Anti-Defamation League – Metapedia

From Metapedia

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) is a powerful Jewish lobby organization primarily based in the United States but with offices in some other countries. It was founded in 1913 as a branch of B’nai B’rith. In 1930 they had only three fulltime employees. By 1938 the organization expanded to two-hundred and fifty workers.[1]

The organization describes itself as a civil rights organization that fights antisemitism and bigotry more generally.

Critics of Jewish influence and how it is used have often been highly critical of the ADL.

The ADL states that it was founded in 1913 in response to the perceived antisemitism against the Jew Leo Frank who was convicted of the murder of 13-year-old Mary Phagan that year. Controversy has continued regarding the case with continued attempts to turn Leo Frank into an innocent martyr.

In the 1950s the ADL campaigned to free the Jew Morton Sobell from charges of espionage. In 2008 Sobell admitted to spying for the Soviet Union.[2]

The ADL claims to be an international civil rights organization working for equal civil rights for all but the organization supports Israel and its often Jewish supremacist policies.

ADL undercover agents such as Abraham Feinberg have been stated to have been investigated by the FBI as agents of a foreign government and for stopping investigations regarding illegal arms-smuggling from the US to Israel. Feinberg became well known as financing Harry Truman and helping him to victory in the 1948 presidential elections. Truman recognized Israel minutes after the declaration of independence. Feinberg was also one of the financiers of the Israeli nuclear weapons program.[3][4]

One of the earliest activities was the establishment of what has been described as a private intelligence agency, and sending spies, infiltrators, disruptors, and agents provocateurs against perceived opponents (including other Jews). In the early 1940s they had over 50,000 files on American citizens and their political associations. Declassified FBI files state that in 1940, the ADL supplied contact information of nearly 1,600 ADL members to the FBI to serve as informants and undercover sources. A FBI letter advised that “the Anti-Defamation League does not wish it to become generally known that they do employ private investigators”. A 1947 Congressional hearing revealed that the ADL had begun providing information to the original House Committee on Un-American Activities.[2][3][5][6]

See also the article on the Great Sedition Trial of 1944.

“An ADL operative using illicit press credentials was arrested at a Madison Square Garden disrupting an anti-war rally in 1941. “The ADL had then brought ‘tremendous pressure to bear on Commissioner Seery and the Mayor’s Committee on Press Cards to drop the Forster incident the preceding night.” The effort to quash prosecution included offering payoffs and planting hostile news reports, according to the FBI report.”[2]

“In 1993, Roy Bullock, was exposed as an ADL agent. He was San Francisco art dealer who was fairly well-known in the homosexual community and whose specialty was the infiltration of patriotic, Arab-American, and other organizations on behalf of the League. Bullock was found to have in his possession illegally obtained and highly private and personal data on his targets data which could only have been obtained from police and other confidential government files. These data were also discovered in the files of the ADL itself when police raided ADL headquarters in San Francisco and Los Angeles as result of Bullocks exposure…seizing evidence of a nationwide intelligence network accused of keeping files on more than 950 political groups, newspapers, and labor unions and as many as 12,000 people…operatives of the Anti-Defamation League searched through trash and infiltrated organizations to gather intelligence an Arab-American, right-wing, and what they called pinko organizations…the organization maintains undercover operatives to gather political intelligence in at least seven cities, including Los Angeles and San Francisco”. Jewish organizations that had taken positions critical of Israeli policies were included in the Pinko section. There were also files on members of Congress. The ADL or persons working for the ADL also tapped into phone systems, worked closely and likely often illegally with several police officers, and from police sources obtained privileged and personal information on thousands of people. 75% of the information was estimated to had been obtained illegally. It has been alleged that the DA in charge dropped the charges due to needing Jewish support in coming elections. Sensitive information is stated to have been shared with Israel.[3][6][7]

Organizations that the ADL kept files on in 1993 span the political spectrum and included Ku Klux Klan,the White Aryan Resistance, Greenpeace, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the United Farm Workers, the Jewish Defense League, the American Civil Liberties Union, Earth Island Institute, the United Auto Workers, Jews for Jesus, Mother Jones magazine, the Center for Investigative Reporting, the Bo Gritz for President Committee, the Asian Law Caucus, the AIDS activist group ACT UP, Centro Legal de la Raza, Irish Northern Aid, National Indian Treaty Council, and Japanese-and American Citizens League.[3][6][7]

While the ADL has publicly focused on US “neo-Nazi” groups without any power, it has been argued that this has been mainly in order to scare rich Jewish fund-raisers, while many of the ADL’s more clandestine activities has also targeted perceived enemies of Israel such as Palestinians, their solidarity groups, Arab-Americans, Arab students, and Arab delegations to the United Nations.[3]

In 1951 the FBI judged material regarding the Arab League and activities of Egypt and Saudi Arabia that the ADL brought to the FBI “to be absolutely unreliable”.[2]

The National Director of the ADL in 1961 stated that “[T]he Anti-Defamation League for many years has maintained a very important, confidential investigative coverage of Arab activities and propaganda.Our information, in addition to being essential for our own operations, has been of great value and service to both the United States State Department and the Israeli government. All data have been made available to both countries with full knowledge to each that we were the source” and “we have maintained an information-gathering operation since 1948 relating to activities emanating from the Arab Consular Offices, Arab United Nations Delegations, Arab Information Center, Arab Refugee Office and the Organization of Arab Students”.[3]

In 1969 the FBI proposed investigating the ADL as an Israeli foreign agent after three ADL undercover operatives infiltrated and strategized the takeover of the Organization of Arab Students.[2]

In 1983 the ADL published a 49 page “confidential” booklet for use by Jewish students listing the names of individuals such as Arab-American professors and organizations classified as pro-Arab propagandists. After it became public the ADL stated that the booklet was an unfortunate incident.[3]

Jeffrey Blankfort has argued that the above mentioned Bullock “succeeded in not only becoming a member of the local chapter of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee but, because of his size and weight, he would be in charge of security at all its events” and that “One of the targets Bullock befriended was Palestinian-American Alex Odeh, the head of the Orange County chapter of the ADC who would be killed by a terrorist bomb when he opened the door to his Santa Ana office on October 11, 1985. In Bullocks files, police found a key to Odehs office as well as the floor plan.” Bullock has not officially been linked with the unresolved murder.[3]

The ADL kept files on 48 anti-apartheid organizations, possibly due to fear that they would make comparisons between apartheid and Israeli policies. ADL agents were also paid by South Africa to supply information regarding anti-apartheid organizations in the USA.[3]

“One individual the South African agents were particularly interested in was Chris Hani, the man who was expected to succeed Nelson Mandela as the countrys president. Hani was assassinated in South Africa shortly after a speaking tour in California during which he was trailed by Bullock who prepared a lengthy report on it for the South African government, a copy of which was found in his files.”[3]

The NAACP was one of the organizations that the ADL kept files on 1993.[3]

Jews have been stated to be a major source of funding also in the post civil rights era which prevented the NAACP from taking political positions that would offend the Jewish establishment, such as expressing sympathy with the Palestinian cause or criticizing Israels arms sales to South Africa. “This was typified by the attitude of long-time NAACP Director Roy Wilkins, widely characterized as an Uncle Tom by black activists, who withdrew the NAACP from the National Black Political Convention in 1972, taking exception to a resolution that condemned Israel for “expansionist policies and forceful occupation of the sovereign territories of another state.”"[3]

In 1992 ADL issued a 50-page ADL Research Report” entitled The Anti-Semitism of Black Demagogues and Extremists. Heading the list were Min. Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam, Illinois Congressman Gus Savage, Rev. Al Sharpton, Kwame Ture (the former Stokely Carmichael), poet Amiri Baraka, and rappers Ice Cube and Professor Griff and Public Enemy. Certain black newspapers and radio stations were also criticized.[3]

When the NAACP installed Benjamin Chavis as new director and he reached out to Farrakhan, the ADL responded by causing the NAACPs major Jewish funders cut of funding until Chavis resigned.[3]

One debated passage in the Talmud states “A heathen who studies the Torah deserves death”. The Anti-Defamation League has criticized David Duke for allegedly using this quote out of context by omitting important surrounding parts. However, this has in turn been criticized with the full surrounding context stated to be supporting David Duke. The Anti-Defamation League has been criticized for using very selective citations and selectively omitting important parts in order to create a misleading impression.[8]

The ADL has attacked the Christian New Testament as responsible for persecutions of Jews and being historically false. The ADL were at the forefront of attacking the Mel Gibson film the Passion of the Christ.[9][10][11][12]

One example is in the small town of Oberammergau, Germany. Every ten years since 1635, the locals come together to put on a six-hour Passion Play about the final hours of Jesus Christ. They carry out the vow of their ancestors to produce the play, believing that he delivered them from the bubonic plague. The ADL have through a campaign of intimidated the locals into rewriting the play and have argued for more changes.[9]

The ADL also lobbies against Christianity being favored in public schools in the United States and against other forms of favoritism for Christianity by the state (but does not lobby against Judaism in Israel).

The ADL played an ongoing role in censoring books they disagreed with including the Shakespearian play the “Merchant of Venice”.[13]

The ADL for a long time opposed recognition of the Armenian Genocide that took place 1915-1917 since this could negatively affect the situation for Jews in Turkey and Israeli-Turkish relations. Turkey was one of Israel’s few regional allies. The ADL reversed their official position in 2007 after a public outcry but still refused to support a resolution in Congress formally acknowledging the Armenian genocide.[14]

Even some Jews have criticized the ADL for hypocrisy, for false charges of antisemitism for political purposes, and for attacking some Jews with not politically correct opinions. Even Jewish community leaders with dissenting views have been stated to fear speaking out lest the ADL accuse them of some crime against the Jewish people. The ADL has also been accused of trying to scare rich Jews with false threats (such as from American Christians) in order to receive large donations. The criticisms against Christians have been seen as instead being harmful to Jewish interests since Christian Zionists often support neoconservatism.[15][16]

In 2013, the ADL told YouTube (colloquially known as JewTube) to disable PressTV’s YouTube account which also occurred.[17]

In 2014, the ADL has been accused of contributing to false leaflets stating that Jews in the Ukraine must register with a non-existent government agency.[18][19]

In addition to earlier mentioned information sharing the ADL has ties with police across the country through its LEARN program (Law Enforcement Agency Resource Network) in which it trains police in dealing with extremist groups and hate crimes.[3]

Douglas Reed, The Controversy of Zion, 1956.

Jack Tenney, U.S. Senator for California.

John Rarick , U.S. Congressman for Louisiana.

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Anti-Defamation League – Metapedia

Kemp Mill Synagogue

Toddler Playground Dedication

Join us Sunday, May 29, at 11 a.m. for the dedication of our new Toddler Playground., which was built with support from the Ilan Rasooly, z”l, Playground Fund.

Sunday, June 5, is the 49th anniversary of the unification of Jerusalem during the Six Day War. Celebrate this milestone at KMS. The program begins at with an Israeli breakfast (Shakshuka, Fatoush, Burekas, and more). Led by Rena and Chaim Fruchter, we will rejoice with songs and stories about Jerusalem. This program is recommended for ages 8 through adult. More details about the program can be found here. Reservations are required for breakfast and must be made by May 27. Space is limited so make your plans now.

