative for the Zionist movement. Ironically, today the Zionist leaders of Israel complain bitterly about the horrific and inhuman regime of the National Socialists. So the fraud continues.

The Jewish Declaration of War on Nazi Germany The Economic Boycott of 1933

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Jews in New York City: There Goes the Neighborhood …

A more heavily Orthodox American Jewish population spells the end of a long love affair with liberalism and the Democratic Party.

The popular stereotype of the New York Jew has long been of someone who resides in the wealthy enclave of Manhattan’s Upper West Side, reads The New York Times and votes for the Democratic Party with a religious devotion. Their Jewish practices largely consist of attending synagogue services on the High Holidays, sending the children to Jewish summer camps, and eating bagels and lox. This image, however, is now as outdated as Jewish vacations in the Catskills.

The New York Jews of today are more religious, more conservative, less educated and poorer than their predecessors. There are also more of them. Those are the main findings of a landmark study just released by the UJA-Federation of New York.

The study, conducted in 2011, is the largest of its kind ever undertaken in the United States. Its findings will be pored over for years to come. The significance of one of its findings, however, is immediately obvious and striking: New York’s Jewish community is becoming increasingly Orthodox.

Thirty-two percent of Jewish households in the New York region are now Orthodox. Three decades ago, in 1981, the figure was just 13 percent. In New York City itself, the epicenter of the organized American Jewish community, 40 percent of the population is Orthodox. Most of these are actually ultra-Orthodox Jews.

Not only do Orthodox Jews now constitute a large proportion of New York’s Jewish population, but they are also likely to become a majority in the future, if current demographic trends continue. The startling fact that two out of three Jewish children living in the New York region are Orthodox (even more in the city ) already suggests that the future Jewish community of New York will be increasingly religious, if not Haredi.

The implications of this for American Jewry, for Jewish politics and for Israel are profound. New York’s Jewish population, which now numbers more than 1.5 million (out of a total American Jewish population estimated at 6.5 million ), is the largest in the world outside of Israel. This fact alone underscores the significance of its changing demography. Moreover, in Jewish communities across the United States, the proportion of Orthodox Jews is growing, as the non-Orthodox assimilate, intermarry and have fewer children.

A more heavily Orthodox American Jewish population spells the end of a long love affair with liberalism and the Democratic Party. Numerous polls indicate that Orthodox Jews are more politically conservative, and more supportive of the Republican Party, than non-Orthodox Jews. On a host of controversial social issues, including abortion, same-sex marriage and parochial schooling, they think more like Evangelical Christians than liberal Jews. This provides a huge opportunity for the Republican Party to do what it has tried and largely failed to do for the past three decades – prize American Jewish voters away from their historic attachment to the Democrats.

If the American-Jewish community becomes more right-wing and abandons its traditional support for liberalism, this will only further alienate the already shrinking number of non-Orthodox, liberal Jews in its midst. Rather than remain within the community, they could well become completely estranged from it, further cementing the religious and right-wing orientation of the organized Jewish community. Thus, the most important and influential Jewish community in the Diaspora could be slowly transformed from a bastion of progressive social values and Jewish religious pluralism, able to exercise a mostly benign influence upon Israel, to a redoubt of ultra-Orthodoxy, thereby strengthening the growing power of the Haredim in Israel.

In future, American Jewish support for religious pluralism in Israel, Arab civil rights and Arab-Jewish coexistence, Israeli-Palestinian peace and a host of other noble causes, could all be jeopardized by the growing religiosity of American Jewry. While there is nothing inherently contradictory between Judaism and support for peace, human rights and social justice, the fact remains that, in practice, Orthodox Jews are far less committed to these causes.

The gradual demographic transformation of New York’s Jewish community is merely a microcosm of what is happening across the Jewish world. The Orthodox proportion of the European Jewish population is also growing. Haredim, for example, now make up an estimated 17 percent of Britain’s Jewish population and account for three-quarters of all British Jewish births. It has been predicted that by 2050, half of all British Jews will be Haredi.

The same demographic trend is occurring in Israel, where, according to a Central Bureau of Statistics report last year, the ultra-Orthodox population is expected to rise to over 30 percent of the population in the next 50 years (from the present 10 percent ).