The Cheryl Stern Community Kelim Mikvah is now officially open. There are still plenty of bricks on the path that may be dedicated. Please see the attached form or go to to dedicate a brick.Single bricks cost $180. Double bricks cost $500. Payment may be made by check or credit card (see form for details) or online using PayPal.

Please click here for a copy of the 2016 KMS Gala Journal.

View the current issue of Kol Mevaser.

Click here to donate to the Keren Hasefer Fund to repair and upkeep KMS’ Sifrei Torah.

Many interesting new events are coming in the spring, along with our continuing menu of great weekly classes. Please click here for a complete schedule.

Kemp Mill Sababa

Sababa is the Hebrew slang word for cool and wonderful! We want everyone who visits Israel to be inspired, amazed, and to have FUN. Kemp Mill Sababa is a great way to refer your friends to your favorite unique and off the beaten path places in Israel. If you have visited Israel recently (in the past two years), we want you to list your favorite places and experiences that dont usually make it into the tour books. Click here to make a recommendation. (It will take you less than 5 minutes!)

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Kemp Mill Synagogue

Curaao’s Sand-Floored Synagogue | Atlas Obscura

Mikv Israel-Emanuel Synagogueoften referred to as the Snoa, another term for synagogueis the oldest surviving synagogue and Jewish congregation in the Americas. This is more than enough to make it a place of historical significance but it has another element that makes it unusual. The floor is entirely covered in sand.

Founded in Curaao in 1651, the congregations original name translates to The Hope of Israel. The Mikv Israel-Emanuel Synagogue itself began construction in 1729, was completed in 1732, and has been in continuous use ever since.

The synagogue is tucked into a quiet street in the Punda neighborhoodof Willemstad, the historic capital city of Curaao. Though it has an inconspicuous exterior, once you step inside, youll find rows of pews, towering chandeliers, and a shining mahogany bemah. As you walk around, your feet sink softly into the floor of sand.

Spanish and Portuguese Jewsfrom the Netherlands and Brazil were early settlers in the Caribbean islands, taking on influential roles in the local communities, and the Jewish community in Curaao was notable among those in the New World. (Nearby the Hendrickplein Jewish Temple built in 1865 is also well worth a visit.)

The reasons for the Jewish migration to the islands and the reason for the sand floor may beconnectedan attempt to avoid persecution. As Jews made their new home in the Caribbean, fears of persecution lingered. The sand floor is said to have been there tomuffle the sound of steps as a reminder of the secret Jewish servicesperformed in the recent past. While that is one interpretation,the true origin of the sand-floored synagogue is largely mysterious. Nonetheless, the tradition has carried on in other far flung Jewish communities. Sand floor synagoguescan be found in four other locations, in Jamaica, in Surinam, in Saint Thomas,and in thePortuguese Synagogue of Amsterdam.

The building is in very good condition, and guests can attend the regular services. You can also check out their Jewish Cultural Historical Museum, which contains information on the islands Jewish community and history as well as artifacts such as old scrolls and spice boxes.

The city of Willemstad, a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site, looks at first glance like an Amsterdam lookalike, though it has a population of only around 150,000. Curaao, an island in the Caribbean just off the coast of South America, only gained autonomy from the Netherlands on October 10, 2010,which was the first time since the arrival of the Spanish in 1499 that the islanders regained political control.

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Curaao’s Sand-Floored Synagogue | Atlas Obscura

Ashkenazi Jews, as well as the Yiddish language, came from …

In an effort to discover the origin of the Yiddish language, researchers say that they have found evidence that proves that Ashkenazi Jews are descended predominately from four villages in northeastern Turkey.

The study, titled Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to primeval villages in the ancient Iranian lands of Ashkenaz was conducted by researchers from three universities in the U.K., U.S., and Israel. It was published in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution.

Using a Geographic Population Structure device, Dr Eran Elhaik, a geneticist from the University of Sheffield who led the study, was able to convert the DNA of Ashkenazi Jews into geographic coordinates.

The data showed that 90 percent of Ashkenazi Jews have links to the ancient villages of Iskenaz, Eskenaz, Ashanaz, and Ashkuz that sit near ancient Silk Road trade routes.

We traced nearly all AJs to major primeval trade routes in northeastern Turkey adjacent to primeval villages, whose names may be derived from Ashkenaz. We conclude that AJs probably originated during the first millennium when Iranian Jews Judaized Greco-Roman, Turk, Iranian, southern Caucasus, and Slavic populations inhabiting the lands of Ashkenaz in Turkey, the researchers wrote.

They say this is evidence that Yiddish is a Slavic language that was created by Irano-Turko-Slavic Jewish merchants, and is not of German origin as is commonly thought.

They suggest that it was devised as a cryptic trade language, and was used to gain its creators an advantage in trades along the Silk Roads.

Language, geography and genetics are all connected, Dr Eran Elhaik told

Today, half the worlds 10 million 11.2 million Ashkenazi Jews live in the United States, with another 2.8 million residing in Israel. They make up approximately 75 per cent of Jews, while Sephardi Jews comprising the remaining 25 per cent.

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Ashkenazi Jews, as well as the Yiddish language, came from …

The Jews of New York – WLIW21 Pressroom

THE JEWS OF NEW YORK profiles Jewish individuals and institutions that changed the face of New York, woven together with expert commentary, to present a broad spectrum of the ways in which the Jewish community has impacted secular New York life from the earliest immigrants through today. These slices of Jewish life in New York reflect the larger community experience what one people did for a city, and what the city did for them from medicine to politics; from finance to Broadway; from real estate to retail, including a business that truly represents the quintessential flavor of New York delicatessen. Award-winning actor Tovah Feldshuh (Goldas Balcony) narrates.


CUTLINE: THE JEWS OF NEW YORK profiles iconic Jewish individuals and institutions that made an impact on New York City’s culture, including Broadway’s Fiddler on the Roof and Russ & Daughters Appetizers. Pictured, Fiddler’s Zero Mostel ordering at the Lower East Side delicatessen landmark.

PHOTO: 5.9 MB (24.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 12 X 8 CREDIT: Courtesy of Mark Russ Federman

UTLINE: THE JEWS OF NEW YORK profiles iconic Jewish individuals and institutions that made an impact on New York City’s culture, including Broadway’s Fiddler on the Roof and Russ & Daughters Appetizers. Pictured, Fiddler’s Zero Mostel ordering at the Lower East Side delicatessen landmark.

PHOTO: 5.9 MB (24.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 12 X 8 CREDIT: Courtesy of Mark Russ Federman

CUTLINE: Dr. Arthur Aufses, a second-generation surgeon at Mount Sinai Hospital and chief of surgery there for 21 years, talks about his personal experience and the history of the institution founded in 1852 as “The Jews Hospital in New York.”

PHOTO: 1.4 MB (15 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 6 X 9 CREDIT: Courtesy of The Mount Sinai Archives

CUTLINE: Former New York City Mayor Ed Koch put his “Jewishness” front and center throughout his political career. Pictured July 25, 1989 at a United Jewish Coalition endorsement.

PHOTO: 4.5 MB (33.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 14 X 9 CREDIT: Courtesy of NYC Municipal Archives.

CUTLINE: Former New York City Mayor Ed Koch brought the gregarious spirit of the Jewish culture to his work in the city and beyond during his 12 years in office. Pictured April 7, 1989 at a Yankees game.

PHOTO: 1.7 MB (35.8 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 14 X 9 CREDIT: Courtesy of NYC Municipal Archives.

CUTLINE: Based on a Shalom Aleichem story, the overtly Jewish themes in Fiddler on the Roof were considered a risk even by the primarily Jewish theater community, but the show became the longest running show on Broadway and the most honored with Tony awards at the time. Pictured: The Imperial Theatre, the day after the show’s opening. September 23, 1964.

PHOTO: 100 KB (72 KB uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 1.25 X 1.75 Credit: Photofest

CUTLINE: Rabbi Haskel Besser, the leader of Hasidic B’nai Israel Ch’aim on the Upper West Side, helped shape New York’s spiritual community and is one of many Jews who shaped the city following the Talmud’s advice to invest in real estate. Pictured at his son’s bris.

PHOTO: 4.6 MB (28.8 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 8 X 12 CREDIT: Courtesy of Rabbi Haskel Besser

CUTLINE: Second-generation owner Anne Russ Federman and her late husband Herb Federman behind the counter at Russ & Daughters Appetizers on the Lower East Side.

PHOTO: 2.7 MB (25.9 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 12 X 8 CREDIT: Courtesy of Anne Russ Federman

CUTLINE: Joel Russ (second from left), a Polish emigre, started the now-famous Russ & Daughters Appetizers on New York’s Lower East Side selling herring from a pushcart in 1905. Pictured with the store’s namesake daughters (l to r) Hattie, Ida & Anne in the 1950s.

PHOTO: 1.4 MB (28.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 11 X 10 CREDIT: Courtesy of Mark Russ Federman

CUTLINE: Jacob Schiff (seated, bottom right with white mustache and beard) supported Jewish and non-Jewish institutions in New York, including the 92nd St Y and the New York Zoological Society, a legacy his family continues today.

PHOTO: 5.9 MB (32.9 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 13 X 9 CREDIT: New York Public Library

UTLINE: THE JEWS OF NEW YORK profiles iconic Jewish individuals and institutions that made an impact on New York City’s culture, including Broadway’s Fiddler on the Roof and Russ & Daughters Appetizers. Pictured, Fiddler’s Zero Mostel ordering at the Lower East Side delicatessen landmark.

PHOTO: 5.9 MB (24.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 12 X 8 CREDIT: Courtesy of Mark Russ Federman

UTLINE: THE JEWS OF NEW YORK profiles iconic Jewish individuals and institutions that made an impact on New York City’s culture, including Broadway’s Fiddler on the Roof and Russ & Daughters Appetizers. Pictured, Fiddler’s Zero Mostel ordering at the Lower East Side delicatessen landmark.

PHOTO: 5.9 MB (24.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 12 X 8 CREDIT: Courtesy of Mark Russ Federman

CUTLINE: Former New York City Mayor Ed Koch put his “Jewishness” front and center throughout his political career. Pictured July 25, 1989 at a United Jewish Coalition endorsement.

PHOTO: 4.5 MB (33.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 14 X 9 CREDIT: Courtesy of NYC Municipal Archives.

CUTLINE: Former New York City Mayor Ed Koch put his “Jewishness” front and center throughout his political career. Pictured July 25, 1989 at a United Jewish Coalition endorsement.

PHOTO: 4.5 MB (33.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 14 X 9 CREDIT: Courtesy of NYC Municipal Archives.

CUTLINE: Joel Russ (second from left), a Polish emigre, started the now-famous Russ & Daughters Appetizers on New York’s Lower East Side selling herring from a pushcart in 1905. Pictured with the store’s namesake daughters (l to r) Hattie, Ida & Anne in the 1950s.

PHOTO: 1.4 MB (28.4 megs uncompressed) at 300 dpi JPEG at 11 X 10 CREDIT: Courtesy of Mark Russ Federman

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The Jews of New York – WLIW21 Pressroom

Israel: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News – Huffington Post

By James M. Dorsey (Lecture at MEI Conference: The Middle East Peace Process After the Arab Uprisings) When Jeremy Bowen, the BBC’s Middle East edit…

James Dorsey

Senior fellow, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies

She, Samantha Montgomery, is a 39-year-old who works a 9-5 at a nursing home in a rough section of New Orleans. On her own time, she takes on the pers…

While the privileged gays in developed countries fight for surrogates and marriage, as a gay Palestinian living inside of Israel, we’re still fighting for the acknowledgement of our nationality, our sexuality and the legitimate right to be called Palestinians while still holding Israeli citizenship.

Khader Abu-Seif

is a writer from Jaffa, Israel and most recently was featured in the documentary Oriented about gay Palestinians living in Israel.

As we look at how to address the great challenges facing the Jewish people in America, it is clear that engaging Israeli-Americans and the next generation of Jewish-Americans in new ways must be part of the solution.

Adam Milstein

Active Philanthropist and National Chairman of the Israeli-American Council

By Mohammed Alhammami, Gaza project manager, We Are Not Numbers When I was a kid, my father used to tell me stories of past Jewish-Palestinian coexis…

The mainstream media and politicians have emphasized Iran’s hard power, military capacity and its army’s role in the Middle East, which is part of Teh…

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has been engaged in public negotiations designed to bring Isaac Herzog into his coalition government. And then, out of the blue, Netanyahu did a complete reversal, dropping Herzog and instead bringing the far right Avigdor Lieberman into his government.

James Zogby

President, Arab American Institute; author, ‘Arab Voices’

If you count yourself among the folks who might be willing occasionally to engage Congress to try to help protect Palestinian civilians living under Israeli military occupation if there were a plausible story that your action could have a positive impact, I have some good news.

As Palestinians commemorate the 68th anniversary of the Nakba — literally “catastrophe” in Arabic, when the indigenous people of Palestine were driven out of Palestine into exile — there is a new Nakba taking place: the political division between Hamas and Fatah.

Abdalhadi Alijla

Director of Institute for Middle East Studies, Canada; Consultant on Countering Extremism for Adyan Institute in Beirut

If foreign policy had a soundtrack, it would be the opposite of easy listening.

John Feffer

Director, Foreign Policy In Focus and Editor, LobeLog

Nearly 75 years ago, the Nazis launched Operation Barbarossa, a massive invasion of the Soviet Union, in which 4.5 million Axis soldiers surprised the Soviets with blitzkrieg attacks across the 2,900-kilometer border.

Despite concerns over political tensions, Israeli tourism remains steady – and I can see why. Once you arrive and sit yourself down at the beach for a beer, any anxiety you might bring with you will melt away. I feel safer walking the city streets in Tel Aviv than when I was living in New York City last summer.

Iranian leaders have breached both the resolutions and the nuclear agreement for the third time since the nuclear deal went into effect in January 2016. Iran has repeatedly test-fired, long-range ballistic missiles and laser-guided surface-to-surface missiles.

My junior colleague’s email, titled “time-sensitive” and sent from her gmail account, was oblique – something important, she intimated, and best not p…

Jennifer S. Hirsch

NYC-based Professor at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health, Jewish activist and former OpEd Project Public Voices Fellow.

This IS propaganda campaign shows that any counterterrorism support for Egypt cannot be given in isolation from domestic affairs, local grievances, and continuous political issues–terror groups know very well how to play on these to attract recruits.

Nancy Okail

Dr. Okail is a scholar and democracy advocate. She is the Executive Director of the Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy. In 2013, she was sentenced to prison in absentia in the widely publicized case known as the #NGOtrial in Egypt.

Admittedly, it is unfair to lay at Mr. Rhodes’ doorstep all that Mr. Obama has wrought upon himself. The buck ultimately stops at the Oval Office.

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Israel: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News – Huffington Post

Israelis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As of 2013, Israel’s population is 8million, of which the Israeli civil government records 75.3% as Jews, 20.7% as non-Jewish Arabs, and 4.0% other.[19] Israel’s official census includes Israeli settlers in the occupied territories[20] (referred to as “disputed” by Israel). 280,000 Israeli settlers live in settlements in the Judea and Samaria Area,[20] 190,000 in East Jerusalem,[20] and 20,000 in the Golan Heights.[21]

Among Jews, 70.3% were born in Israel (sabras), mostly from the second or third generation of their family in the country, and the rest are Jewish immigrants. Of the Jewish immigrants, 20.5% were from Europe and the Americas, and 9.2% were from Asia, Africa, and Middle Eastern countries.[19] Nearly half of all Israeli Jews are descended from immigrants from the European Jewish diaspora. Approximately the same number are descended from immigrants from Arab countries, Iran, Turkey and Central Asia. Over 200,000 are of Ethiopian and Indian-Jewish descent.[22]

The official Israel Central Bureau of Statistics estimate of the Israeli Jewish population does not include those Israeli citizens, mostly descended from immigrants from the Soviet Union, who are registered as “others”, or their immediate family members. Defined as non-Jews and non-Arabs, they make up about 3.5% of Israelis (350,000),[23] and were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return.[24][25]

Israel’s two official languages are Hebrew and Arabic. Hebrew is the primary language of government and is spoken by the majority of the population. Arabic is spoken by the Arab minority and by some members of the Mizrahi Jewish community. English is studied in school and is spoken by the majority of the population as a second language. Other languages spoken in Israel include Russian, Yiddish, Spanish, Ladino, Amharic, Armenian, Romanian, and French.[26]

In recent decades, between 650,000 and 1,300,000 Israelis have emigrated,[27] a phenomenon known in Hebrew as yerida (“descent”, in contrast to aliyah, which means “ascent”). Emigrants have various reasons for leaving, but there is generally a combination of economic and political concerns. Los Angeles is home to the largest community of Israelis outside Israel.[citation needed]

The main Israeli ethnic and religious groups are as follows:

The CBS traces the paternal country of origin of Israeli Jews (including nonHalachically Jewish immigrants who arrived on the Law of Return) as of 2010 is as follows.[28]

A fraction of Palestinians remained within Israel’s borders following the 1948 Palestinian exodus and are the largest group of Arabic-speaking and culturally Arab citizens of Israel. The vast majority of the Arab citizens of Israel are Sunni Muslim, while 9% of them are Christian.[29]

As of 2013, the Arab population of Israel amounts to 1,658,000, about 20.7% of the population.[19] This figure include 209,000 Arabs (14% of the Israeli Arab population) in East Jerusalem, also counted in the Palestinian statistics, although 98 percent of East Jerusalem Palestinians have either Israeli residency or Israeli citizenship.[30]

The Arab citizens of Israel also include the Bedouin. Israeli Bedouin include those who live in the north of the country, for the most part in villages and towns, and the Bedouin in the Negev, who are semi-nomadic or live in towns or unrecognized Bedouin villages. In 1999, 110,000 Bedouin lived in the Negev, 50,000 in the Galilee and 10,000 in the central region of Israel.[31] As of 2013, the Negev Bedouin number 200,000-210,000.[32][33][34]

There is also a significant population of Israeli Druze, estimated at about 117,500 at the end of 2006.[35] All Druze in British Mandate Palestine became Israeli citizens upon the foundation of the State of Israel.[citation needed]

There are about 7,000 Maronite Christian Israelis, living mostly in the Galilee but also in Haifa, Nazareth, and Jerusalem. They are mostly pro-Israeli Lebanese former militia members and their families who fled Lebanon after the 2000 withdrawal of IDF from South Lebanon. Some, however, are from local Galilean communities such as Jish.[citation needed]

There are about 1,000 Coptic Israeli citizens.[citation needed]

In September 2014, Israel recognized the “Aramean” ethnic identity of hundreds of the Christian citizens of Israel. This recognition comes after about seven years of activity by the Aramean Christian Foundation in Israel Aram, led by IDF Major Shadi Khalloul Risho and the Israeli Christian Recruitment Forum, headed by Father Gabriel Naddaf of the Greek-Orthodox Church and Major Ihab Shlayan. The Aramean ethnic identity will now encompass all the Christian Eastern Syriac churches in Israel, including the Maronite Church, Greek Orthodox Church, Greek Catholic Church, Syriac Catholic Church and Syriac Orthodox Church.[36][37][38]

There are about 4,000 Armenian citizens of Israel. They live mostly in Jerusalem, including the Armenian Quarter), but also in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jaffa. Their religious activities center around the Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem as well as churches in Jerusalem, Haifa and Jaffa. Although Armenians of Old Jerusalem have Israeli identity cards, they are officially holders of Jordanian passports.[39]

There are around 1,000 Assyrians living in Israel, mostly in Jerusalem and Nazareth. Assyrians are an Aramaic speaking, Eastern Rite Christian minority who are descended from the ancient Mesopotamians. The old Syriac Orthodox monastery of Saint Mark lies in Jerusalem. Other than followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church, there are also followers of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church living in Israel.[citation needed]

In Israel, there are also a few thousand Circassians, living mostly in Kfar Kama (2,000) and Reyhaniye (1,000).[citation needed] These two villages were a part of a greater group of Circassian villages around the Golan Heights. The Circassians in Israel enjoy, like Druzes, a status aparte. Male Circassians (at their leader’s request) are mandated for military service, while females are not.[citation needed]

The Samaritans are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant. Ancestrally, they claim descent from a group of Israelite inhabitants who have connections to ancient Samaria from the beginning of the Babylonian captivity up to the beginning of the Common Era.[citation needed] Population estimates made in 2007 show that of the 712 Samaritans, half live in Holon in Israel and half at Mount Gerizim in the West Bank. The Holon community holds Israeli citizenship, while the Gerizim community resides at an Israeli-controlled enclave (Kiryat Luza), holding dual Israeli-Palestinian citizenship.[citation needed]

The African Hebrew Israelite Nation of Jerusalem is a small religious community whose members believe they are descended from the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Most of the over 5,000 members live in Dimona, Israel although there are additional, smaller, groups in Arad, Mitzpe Ramon, and the Tiberias area. At least some of them consider themselves to be Jewish, but Israeli authorities do not accept them as such, nor are their religious practices consistent with “mainstream Jewish tradition.”[40] The group, which consists of African Americans and their descendants, originated in Chicago in the early 1960s, moved to Liberia for a few years, and then emigrated to Israel.[citation needed]

Non-Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union many of whom are ethnic Russians, Ukrainians, Moldovans and Belarusians, who were eligible to immigrate due to having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent. A very small number of these immigrants also belong to various non-Slavic ethnic groups from the Former Soviet Union such as Tatars. In addition, a certain number of former Soviet citizens, primarily women of Russian and Ukrainian ethnicity, immigrated to Israel after marrying Arab citizens of Israel who went to study in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s and 1980s. The total number of those primarily of Slavic ancestry among Israeli citizens is around 300,000.[citation needed]

Although most Finns in Israel are either Finnish Jews or their descendents, a small number of Finnish Christians moved to Israel in the 1940s before the independence of the state and have since gained citizenship. For the most part the original Finnish settlers intermarried with other Israeli communities, and therefore remain very small in number. A moshav near Jerusalem named “Yad HaShmona”, meaning the Memorial for the eight, was established in 1971 by a group of Finnish Christian Israelis, though today most members are Israeli, and predominantly Hebrew-speaking.[41][42]

The number of Vietnamese people in Israel is estimated at 200400.[citation needed] Most of them came to Israel between 1976 and 1979, after the Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin granted them political asylum.[citation needed] The Vietnamese people living in Israel are Israeli citizens who also serve in the Israel Defense Forces.[citation needed] Today, the majority of the community lives in the Gush Dan area in the center of Israel but also a few dozen Vietnamese-Israelis or Israelis of Vietnamese origin live in Haifa, Jerusalem and Ofakim.[citation needed]

Israel’s residents include some naturalized foreign workers and their children born in Israel, predominantly from the Philippines, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal, Romania, China, Cyprus, Turkey, Thailand and Latin America.[citation needed]

The number and status of African refugees in Israel is disputed and controversial, but it is estimated that at least 16,000 refugees, mainly from Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and the Ivory Coast, reside and work in Israel. A check in late 2011, published in Ynet reported that the number just in Tel Aviv is 40,000, which represents 10 percent of the city’s population. The vast majority lives in the southern parts of the city. There is also a significant African population in the southern Israeli cities of Eilat, Arad and Beer Sheva.[citation needed]

There are around 300,000 foreign workers, residing in Israel under temporary work visas. Most of these foreign workers engage in agriculture and constructionthey are mostly from China, Thailand, the Philippines, Nigeria, Romania and Latin America.[citation needed]

Approximately 100200 refugees from Bosnia, Kosovo, Kurdistan and North Korea live in Israel as refugees, most of them with Israeli resident status.[43]

Through the years, the majority of Israelis who emigrated from Israel went to the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom.