Is demography destiny? What does the increasingly Orthodox makeup of the Jewish population in New York, London, Paris, Jerusalem and elsewhere portend for the future of world Jewry? While one must be cautious about making long-term predictions based upon current trends, it seems safe to say that the predominantly secular Jewish communities of today, and their prevailing cultural and political values, are increasingly endangered.

Dov Waxman is an associate professor of political science at Baruch College and at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. He is coauthor of “Israel’s Palestinians: The Conflict Within” (2011), and is currently a visiting scholar at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

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Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies : University of …

The Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies (CHGS) promotes academic research, education and public awareness on the Shoah, other genocides and current forms of mass violence. Your generous support is key to maintaining the important work of the Center, advancing the hightest quality of scholarship, programs, and educational resources.

Thursday, April 14, 7:00PM (University Hall, McNamara Alumni Center) *2016 Ohanessian Lecture* PETERBALAKIAN, Colgate University The Armenian Genocide and Cultural Destruction

Presented by the Ohanessian Chair, cosponsored by the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies

More information here. Registration form here. Facebook event here.

Today, the Holocaust is widely recognized as a universal moral touchstone. In Reluctant Witnesses, sociologist Arlene Stein–herself the daughter of a Holocaust survivor–mixes memoir, history, and sociological analysis to tell the story of the rise of Holocaust consciousness in the United States from the perspective of survivors and their descendants. If survivors tended to see Holocaust storytelling as mainly a private affair, their children–who reached adulthood during the heyday of identity politics–reclaimed their hidden family histories and transformed them into public stories.

CHGS / HRP travel awards funded by the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies and the Human Rights Program

Library awards require prior consultation with an archivist, and incorporation of archive research in the paper. Archivists are always available for consult via ihrca@umn.edu and ymcaarch@umn.edu.

Requirements – Brief cover letter (directed to CHGS / HRP) – Date and title of conference / symposium / workshop / meeting – Title of presentation and abstract presentation (500 words) – Funds required (up to $500 US ) – Date and title of HGMV Workshop presentation – Date of consultation with archivist and collection(s) utilized (for Library Archives award) – Appropriately and accurately cite Archives collections in future presentations / papers (for Library Archives award)

Email materials to jhammer@umn.edu and hamm0229@umn.edu. (Continue Reading)

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Jews Of Color

Jewish Living Magazine

In Loving Color By Rachel Sarah

Raising a biracial Jewish daughter, a mother finds herself answering many questions: from her child, from total strangers, and from her own heart.

Mommy, you became Jewish when you had me.

Thats how Mae, my eight-year-old daughter, explains it, and shes right. Sort of. Mae was seven months old when her father walked out and I became a single mom. At that point in my life, Id never been so far from Judaism. I was firmly planted in motherhood, but it would take me a while to see that I needed my religious roots to unfold.

Today, Mae is a spirited second grader with a beautiful afro, cinnamon skin, and full lips. Many people assume were not related. But Mae who is quite a sensitive child otherwiseisnt self-conscious about looking different from her Jewish peers. I, her mother, am the one who sometimes feels or is made to feel insecure.

Its not as if we shouldnt be used to the idea of mixed-race heritage. There are Jews everywhere Ethiopia, Russia, China, India. Everyone who visits Israel tells a story of meeting someone who, because of skin color or another physical characteristic, she simply couldnt believe is one of us. In the United States, according to one study, one of every five Jews (1.2 million people!) is either black, Asian, Latino, of mixed race, or of Sephardic background.

Not me. Im white, of mostly Polish descent. My father is Jewish; my mother was born Catholic. She stopped going to church in her 20s and supported the raising of her children as Jewish (although she didnt convert). I had a bat mitzvah and a confirmation. I went to Jewish summer camps. I went to Israel. I was told that 60 of my relatives were lost in the Holocaust the single fact that always kept me deeply connected to Judaism. But when, in my 17th year, a rabbi in Israel told me that I wasnt really Jewish because my heritage hadnt been passed down matrilineally, I was crushed. In anger and disappointment, I distanced myself from anything Jewish for more than a decade.

Twelve years later I had Mae. I was living in New York City, and, despite its large Jewish population, I didnt know any who were of mixed race. When I moved back to the Bay Area to be near my family, there was a Jewish preschool down the street, but I was adamant about not sending Mae there: If Id felt shunned for not having a Jewish mother, imagine how she would feel. So, I found a diverse, high-energy preschool; she cried for a week. Every afternoon when I picked her up, her eyes were bloodshot.