It is currently estimated that there are 330,000 native-born Israelis, including 230,000 Jews, living abroad, or even more.[44] The number of immigrants to Israel who later returned to their home countries or moved elsewhere is more difficult to calculate.

For many years definitive data on Israeli emigration was unavailable.[45] In The Israeli Diaspora sociologist Stephen J. Gold maintains that calculation of Jewish emigration has been a contentious issue, explaining, “Since Zionism, the philosophy that underlies the existence of the Jewish state, calls for return home of the world’s Jews, the opposite movement – Israelis leaving the Jewish state to reside elsewhere – clearly presents an ideological and demographic problem.”[46]

Among the most common reasons for emigration of Israelis from Israel are most often due to Israel’s ongoing security Issues, economic constraints, economic characteristics, disappointment in the Israeli government, as well as the excessive role of religion in the lives of Israelis.[citation needed]

Many Israelis emigrated to the United States throughout the period of the declaration of the state of Israel and until today. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli-Americans.[citation needed] According to the 2000 United States Census, 106,839 Americans also hold Israeli citizenship, but the number of Americans of Israeli descent is around half a million.[4][5][6]

Many Israelis emigrated to Canada throughout the period of the declaration of the state of Israel and until today. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli-Canadians.[citation needed] According to the Canada 2006 Census as many as 21,320 Israelis lived in Canada in 2006.[8]

Many Israelis emigrated to the United Kingdom throughout and since the period of the declaration of the state of Israel. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Israeli-British.[citation needed] According to the United Kingdom 2001 Census, as many as 11,892 Israelis lived in the United Kingdom in 2001. The majority live in London.[citation needed]

In 2013 a three-judge panel of the Supreme Court of Israel’s headed by Court President Asher Grunis rejected an appeal requesting that state-issued identification cards state the nationality of citizens as “Israeli” rather than their religion of origin. In his opinion, Grunis stated that it was not within the courts purview to determine new categories of ethnicity or nationhood. The court’s decision responded to a petition by Uzzi Ornan, who refused to be identified as Jewish in 1948 at the foundation of the state of Israel, claiming instead that he was “Hebrew.” This was permitted by Israeli authorities at the time. However, by 2000, Ornan wanted to register his nationality as “Israeli”. The Interior Ministry refused to allow this, prompting Ornan to file a suit. In 2007, Ornan’s suit was joined by former minister Shulamit Aloni and other activists.[47] In the ruling, Justice Hanan Melcer noted Israel currently considers “citizenship and nationality [to be] separate.”[48]

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Israelis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sephardic Jewish Names and Genealogies, How to start

I would like to start by stating that I am not a professional genealogist. As I worked at developing the family tree on my Sephardic side I gradually discovered that there were fertile areas of research that were different from the sources I used for my Ashkenazi half. Furthermore, these sources were far less known than the sources for Ashkenazi genealogy. The purpose of this article is to help others also attempting to research their Sephardic ancestry and maybe reduce their frustration levels in discovering these sources. By no means is this an exhaustive list of sources. It is just a sampling to get you started and encourage others to share their knowledge as we all grow and learn together. For a much more complete treatment of Sephardic Genealogy, with country by country resources, see my book on the subject.

Differences in Sephardic and Ashkenazi genealogy

Areas of the world Among the most obvious differences in researching Sephardic and Ashkenazi ancestry is that they lived in different areas of the world. Ashkenazim lived primarily in Europe and eastern Europe whereas Sephardim lived in countries around the Mediterranean, the Ottoman empire, which welcomed them after their expulsion from Spain, and in the Americas particularly south America. A lot of Jewish genealogists have focussed on researching eastern European government records and US naturalization related records. Though sometimes helpful, these sources are of relatively less value to Sephardic researchers who would be more interested in early Iberian notarial records, Inquisition records in Spain, in the Americas and the Caribbean.

Old family names Whereas most Ashkenazi surnames are of relatively recent origin, many, though not all, Sephardic surnames go back many centuries and sometimes a millennium or more. Whereas it is dictum in Ashkenazi research that a family name is of less importance than the name of the ancestral shtetl, this is not true when dealing with Sephardic names. Sephardic family names do suggest kinship, though the common ancestral link may have lived 5 or 600 years earlier. As such, the implication is that as we go further back in the centuries it becomes more likely that the person found bearing that surname is a common though distant ancestor but this does not hold true for contemporaries or in the recent past. Although one needs to strictly follow the genealogist’s rule of going from known to unknown when building a personal family tree, there is some validity in researching an ancient Sephardic family name and this coupled to the fact that many Sephardim can list several generations in their family, sometimes back to 1492 the date of the expulsion from Spain, makes such research of added interest.

Researchers of Sephardic genealogy also need to be aware of the differences in child naming patterns among Sephardim and Ashkenazim. The most singular difference being the Sephardic tradition of naming children after their grandparents, especially if alive to honor the grandparent whereas Ashkenazim avoid naming children after living relatives. For more information on naming patterns go to my page on this topic.

SourcesTraditional Sources

So how does one go about researching Sephardic ancestry. Some of the traditional sources used by Ashkenazi genealogists still apply here. Among these are:

Interviewing the eldest members of your family is definitely where to start. Not only can names of previous and related generations be obtained in this manner but also information on countries they resided in and hints about other sources for documentation. As usual and especially here, one must be careful of family legends and try to document and verify the information received.

Marriage registers, cemetery records, old letters, diaries and photographs are other classic sources for Jewish genealogic information that are just as useful for Sephardic genealogists as they are for Ashkenazim. Since these are detailed in great depth elsewhere (such as on Jewishgen), I will not discuss them here.

US naturalization records, turn of the century passenger lists and similar are just as useful for Sephardim. During the large Jewish immigration to the U.S. from eastern Europe around the turn of the century, many Sephardim came to the US at that time and that is the period when such records are of the most value. Sephardim also came many centuries earlier or in the mid 20th century as part of the exodus from Arab countries resulting from the Arab Israeli wars.

Holocaust records such as the Arolsen records at the International Red Cross or Yad Vashem and the Pages of Testimony at Yad Vashem can be useful for Sephardim too because a significant number of Sephardim from places like Salonika and elsewhere were also victims of the Nazis. The recent decision by Yad Vashem to finally create a listing of the names they have of Holocaust victims and making it available in an electronically accessible database possible is therefore excellent news to genealogists. It is a great shame that Arolsen records at the International Red Cross are not yet available to searching families unless these families can provide the exact first and last names (reminiscent of the recent Swiss banks stance to release records to relatives). Let’s hope this will change sometime soon. Again these sources are well discussed in forums such as Jewishgen and I will not get into it further here. However I would like to mention Serge Karlsfeld’s “Memorial de la Deportation des Juifs de France, 1942-1944″. Paris, 1978.

Sephardic Sources Sephardic researchers have many other sources to draw upon and I will discuss some of these in more detail here.

Notarial records in Spain These are extremely voluminous and useful. I have discussed them extensively in another section to which the reader is referred.

Inquisition Archives in Spain I have discussed in another section to which the reader is referred. Inquisition Archives in South America I have also described these elsewhere and would refer the interested reader there.

Ketubbot (Jewish marriage contracts) are obviously of great value in Jewish genealogy. Sephardic Ketubbot frequently, though not always, may document several generations on both sides. Such finds are obviously of wonderful value to the genealogist. An interesting example of the value of Sephardic ketubot can be found in my description of the Sephardic “Grana” community from Leghorn (Livorno) that settled in Tunis in the 16th century.

Alliance Israelite archives In the 19th and early 20th century the Alliance Israelite made a massive effort in setting up schools and aiding Jews in North Africa, Romania, Turkey, Bulgaria, Palestine and wherever the need was noted. It’s archives in Paris (49 rue Labruyere, 75009 Paris) therefore hold tremendous and, until recently, relatively little tapped genealogic data and is a fertile field for researchers.

Synagogue records are obviously of great value to the genealogist. Those of Jews in Sephardic countries are no exception and in countries like Egypt can go back many centuries. Unfortunately access to these records is often hampered by political and other considerations.

Cemetery tombstones can also yield information of great value and a systematic listing of this information would be of great value. Such an effort is in process through Jewishgen and Sephardim who have access to cemeteries in Sephardic countries need to provide what information they can provide before time and politics ravages this source further.

Passengers to the Indies. The passenger lists of Spaniards who left for the Americas from 1500 to 1800 is preserved in an archive in Seville, the Archivo General de Indias. Besides listing all passengers who sailed in every ship to America up to 1800 but they provide such data as the passenger name and place of birth, name of parents and their brithplaces, the job and destination of the passenger after arrival in the Americas.

This information is electronically searchable databases which can be easily searched by the archivists. Requests for information should include the passenger name and the approximate date of the trip to America and should be addressed to: Archivo General de Indias, Avda. Constitucion s/n, SEVILLA – SPAIN Phone: +34-95-4500530. Fax: +34-95-4219485.

A partial List of passengers has been published in about 12 volumes, but not in searchable electronic format so far.

Books and Journals It is essential to know the history of the period one is researching. Not only does the knowledge of the history allow an understanding of the why of the events that occurred to the families researched but it also points one in directions one would not otherwise have considered. This is true both in Ashkenazi and Sephardic research. The difference is Sephardic history is often more ancient and thus less likely to be known without study.. The reader is therefore advised to acquire a good working history of the period and may wish to peruse the section on Sephardic books and my brief history of Sephardim before the expulsion.