Friends raved about the nearby Jewish pre-school, so I called: A spot had just opened up. I was unsure, but the moment Mae walked into Kitah Aleph, she felt at home. And she was not alone. Three children were Jewish Asian, one boy was African-American, and a Spanish-speaking girl her mother, from Venezuela, had worked at the JCC for more than a decade is still one of Maes best friends.

Mae never wanted to go home when school let out. She learned how to count in Hebrew and how to braid (practicing on challah). She expanded my repertoire of Jewish songs tenfold.

But it wasnt perfect. I once took 5-year-old Mae to a local kids Shabbat service at a Conservative shul. We walked in, and everyone stared. After the service, only one person came up and said, Hi. She was the white mom of an adopted son with brown skin. While researching this article, I called that mom who asked to remain anonymous and asked whether anyone at her temple mentioned her sons race. They ignore it, she said. No one talks about it.

Nevertheless, her son recently said to her, Mommy, most Jews are white.

Lisa Williamson Rosenberg, a New Jersey psychotherapist and writer, is both Jewish and biracial (her mother is white and Jewish; her father was black). Fortunately, she reports, the definition of what a Jew looks like has broadened significantly since I was a kid. She remembers being told, How can you be Jewish? Youre black. As if the two were mutually exclusive, adds the mother of two (her husband is white and Jewish).

Today when I say, Im Jewish, I may get a respectful question or two, Rosenberg says, but I wont get the same kind of disbelief I might have in the 60s. On our two coasts, if you walk into a synagogue theres a good chance you will find at least a few brownish faces. I think its due to the high numbers of interracial marriages, conversions, and transracial adoptions by Jewish parents.

Diane Kaufmann Tobin, associate director of the Institute for Jewish and Community Research in San Francisco, agrees.

When I adopted Jonah, I didnt know any black Jews, Tobin says about her 10-year-old son, whom she adopted with her husband, Gary, the institutes president. I wanted him to grow up Jewish and not have to choose between his racial and religious identities.

The Tobins, both of whom are white, were determined to find a place where Jonah would feel very at home being both Jewish and black. So, they founded San Franciscos Bechol Lashon (In Every Tongue) program, which grows and strengthens the Jewish people through ethnic, cultural, and racial inclusiveness.

Clearly Im not the only white mother who hopes her child will feel pride in every facet of her identity. Right now, Mae considers herself Jewish, while others define her on the basis of what they can see as black. Looking ahead, Im not ready for the changes sure to come in her teenage years and beyond, both with how Mae sees herself and how the world does.

I ask Rosenberg for advice on raising my child. Its important not to let the black part get lost, she says. Being black is something many biracial people take a long time to come to terms with I did especially if they identify strongly with whatever makes up the other half. But I believe its important to teach a biracial child to love the black in herself, along with everything else.

One of my closest friends a white, Jewish mom whose extended family is Orthodox is doing just that. She had her 7-year-old daughter with an African man whos no longer in the picture. The Jewish part is easy, says my friend (who requests to keep her family anonymous) about raising her daughter. She was named in a Jewish ceremony at temple. My grandmother even came out from the Midwest. And her daughter? She never questions that she is Jewish.

Instead, my friend worries about helping her child identify with the rest of her background. During Black History Month, her daughter started asking questions about her African roots. Not sure what to do, my friend enrolled her first-grader in an African drumming class; she didnt love it, but Mom persuaded her to keep going because I dont know how to help her feel the parts of her that are not parts of me.

Its hard, with so many negative images of blacks in the media, especially if the child isnt living with a black family member, Rosenberg adds. Its a process that Im still working on. And Im in my 40s.

My daughter, too, seems to have no questions about her Jewishness. She is secure and happy at our local JCC. She attends a Jewish after-school program and will soon start her fourth summer at Jewish day camp. When shes with her Jewish friends, she isnt shy, the way she often is in public. She volunteers to act in skits; she shows new kids where the bathroom is; she teases her counselors . (She did confess to embarrassment, however, when she was recently proclaimed Mensch of the Week in front of the entire after-school group).

Im the one still feeling like an outsider.

Recently, a Jewish friend invited us to a neighborhood party. As I was pouring myself a glass of wineand Mae was asking if she could have another cookie a local dad asked me, Where did you adopt your daughter?