Selections of Notarial records Although only a tiny portion of Notarial and Inquisition records can be accessed through books, there are some books that contain excerpts of these documents. I have listed some of them in my section on books. Among these that can be of considerable value to the armchair genealogist are books such as:

Assis: Jews in the Crown of Aragon (Part II 1328-1493); Regesta of the Cartas Reales in Archivo de la Corona de Aragon. Ginzei am olam:Central Arch Hist of Jewish People, Jerusalem

Beinart: Conversos on Trial. The Inquisition in Ciudad Real. Magnes Press, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1981

Raphael: Expulsion 1492 Chronicles. Carmi House Press

Tello: Judios de Toledo – 2 Vols. Instituto B Arias Montano. Consejo Sup de inverstigacions Cientificas.

The reader is encouraged to review my section on books.

Sephardic names studies I have already pointed out the value of researching ancient Sephardic family names. It is important to differentiate between contemporary or recent past individuals who share your researched ancient family name as compared to an individual who carried that same family name 700 years ago. Assuming we are dealing with an ancient Jewish name rather than an area name, the recent individuals are usually not related closely enough to matter, whereas the individual 1,000 years ago has a mathematically high chance of being a legitimate ancestor.

Some of the most useful books in Sephardic genealogy are some of the books on onomastics (the study of names). Prominent among these is Abraham Laredo’s book “Les Noms des Juifs du Maroc”. This terrific work lists names of Jews from Morocco with explanation of the origins and variants of the name and provides information extensive lists about rabbis, authors and other notables who had carried the name and complete source references.. Similar but less extensive are such books as Toledano’s “La Saga des Familles”, Moissis’s “Les noms des Juifs de Grece”, Abecassis’s “Genealogia hebraica: Portugal e Gibraltar, secs XVII a XX”,, Eisenbeth’s “Les Juifs de l’Afrique du nord”, etc. Extensive name lists giving sources can also be found in this website and on the internet.

ETSI Just like Avotaynu is the premier Jewish genealogy journal, ETSI is a new journal dedicated to Sephardic genealogy and history. Published in Paris by a group of Sephardic genealogists that include Abensur, past president of the French Jewish genealogy Society, and his wife Laurence Abensur-Hazan, organization chair of the 1997 Paris seminar on Jewish genealogy, and several others, it is the only journal dedicated specifically to Sephardic genealogy and a must for Sephardic genealogists and Jewish genealogy libraries.

Information about subscription can be obtained at the ETSI site.

Internet The internet is a great resource for information about Jewish and Sephardic genealogy but it is important to verify information obtained in this manner by checking out the sources of the information. That said, among these resources are:

Jewishgen at is a tremendous resource for the Jewish genealogist and a great resource to learn proper techniques for genealogy.

Websites There was a time when it was difficult to find anything of use to a Sephardic researcher. This has fortunately changed and there are now numerous sites of interest to Sephardim if one knows where to look. I have made a listing of such sites on my Websites by Country pages (see index at bottom of this page).

Family Finder (JGFF) Jewishgen has an extremely useful database listing researchers and the families they are researching. Listing the family names and towns you are researching allows other genealogists researching these families to discover you and share resources. It is therefore highly recommended that you register there which can be done very easily at their site.

Namelists Namelists giving you sources where these family names are mentioned can also be very useful while remembering the importance to work methodically in developing your family tree. Such lists exist at:

Newslists Newslists are internet discussion groups where questions can be asked and answered in a spirit of helping each other. A list of Sephardic newslists can be found in my newslist page.

Name lookups. There are several sites on the internet (like that allow you to find peoples’ names and email or snail mail addresses. This is a good way to find the addresses and phone numbers of people having your family name. Usually these people are unrelated, but occasionally one can be lucky and discover an unknown distant cousin. I have not found it useful but some have.

Israel Sephardic Jews had lived in Palestine long before the European Zionist movement. They have therefore left traces of their lives in the cemeteries, chevrot kadisha (burial society) records, books written, etc and this too can be a fruitful source of research. For settlers in the more recent past Batya Untershatz is an invaluable resource. She can be reached at Batya Unterschatz, Director, Jewish Agency Bureau of Missing Relative, P.O.Box 92, Jerusalem 91000 and can be of tremendous help because she has access to the government immigration records back to the early 20th century. Resources in Israel can be found in my Israel page.

Specific country resources. Obviously it would be of great value to research the local resources of the countries where your ancestors had lived. I have discussed the resources in Spain, but there are resources in many other countries where Sephardim have lived such as countries in North Africa and the Ottoman empire. I discuss this information in my recent book on Sephardic Genealogy.

Shalom and good hunting.

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Sephardic Jewish Names and Genealogies, How to start

Jews Are NOT The Chosen People | Real Jew News

Christians Are God’s Chosen People NOT Jews!, Jews & Their Guilt Of Deicide, State Of Israel: Not Biblical Prophecy!, Jews Are NOT The “Chosen People”, Why The Jews Hate Jesus Christ

Jews Are NOT The Chosen People

HOW CAN THE JEWS who oppose their own Messiah, Jesus Christ, be the Chosen People?

Did not St Paul, the Hebrew of Hebrews, say that the Jews are the enemies of the Cross? (Philippians 3 )

When St Paul said, The Jews killed the Lord Jesus and their own prophets; they please not God but are contrary to all men: Forbidding us to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles that they might be saved, to fill up their sins alway: for the wrath of God is come unto them to the uttermost, did he not make it crystal clear that the Jews are not the Chosen People?

And did not Jesus Christ Himself reveal that the Jews are of the Synagogue of Satan? (Revelations 2). Jesus Christ also revealed that the Jews are not true Jews when He said to the Christians of Asia Minor, I will make them who say they are Jews but are not, but do lie, to come and worship before thy feet. (Revelations 3).

How then can the so-called Jews who are now the enemies of the Cross and of the Synagogue of Satan, and who must worship at the feet of Christians, be the Chosen People?

Jesus Christ the Messiah of Israel denounced the Jews for rejecting Him when He said, Behold your house is left unto you desolate. And you shall not see Me until you say, Blessed is He Who cometh in the name of the Lord. (St Matthew 23) How then can the Jews whose house is now desolate be the Chosen People?

How then can the Jews whose house is now desolate be the Chosen People? When the Jews cast in their teeth that they were the seed of Abraham, Jesus replied, You are of your father of the devil who was a murderer from the beginning. (St John 8).

Indeed the Jews committed the crime of all crimes, namely, Deicide, when they brought Jesus Christ to Pontius Pilate demanding that Jesus Christ be crucified even when Pilate judged Christ innocent and desired to set Him free. (St Matthew 27).

How then can the Jews, whose father is the devil, and they being murderers like the devil himself by crucifying the Lord of Glory, be the Chosen People?

DID NOT JESUS CHRIST say, Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees! For you compass sea and land to make one proselyte. And when he is made, you make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves? (St Matthew 23).

Even secular Jews defer to the rabbis as their leaders when it comes to interpreting Jewish dogma. How then can the Jews who are children of hell be the Chosen People?

How could the Jews to whom Jesus Christ said, Because you do not believe, you are not of my sheep be the Chosen People? (St John 10). For to this day the majority of the Jews do not believe in Jesus Christ. What then is their chosen-ness if they are not of the Messiahs sheep?

St John the apostle said, Many deceivers are gone out into the world who deny that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh. This is a deceiver and Anti Christ. (II John 1).

How then can the Jews who to this day deny that Jesus Christ the eternal Son of God became man for our salvation be the Chosen People? Will we be deceived by the Jews that they are the Chosen People? What then is the Jews chosen-ness?

In the book of Revelations it is written: But the fearful and the unbelieving and the liars shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire. This is the second death.

1. The Jews are fearful of death.

2. They do not believe in the God of the Bible but in the god of the Talmud.

3. The Jews are liars. For they say that they are Gods chosen people when God says that they are an accursed people because of their sins. (Isaiah 66:20).

Thus the only chosen-ness of the Jews is their being chosen to experience the second death, that is, the lake of fire.

MOSES WHOM THE JEWS boast as being their hero pronounced a blessing and a curse on the Jews. God, said Moses, would bless the Jews if they showed their love for Him by accepting the Prophet Whose teachings would be required of the Jews. (Deuteronomy 13).

But the Jews crucified the Prophet rather than receiving His teachings on repentance and confession of his Divine right to demand obedience. Thus the curses that Moses pronounced upon the Jews have been the Jews experience over the last 2000 years. (Deuteronomy 28).

Hated, persecuted, censured, (rightly so), wandering from nation to nation when expelled from their host nations, and wreaking havoc wherever they go in their hatred of Christianity, the Jews have indeed experienced the curses predicted of them by Moses and the desolation that Jesus Christ predicted of the Jews for rejecting Him.

JEWS ARE NOT THE Chosen People. Christians are the Chosen People. God said to Abraham, I will bless them that bless thee and curse them that curse thee. And in thy seed all of the nations shall be blessed. (Genesis 12:26).

What blessings have the Jews brought to the world since 33 A.D.? Just read todays headlines and one can clearly see that curses have been brought upon society by the Jews.

The War in Iraq serves only the interests of the Jews and their promotion of the Christ-hating State of Israel. The tragedy of the World Trade Center was a result of the Zionist agenda.

The secularization of Western society is caused by the Jews, which has debased the morals of once Christian nations, now rife with the abominations of anal sex of homosexuals and the perverse sexual conduct of lesbians. Jews are on the forefront of promoting these perverse alternate life-styles.

Are all of these things blessings from the so-called, seed of Abraham, the Jews? No. These are all curses brought upon us by the seed of the devil, the Jews.

Christians ARE Gods Chosen People Not Jews. Christians are the seed of Abraham. This is what St Paul the Hebrew of Hebrews said over and over again. Here is one instance of St Pauls many assertions that Christians NOT JEWS are the seed of Abraham: If ye be Christs then are ye Abrahams seed. (Galatians 3:29).

WHEN JESUS CHRIST said to his disciples, I have chosen you that you should go and bear fruit and that your fruit should remain, Christians were sealed as Gods Chosen Peoplefor all time. Jews can share in the Christians chosen-ness.

Jews can share in the Christians chosen-ness. Jews do not have to continue in a state of accursedness and desolation. Jesus Christ offers the Jews the chance to embrace Him and have His blessed name called upon them. Yes Jews if they will repent can be called Christians too!

Yes Jews, like myself, a former-Jew, and thousands of others like me, can say, Blessed is He Who Comes in the name of the Lord! Then the Jews can look forward to heaven and not the lake of fire.

Brother NathanaelStreet Evangelist!

Brother Nathanael @ November 9, 2007

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Jews Are NOT The Chosen People | Real Jew News

Concentration Camp Liberation Video – The Holocaust –

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Concentration Camp Liberation Video – The Holocaust –

Jews in Buffalo – Buffalo Architecture and History

A Jewish settler named Mordecai Manuel Noah tried to launch a homeland for Jews ["Ararat"] on Grand Island in 1825. “In His name do I revive, renew and reestablish the government of the Jewish nation, under the auspices and protection of the constitution and laws of the United States of America,” this first American Zionist declared in ceremonies in St. Paul’s Episcopal Cathedral.

But the cornerstone for this visionary community ended up in the Grand Island town hall, thousands of miles from the state of Israel.

Jews arriving after him have made a mark on Western New York that probably would startle Mordecai Noah. Most of the early Jewish settlers were from Germany. The first was Lemuel Flersheim, a teacher in German.

In fact, nearly all the Polish families settling here before 1865 were Jewish; they came from the Russian part of partitioned Poland.

Polish Jews founded the first congregation, Beth El Synagogue, on Pearl Street. in 1848. German Jews formed the first Orthodox congregation, Beth Zion, at Ellicott and Clinton streets in 1850; it later became Reform Beth Zion.

Most of the Jewish settlers before 1860 worked in the clothing business. Then came Jewish tobacco families from Germany. They chose locations on lower Main, Terrace and Commercial Street close to the busy harbor.

After the Civil War, In which many local Jewish men fought for the Union, Buffalo’s Jews displaced earlier settlers on Franklin, Tupper, Pearl and in the William-Clinton section. By 1890 they numbered 1,500. The city’s first corporation counsel was Louis E. Desbecker, who opened the way for other Jews In local politics. As the city became industrialized, Jews moved farther north and east inside the city, and later to the suburbs as well. They prospered in real estate, manufacturing, banking, contracting, in law and in medicine.

Many more Jews came to Buffalo after the holocaust of World War II, so that by 1950 there were about 22,000 Jews In the city. Many of their children have gone Into education, unionism and social work to lend a hand to the less fortunate — a Hebrew trait going back thousands of years.

Mordecai Manuel Noah (photo): A quixotic scheme [was] hatched in 1825 by Mordecai Manuel Noah to found the state of Israel on Grand Island.

Noah, a playwright and impresario, soldier, adventurer, and diplomat, acquired over two thousand acres on the island opposite Tonawanda. Expansively he invited all Jews to be part of the new nation, and appointed himself a ‘judge” of a reconstituted Zion.

American Indians, whom he regarded as one of the lost tribes of Israel, also would have a part.

The idea sounds preposterous. Setig Adler, historian of the Niagara region’s Jewish experience, pointed out that the plan was “not quite as chimerical” as it seemed. The terminus to the Erie Canal was not far away Grand Island also sits between two peaceful countries. Jewish communities worldwide might have contributed capital, settlers, and labor, but there was little enthusiasm and much ridicule In any ease, Noah was better at dreaming than managing. Bad weather kept him from holding dedication ceremonies on Grand Island, and he left without ever having gotten there.

See also: Rob Roy MacLeod, Ararat

In addition to the “Big Four” — Irish, Germans, Poles, and Italians — a number of other ethnic and religious groups have made Buffalo their home.

Well-educated German Jewish immigrants settled along North, Franklin and Tupper Sts. In 1850, they organized an Orthodox congregation, Beth Zion, at Ellicott and Clinton Sts.

From Poland and Russia came thousands of East European Jews — so many that they soon [by 1915] outnumbered the earlier German Jews. With the arrival of the East European Jews, however, the William Street area became the heart of a new Jewish community.

Later this heart shifted north and west to the Hertel-Colvin area. Jews coming to Buffalo after World War II have generally settled there or in the suburbs.

The census of 1850 lists only fifty people born in Poland, and these were not the Roman Catholic peasants we most often think of as Polish immigrants, but Yiddish-speaking Jews who fled persecution and discrimination in the Russian-Polish pale of control. Czar Nicholas I broke his covenant not to draft Jews into the Russian army before they were granted civil rights, and this prompted others to leave,

Jewish Peddlers: After 1830 the Niagara Frontier settled rapidly [because of the Erie Canal]. The many new households demanded all the little useful utensils, “Yankee notions,” and modest fineries that elevated material life in a frontier and boom town. The invention of the department store was decades off, so peddlers supplied these needs. Many of the peddlers were [Polish] Jews.

With a small investment in goods, and a sturdy pair of shoes, (later, perhaps, a wagon) peddlers on the Niagara Frontier looked forward to quick returns. Historian David Gerber notes that these were the same people that Germans called luftmenschen because they seemed to be able to live on nothing but air.

Jewish peddlers endured anti-Semitism that denied them credit (a special disadvantage to peddlers). Nevertheless Jewish immigrants from Poland prospered in this occupation. Over time they established a stable community.

The first Jewish congregation in Buffalo, and the first one between New York city and Chicago, was founded at a meeting of twelve men on 9 May, 1847 in the Western Hotel on Pearl Street at the Terrace. By this time, the Jewish population of the city had grown considerably since the arrival of L. H. Flersheim, the first Jew in Buffalo, some twelve years hence.

At this meeting, the men appointed a committee in charge of purchasing land for a Jewish cemetery and for $157.50, they acquired a five acre plot bounded by Fillmore, Batavia (Broadway), Gibson and Sycamore Streets. The young congregation initially worshipped in the Beak Street home of Abraham Jacobs, one of its early presidents.

In June, 1848 the congregation became know as Synagogue Beth El or House of God. One year later, they began worshipping on top floor of the Hoyt Block on the northwest corner of Main and Eagle. By 1849, it became evident that a larger place of worship would be needed in the near future.

At the January, 1849 meeting of the j congregation, they voted in favor of purchasing a lot on the east; side of Pearl Street north of Eagle containing an former schoolhouse. They devoted the remainder of the year towards raising money with which to purchase the site and remodel the building into a synagogue. With work completed, they dedicated the building during an English language service on 22 July, 18501. The congregation remained here for the following twenty-three years.

In January, 1865 a fire in the American Hotel across Main street from the synagogue, the site of the former AM&A’s department store, damaged the building. The congregation experienced difficulty collecting its insurance money and began contemplating moving to another location. Despite this period of uncertainty, they made repairs to their building.

By 1870, the commercial activity of downtown had encroached upon the synagogue. It was soon surrounded by commercial buildings and the disruptive nature of the location no longer proved suitable for worship. The congregation formed a committee to search for a new location. They decided upon a site on the East side of Elm Street between Eagle and North Division Streets and constructed a modest brick house of worship upon it. They dedicated their second building on 15 August, 1874. Upon moving there, the former property was sold for retail use. (The site is currently occupied by the Main Place Mall.)

With many of the original members no longer active, changes began to occur within the congregation. In 1880 the first English sermon was preached and by the end of the century, men and women were allowed to sit together In the same pews. In 1906, under the leadership of Charles Polakoff, the search for a new location commenced. Polakoff had suggested that the new building be located on the west side of the city. But the majority of the congregation lived on the East Side and insisted that the new building be kept within walking distance of the old one.

To remedy this the building committee set out on a walk in search of a new site. Setting a leisurely pace, they continued for forty minutes then finding themselves on Richmond Avenue in the vicinity of the current building. On May 2, 1909 the congregation voted to undertake the construction of a new building and purchased the site from the Noye Manufacturing company for $12.000 by the end of the month. They later sold the Elm Street building and site to the Alling, Cory Company for $8.500.

On May 10, 1910 the congregation held their final service in the Elm Street synagogue. While the new building was being constructed, they met in the home of Joseph Saperston at 179 Fargo and then in a hall on Grant at Ferry. They broke ground on 24 March, 1910, and on 24 July Joseph Saperston placed the cornerstone. They dedicated their $100.000 house of worship on 10 September, 1911.

The architect was Howard Osgood Holland.

The brick building, with its copper dome, is a familiar landmark on Richmond Avenue. A broad fight a stairs leads to the main entrance doors, the lintels of which feature symbols of the Jewish faith. The auditorium is capped by a dome with an art glass skylight in its center.

The congregation worshipped in the building until-the changing demographics of the congregation forced them to consider a new location. In December, 1960, anticipating the move to their new site on Eggert Road at Sheridan, they ended Friday evening services. They celebrated their final service on Richmond Avenue on 9 October, 1966.

See also History of Temple Beth El.

In late 1923 and early 1924 it became increasingly clear that the Johnson immigration restriction bill, favored by die-hards throughout the United States, would become law. The bill, more so than the legislation of the early 1920s, threatened to end completely the whole character of American immigration. The bill was a direct assault on the eastern European Catholic and Jewish communities in cities throughout the Northeast. A major source of urban vitality was ending.

The number of Poles permitted to immigrate dropped from 26,000 to 9,000 a year, Italians from 42,000 to 4,000, Czechs from 14,000 to 2,000, Hungarians from 5,000 to 688, and Greeks from 3,000 to 235.

Families, neighbors, and villagers would far less frequently be united on the streets and neighborhoods of America’s cities. And yet, for some unexplained and mysterious reason, there was little attempt within these communities, at least in Buffalo, to fight the bill.

Of all the city’s immigrant groups, the Jews were the most outspoken in their opposition to this patently bigoted legislation. It was not easy to be Jewish in Buffalo in the early twentieth century. Unlike in New York, Philadelphia, or Chicago, where Jews through sheer force of numbers had begun to play an important role in the cities’ civic life, in Buffalo Jews, vastly outnumbered, were far less visible.

This changed dramatically following the large immigration to Buffalo during the early twentieth century of Russian and Polish Jews.

Russian and Polish Jews: The eastern European Jewish population (about thirteen thousand in 1920) had, with their large, Yiddish-speaking families, and their old-world ways, far more in common with the Italians and Poles than with the German Jews on the West Side who had, through success in business and the professions, become some of the wealthier residents of Buffalo. Unlike the German Jews, who blended easily into the city’s social fabric, the Jewish east siders were eminently visible.

The Jewish community, particularly the Russian and Polish Jews on the East Side, had been cohesive and well organized from the very beginning, with a full range of social, religious, and cultural activities and institutions. There were close to a dozen synagogues, several newspapers, literary circles, Zionist and labor organizations, and a theatre known as The Little Theatre which specialized in pacifist and socially conscious agit-prop.

Now. for the first time, there emerged a group of young men and women, east siders and west siders, who were willing to go public as Jews, to present themselves to Jews and Gentiles alike as “Jewish Leaders.” It was a risky business.

Joseph Braun: One of these was Joseph Braun. Joseph Braun, thirty years old in 1924, the year of the Johnson Immigration Restriction Act, was president of a small yet quite successful insurance business, most of whose clients were Gentiles. Born in Buffalo into a first-generation German Jewish family, Braun, who had grown up in the prosperous, Protestant social environment of the West Side, had many friends in the non-Jewish community. He belonged to an organization of downtown businessmen and a downtown luncheon club, and was an active member in the Buffalo Rotary.

Although raised in a traditional Jewish household, Braun had for years belonged to Temple Beth Zion, a Reform and largely German Jewish congregation. Other than his annual attendance at High Holy Day services, Braun was casual about his religious affiliation. Being Jewish, he felt, played an insignificant part in his life; many of his Gentile friends didn’t even know he was Jewish.

Life began to change for Braun after World War I. In 1918 Buffalo’s first Jewish newspaper was published. In 1919 the newly organized Federation of Jewish Social Services opened its headquarters in a downtown hotel. A Jewish old people’s home was built in the heart of a prosperous, Presbyterian neighborhood. Zionists like Felix Frankfurter and Chaim Weitzman came to Buffalo to talk about Zionism, a subject long frowned upon by the city’s German Jewish establishment. The Jewish community was coming out.