Pointing to my belly I answered point-blank, She came from right here.

Ive got that answer down pat because adults and children have asked me many times whether Mae was adopted (along with other common kid questions, like Why is her hair curly and yours straight? and Wheres her daddy?).

Scott Rubin, a Jewish dad in San Francisco who, with his partner Stephen Moore, has adopted two children, one African-American, the other African-American and Latino, says that strangers also have approached him with questions. First, he tries to gauge their intentions. Then, he wants to know why theyre asking. I always try to tell the truth, he says, but I dont always elaborate. And if they ask, Are they your kids? I say, Yes. But I do not engage in conversations about ethnicity or race with strangers. Ever.

Says Diane Tobin, What Ive learned from other Jews of color is they dont want to be asked, Why are you Jewish? or How are you Jewish? Its rude. We need to educate people about what to say or not to say.

For me, biracial Judaism is a touchy subject. When white Jews ask about my daughters identity, I appreciate their curiosity as long as their tone is respectful and warm and as long as their questions are directed to me.

Rosenberg says, Its not your daughters job to answer. As a parent, you need to step in and say, Why do you ask?’

Still, if Jews are not acknowledging my daughters biracial identity, are they really ignoring her?

Dont look at the container, but look at whats inside. Thats from Pirkei Avot Ethics of Our Fathers, Chapter 4, Mishnah 27. Im led to that tenet by Rabbi Judah Dardik of the Beth Jacob Congregation in Oakland. Although we couldnt be more mismatched Im a 35-year-old single mom who never goes to temple and had a child with a man outside the tribe; hes Orthodox, married, and the father of four Dardik is my go-to rabbi because hes thoughtful, respectful, and patient.

I catch him on the phone on a Friday, an hour before sundown, and apologize for not calling earlier. I tell him that Im trying to write about what its like to raise a biracial Jewish child, but every time I sit down at my computer, what comes out sounds overly defensive.

Many Ashkenazi Jews tend to assume that Jews are white, Dardik says, but its not true. Jews come in different shades and colors. In Judaism, he explains, what matters is not what you look like on the outside your container but what merit you have on the inside.

Ive done something right, because clearly Mae isnt afraid to show her inside. Maybe its time for me to open up a little bit, too.

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Jews Of Color

Judaism and Jews | New Georgia Encyclopedia

Historian Ralph Melnick has written that “nearly everything one concludes from a study of Southern Jewry has its opposite that is equally true. . . . Nearly everywhere and in nearly everything some Jew has played a part. But it has been a marginal role.” The Jewish experience in Georgia has been no exception to this pattern. Since the inception of Georgia, Jews have at times played a central part in the development of the state, but they also have largely been considered outsiders. Jews in Savannah The first Jews to arrive in Georgia were a group of forty-two men and women who came on the schooner William and Sarah. They landed in Savannah on July 11, 1733, soon after founder James Edward Oglethorpe arrived with Georgia’s first settlers. Oglethorpe was surprised by the arrival of the new settlers, but at that point he had not received instructions from the Trustees with regard to non-Christian colonists. He was pleased to see among the group a physician, Samuel Nunes, whom he later credited with saving many colonists who were ill with yellow fever. Oglethorpe cited his gratitude to the doctor among his reasons for assigning plots of land to fourteen Jews. Among other reasons mentioned by scholars is the fact that another one of the Jews, Abraham de Lyon, had experience in viticulture, which would be useful to the colonists in their efforts to produce wine.

Strong internal disagreements about religious customs and language prevented these early Georgian Jews from building a synagogue. Their arguments stemmed from a centuries-old cultural division. Jews whose ancestors had lived on the Iberian peninsula until they were expelled during the Spanish Inquisition are known as Sephardim. Those who trace their lineage to other parts of Europe are known as Ashkenazim. The two branches have different liturgies, customs, and linguistic heritages: Sephardim spoke a Latin-based language called Ladino, while Ashkenazim spoke the German-based Yiddish.

Having been steered away from farming by historical circumstances (for example, many of the governments in Europe imposed restrictions on their owning land), Jews across Georgia tended to gravitate toward nonagricultural work. Thus the history of Georgia’s Jews finds most of them clustered in the more urban areas, especially Savannah and Atlanta; the latter has become the center of Georgia’s largest Jewish population.

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