Never more visibly than in 1924 when, more vocally and critically and more actively than any of the city’s immigrant groups, Jews (much to the dismay of some of the city’s German Jews, who would well have welcomed the exclusion of their scruffy, Polish and Russian Yiddish-speaking brethren) protested the Johnson immigration bill of 1924. Unlike the mild, restrained rhetoric of the Catholic Union and Times, Everybody’s Polish Daily and the Italian Corriere, the Buffalo Jewish Review was frank and blatant in its attack, openly denouncing “these Nordic theories of racial supremacy,” and calling the bill “anti- Semitic, anti-Catholic and anti-American.”

Responding to the challenge of the bill, Braun, who had recently led a citywide fund drive for the Jewish Federation, now began the task of organizing the entire immigrant community of Buffalo against the bill. Working with two Polish and one Italian priest (the bishop of Buffalo refused to participate), Braun organized a citywide protest demonstration against the bill, With the support of the mayor and the common council, which passed a unanimous resolution against the bill, Braun and the others were able to attract an audience of over two thousand Jews, Poles, and Italians to Buffalo’s auditorium. The Jewish Review noted: “The Broadway Auditorium last Sunday presented a scene that was unique and inspiring, Three groups that hitherto have been separate have united in a common protest against the Johnson Immigration Bill,”

Their protest failed, however, and the bill became law, Buffalo’s immigrant population was now shut off from its forebears in eastern Europe, Denied rejuvenation from the outside, it was simply a question of time before these communities would begin to wither and die.

Many of the older, inner-city ethnic neighborhoods had already begun to decline during the 1920s. Even though Buffalo’s population was growing very quickly (it increased by thirteen percent between 1920 and 1930, to 573,076), most of the older inner-city neighborhoods had begun to lose population. There was then an enormous amount of upheaval in the city’s neighborhoods, with thousands of people pouring in and thousands leaving. None changed quicker and more dramatically than the lower East Side.

The lower East Side had been to Buffalo what it was to New York City: the neighborhood of entry for everyone of the city’s immigrants. By 1915, the area bounded by Michigan, Jefferson, Broadway, and William Streets had lost most of its original German population and was now inhabited primarily by Jewish immigrants from Russia and Poland.

But for them, as well as for the other immigrant groups who had lived there, the East Side neighborhood was only a temporary home. While suburban-bound second-generation Americans waxed nostalgic about the old neighborhood, little love was actually lost on it. Indeed, they got out as fast as they could. During the 1920s many of the Jewish residents of the East Side, some of whom had been there for less than ten years, began to move to newer and nicer neighborhoods in more northerly sections of Buffalo. It was inevitable that these first-generation immigrants, both Jews and non-Jews, left.

There were not good reasons for them to stay. The neighborhood was old; its wood-frame housing run-down and decrepit. It was a period of general prosperity, and anyway blacks, migrants from the rural south, had since the labor shortage of World War I been moving in in increasing numbers: 4,500 in 1920 and 13,500 ten years later. Virtually all of them moved onto the lower East Side, where there had been a small but consistent black community since the late 1820s,

For a while the neighborhood was integrated, Jews and blacks mixed at the public marketplace; at the public school; and at the corner of William and Jefferson Streets, where the Jewish Community Center shared the corner with the union hall of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, But this didn’t last long,

As the number of blacks grew — the local grammar school had 607 black students in 1925 and only 90 in 1920 — Jews left, The East Side Jewish community was dying. Interrupted by the Depression and then by the Second World War, its death was slow. But by the early 1960s it had vanished completely.

The Expressways: What was needed, it was felt, was a highway from east to west within the city. Not only would this provide a direct link between the city and the new eastern suburbs, but it would bring the airport within direct and easy reach of downtown Buffalo. Thus in 1953 state and city planners outlined their proposals for the construction of five highways which would cut through the city along five different east-west axes. Thus, superimposed upon the street system of the city of Buffalo would be a monstrous gridiron consisting of five superhighways whose purpose would be to join the rapidly growing surrounding suburbs with a rapidly declining central city. The price they paid for this plan was enormous; the damage irreparable.

It didn’t look that way at first. In elaborately illustrated and documented brochures, these expressways were presented to the public in 1953. The views of these neighborhood. and street-obliterating highways was always from the air, and from a distant, bird’s eye view they looked clean and benign. Sprinkled here and there with cars, lined with rows of thickly planted trees, the highways looked small, harmless, and almost bucolic.

The reality was far different. The first link in the system of east-west highways was the Scajaquada Creek Expressway. It began at the thruway on the west side of the city and then made its way east, where it connected with the Kensington Expressway, the second link. The Kensington carried the system directly to the eastern suburbs on one spur and into downtown Buffalo on the other. The Kensington bulldozed through a neighborhood; the Scajaquada through a park. Both areas were expendable.

Humboldt Park: The neighborhood was known as Humboldt Park, named after the Olmsted-designed park it was near. Like Buffalo’s lower East Side during the 1920, the Humboldt Park area was in a state of transition. Still predominantly Jewish and German, it was quickly becoming black. But for now, at least, it was an integrated, stolid, substantial middle-class community of one-and two-family homes on tree-lined streets, the best black neighborhood in Buffalo and, though not the best, still a desirable Jewish neighborhood.

Yet 1ocated as it was directly in the middle of the proposed route to the suburbs in the east, few planners questioned the wisdom of building a major highway through it. After all, there was a parkway already there, and if by converting that into a six-lane grade-level highway (depressed on part of its route) the airport and the suburbs would become suddenly accessible, the price was worth it. What’s more, there was little opposition. The Jewish residents had already begun to abandon the community, and while many of the incoming blacks opposed the plan, they, among whom were many professionals and business people, had not yet acquired the political power that they would have at a later time.

The Kensington had far more proponents than opponents, and in the early 1960s construction on it began.

Jews in Buffalo – Buffalo Architecture and History

An Introductory History of the Holocaust | Jewish Virtual …

The Holocaust (also called Ha-Shoah in Hebrew) refers to the period from January 30, 1933 – when Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany – to May 8, 1945, when the war in Europe officially ended. During this time, Jews in Europe were subjected to progressively harsher persecution that ultimately led to the murder of 6,000,000 Jews (1.5 million of these being children) and the destruction of 5,000 Jewish communities. These deaths represented two-thirds of European Jewry and one-third of all world Jewry.

The Jews who died were not casualties of the fighting that ravaged Europe during World War II. Rather, they were the victims of Germany’s deliberate and systematic attempt to annihilate the entire Jewish population of Europe, a plan Hitler called the Final Solution (Endlosung).

After its defeat in World War I, Germany was humiliated by the Versailles Treaty, which reduced its prewar territory, drastically reduced its armed forces, demanded the recognition of its guilt for the war, and stipulated it pay reparations to the allied powers. With the German Empire destroyed, a new parliamentary government called the Weimar Republic was formed. The republic suffered from economic instability, which grew worse during the worldwide depression after the New York stock market crash in 1929. Massive inflation followed by very high unemployment heightened existing class and political differences and began to undermine the government.

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler, leader of the National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) Party, was named chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg after the Nazi party won a significant percentage of the vote in the elections of 1932. The Nazi Party had taken advantage of the political unrest in Germany to gain an electoral foothold. The Nazis incited clashes with the communists and conducted a vicious propaganda campaign against its political opponents – the weak Weimar government and the Jews whom the Nazis blamed for Germany’s ills.

A major tool of the Nazis’ propaganda assault was the weekly Nazi newspaper Der Strmer (The Attacker). At the bottom of the front page of each issue, in bold letters, the paper proclaimed, “The Jews are our misfortune!” Der Strmer also regularly featured cartoons of Jews in which they were caricatured as hooked-nosed and apelike. The influence of the newspaper was far-reaching: by 1938 about a half million copies were distributed weekly.

Soon after he became chancellor, Hitler called for new elections in an effort to get full control of the Reichstag, the German parliament, for the Nazis. The Nazis used the government apparatus to terrorize the other parties. They arrested their leaders and banned their political meetings. Then, in the midst of the election campaign, on February 27, 1933, the Reichstag building burned. A Dutchman named Marinus van der Lubbe was arrested for the crime, and he swore he had acted alone. Although many suspected the Nazis were ultimately responsible for the act, the Nazis managed to blame the Communists, thus turning more votes their way.

The fire signaled the demise of German democracy. On the next day, the government, under the pretense of controlling the Communists, abolished individual rights and protections: freedom of the press, assembly, and expression were nullified, as well as the right to privacy. When the elections were held on March 5, the Nazis received nearly 44 percent of the vote, and with 8 percent offered by the Conservatives, won a majority in the government.

The Nazis moved swiftly to consolidate their power into a dictatorship. On March 23, the Enabling Act was passed. It sanctioned Hitlers dictatorial efforts and legally enabled him to pursue them further. The Nazis marshaled their formidable propaganda machine to silence their critics. They also developed a sophisticated police and military force.

The Sturmabteilung (S.A., Storm Troopers), a grassroots organization, helped Hitler undermine the German democracy. The Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei, Secret State Police), a force recruited from professional police officers, was given complete freedom to arrest anyone after February 28. The Schutzstaffel (SS, Protection Squad) served as Hitlers personal bodyguard and eventually controlled the concentration camps and the Gestapo. The Sicherheitsdienst des ReichsfhrersSS (S.D., Security Service of the SS) functioned as the Nazis’ intelligence service, uncovering enemies and keeping them under surveillance.

With this police infrastructure in place, opponents of the Nazis were terrorized, beaten, or sent to one of the concentration camps the Germans built to incarcerate them. Dachau, just outside of Munich, was the first such camp built for political prisoners. Dachau’s purpose changed over time and eventually became another brutal concentration camp for Jews.

By the end of 1934 Hitler was in absolute control of Germany, and his campaign against the Jews in full swing. The Nazis claimed the Jews corrupted pure German culture with their “foreign” and “mongrel” influence. They portrayed the Jews as evil and cowardly, and Germans as hardworking, courageous, and honest. The Jews, the Nazis claimed, who were heavily represented in finance, commerce, the press, literature, theater, and the arts, had weakened Germany’s economy and culture. The massive government-supported propaganda machine created a racial anti-Semitism, which was different from the longstanding anti-Semitic tradition of the Christian churches.

The superior race was the “Aryans,” the Germans. The word Aryan, “derived from the study of linguistics, which started in the eighteenth century and at some point determined that the Indo-Germanic (also known as Aryan) languages were superior in their structures, variety, and vocabulary to the Semitic languages that had evolved in the Near East. This judgment led to a certain conjecture about the character of the peoples who spoke these languages; the conclusion was that the ‘Aryan’ peoples were likewise superior to the ‘Semitic’ ones” (Leni Yahil, The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry, New York: Oxford University Press, 1990, p. 36).

The Nazis then combined their racial theories with the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin to justify their treatment of the Jews. The Germans, as the strongest and fittest, were destined to rule, while the weak and racially adulterated Jews were doomed to extinction. Hitler began to restrict the Jews with legislation and terror, which entailed burning books written by Jews, removing Jews from their professions and public schools, confiscating their businesses and property and excluding them from public events. The most infamous of the anti-Jewish legislation were the Nuremberg Laws, enacted on September 15, 1935. They formed the legal basis for the Jews’ exclusion from German society and the progressively restrictive Jewish policies of the Germans.

Many Jews attempted to flee Germany, and thousands succeeded by immigrating to such countries as Belgium, Czechoslovakia, England, France and Holland. It was much more difficult to get out of Europe. Jews encountered stiff immigration quotas in most of the world’s countries. Even if they obtained the necessary documents, they often had to wait months or years before leaving. Many families out of desperation sent their children first.

In July 1938, representatives of 32 countries met in the French town of Evian to discuss the refugee and immigration problems created by the Nazis in Germany. Nothing substantial was done or decided at the Evian Conference, and it became apparent to Hitler that no one wanted the Jews and that he would not meet resistance in instituting his Jewish policies. By the autumn of 1941, Europe was in effect sealed to most legal emigration. The Jews were trapped.

On November 9-10, 1938, the attacks on the Jews became violent. Hershel Grynszpan, a 17-year-old Jewish boy distraught at the deportation of his family, shot Ernst vom Rath, the third secretary in the German Embassy in Paris, who died on November 9. Nazi hooligans used this assassination as the pretext for instigating a night of destruction that is now known as Kristallnacht (the night of broken glass). They looted and destroyed Jewish homes and businesses and burned synagogues. Many Jews were beaten and killed; 30,000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps.

Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, beginning World War II. Soon after, in 1940, the Nazis began establishing ghettos for the Jews of Poland. More than 10 percent of the Polish population was Jewish, numbering about three million. Jews were forcibly deported from their homes to live in crowded ghettos, isolated from the rest of society.

This concentration of the Jewish population later aided the Nazis in their deportation of the Jews to the death camps. The ghettos lacked the necessary food, water, space, and sanitary facilities required by so many people living within their constricted boundaries. Many died of deprivation and starvation.

In June 1941 Germany attacked the Soviet Union and began the “Final Solution.” Four mobile killing groups were formed called Einsatzgruppen A, B, C and D. Each group contained several commando units. The Einsatzgruppen gathered Jews town by town, marched them to huge pits dug earlier, stripped them, lined them up, and shot them with automatic weapons. The dead and dying would fall into the pits to be buried in mass graves. In the infamous Babi Yar massacre, near Kiev, 30,000-35,000 Jews were killed in two days. In addition to their operations in the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen conducted mass murder in eastern Poland, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. It is estimated that by the end of 1942, the Einsatzgruppen had murdered more than 1.3 million Jews.

On January 20, 1942, several top officials of the German government met to officially coordinate the military and civilian administrative branches of the Nazi system to organize a system of mass murder of the Jews. This meeting, called the Wannsee Conference, “marked the beinning of the full-scale, comprehensive extermination operation [of the Jews] and laid the foundations for its organization, which started immediately after the conference ended” (Yahil, The Holocaust, p. 318).

While the Nazis murdered other national and ethnic groups, such as a number of Soviet prisoners of war, Polish intellectuals, and gypsies, only the Jews were marked for systematic and total annihilation. Jews were singled out for “Special Treatment” (Sonderbehandlung), which meant that Jewish men, women and children were to be methodically killed with poisonous gas. In the exacting records kept at the Auschwitz death camp, the cause of death of Jews who had been gassed was indicated by “SB,” the first letters of the two words that form the German term for “Special Treatment.”

By the spring of 1942, the Nazis had established six killing centers (death camps) in Poland: Chelmno (Kulmhof), Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Maidanek and Auschwitz. All were located near railway lines so that Jews could be easily transported daily. A vast system of camps (called Lagersystem) supported the death camps. The purpose of these camps varied: some were slave labor camps, some transit camps, others concentration camps and their subcamps, and still others the notorious death camps. Some camps combined all of these functions or a few of them. All the camps were intolerably brutal.

The major concentration camps were Ravensbruck, Neuengamme, Bergen-Belsen, Sachsenhausen, Gross-Rosen, Buchenwald, Theresienstadt, Flossenburg, Natzweiler-Struthof, Dachau, Mauthausen, Stutthof, and Dora/Nordhausen.

In nearly every country overrun by the Nazis, the Jews were forced to wear badges marking them as Jews, they were rounded up into ghettos or concentration camps and then gradually transported to the killing centers. The death camps were essentially factories for murdering Jews. The Germans shipped thousands of Jews to them each day. Within a few hours of their arrival, the Jews had been stripped of their possessions and valuables, gassed to death, and their bodies burned in specially designed crematoriums. Approximately 3.5 million Jews were murdered in these death camps.

Many healthy, young strong Jews were not killed immediately. The Germans’ war effort and the Final Solution required a great deal of manpower, so the Germans reserved large pools of Jews for slave labor. These people, imprisoned in concentration and labor camps, were forced to work in German munitions and other factories, such as I.G. Farben and Krupps, and wherever the Nazis needed laborers. They were worked from dawn until dark without adequate food and shelter. Thousands perished, literally worked to death by the Germans and their collaborators.

In the last months of Hitlers Reich, as the German armies retreated, the Nazis began marching the prisoners still alive in the concentration camps to the territory they still controlled. The Germans forced the starving and sick Jews to walk hundreds of miles. Most died or were shot along the way. About a quarter of a million Jews died on the death marches.

The Germans’ overwhelming repression and the presence of many collaborators in the various local populations severely limited the ability of the Jews to resist. Jewish resistance did occur, however, in several forms. Staying alive, clean, and observing Jewish religious traditions constituted resistance under the dehumanizing conditions imposed by the Nazis. Other forms of resistance involved escape attempts from the ghettos and camps. Many who succeeded in escaping the ghettos lived in the forests and mountains in family camps and in fighting partisan units. Once free, though, the Jews had to contend with local residents and partisan groups who were often openly hostile. Jews also staged armed revolts in the ghettos of Vilna, Bialystok, Bedzin-Sosnowiec, Cracow, and Warsaw.

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was the largest ghetto revolt. Massive deportations (or Aktions) had been held in the ghetto from July to September 1942, emptying the ghetto of the majority of Jews imprisoned there. When the Germans entered the ghetto again in January 1943 to remove several thousand more, small unorganized groups of Jews attacked them. After four days, the Germans withdrew from the ghetto, having deported far fewer people than they had intended. The Nazis reentered the ghetto on April 19, 1943, the eve of Passover, to evacuate the remaining Jews and close the ghetto. The Jews, using homemade bombs and stolen or bartered weapons, resisted and withstood the Germans for 27 days. They fought from bunkers and sewers and evaded capture until the Germans burned the ghetto building by building. By May 16 the ghetto was in ruins and the uprising crushed.

Jews also revolted in the death camps of Sobibor, Treblinka and Auschwitz. All of these acts of resistance were largely unsuccessful in the face of the superior German forces, but they were very important spiritually, giving the Jews hope that one day the Nazis would be defeated.

The camps were liberated gradually, as the Allies advanced on the German army. For example, Maidanek (near Lublin, Poland) was liberated by Soviet forces in July 1944, Auschwitz in January 1945 by the Soviets, Bergen-Belsen (near Hanover, Germany) by the British in April 1945, and Dachau by the Americans in April 1945.

At the end of the war, between 50,000 and 100,000 Jewish survivors were living in three zones of occupation: American, British and Soviet. Within a year, that figure grew to about 200,000. The American zone of occupation contained more than 90 percent of the Jewish displaced persons (DPs). The Jewish DPs would not and could not return to their homes, which brought back such horrible memories and still held the threat of danger from anti-Semitic neighbors. Thus, they languished in DP camps until emigration could be arranged to Palestine, and later Israel, the United States, South America and other countries. The last DP camp closed in 1957 (David S. Wyman, “The United States,” in David S. Wyman, ed., The World Reacts to the Holocaust, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, pp. 70710).

Below are figures for the number of Jews murdered in each country that came under German domination. They are estimates, as are all figures relating to Holocaust victims. The numbers given here for Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Romania are based on their territorial borders before the 1938 Munich agreement. The total number of six million Jews murdered during the Holocaust, which emerged from the Nuremberg trials, is also an estimate. Numbers have ranged between five and seven million killed.







































Soviet Union




TOTAL: 6,258,673

Sources: Holocaust Memorial Center 6602 West Maple Road West Bloomfield, MI 48322 Tel. (248)6610840 Fax. (248)6614204;

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An Introductory History of the Holocaust | Jewish Virtual …

The Sephardic Studies Collection –

The Sephardic Studies Collection at the University of Washington is one of most expansive and fastest growing repositories of source materials pertaining to the Sephardic Jewish experience. The Collection showcases a wide array of published and unpublished materials, including novels, prayer books, bibles, manuscripts, and letters, as well as audio.

Documents produced by Sephardic Jews between the 17th and mid-20th centuries with a particular emphasis on the Ladino language (also known as Judezmo or Judeo-Spanish).

Over 140 recordings of Sephardic Jews who were born and raised in the former Ottoman Empire and who immigrated to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century, collected by Professor Rina Benmayor beginning in 1972.

The Sephardic Studies Collection at the University of Washington is one of most expansive and fastest growing repositories of source materials pertaining to the Sephardic Jewish experience. The Collection showcases a wide array of published and unpublished materials, including novels, prayer books, bibles, manuscripts, letters, newspapers, magazines, songbooks, poetry, theater scripts, marriage contracts, photographs, postcards, and books on religion, history, grammar and more. These documents were produced by Sephardic Jews between the 17th and mid-20th centuries with a particular emphasis on the Ladino language (also known as Judezmo or Judeo-Spanish). The languages contained in these documents also include Hebrew, Aramaic, Turkish, Arabic, Yiddish, French, English, Greek and Italian. Most of the artifacts originated in the former Ottoman Empire, from Turkey and Greece as well as Israel and Egypt. Others were published in Vienna, Livorno, Seattle, New York, Baghdad and Amsterdam.

Until now, the written record of the experiences, anxieties and aspirations of Sephardic Jews remain dispersed and largely shrouded in mystery. Assembled from the bookshelves, closets and basements of residents and institutions in the greater Seattle region, and increasingly elsewhere in the country and abroad, this collection of books constitutes one of the largest Ladino libraries in the United States and the most extensive repository of digitized Ladino texts in the country with more than 500 original works written in Ladino. The collection sheds light on the lesser known history and culture of Sephardic Jews, and it has sparked a revival of interest among academics and community members alike. As the Collection continues to expand, new acquisitions are constantly made and new contributions are always welcomed.

The Sephardic Studies Collection also includes over 140 recordings of songs from the Benmayor Collection of Sephardic Ballads and other Lore. Professor Benmayor began recording these songs in 1972, for her PhD dissertation, and she published her findings in the book Romances Judeo-Espanoles de Orient [Judeo-Spanish Ballads from the Eastern Tradition]. These songs, known as romansas, were sung by Sephardic Jews who were born and raised in the former Ottoman Empire, mainly from Rhodes, Marmara and Tekirdag, all of whom immigrated to the United States at the beginning of the 20th century.

Learn more about the Sephardic Studies Collection in this article about the project.

Dr. Devin E. Naar, The Isaac Alhadeff Professor in Sephardic Studies and Chair of the Sephardic Studies Program, and Ty Alhadeff, the Sephardic Studies Research Coordinator, have prepared and continue to manage the Collection. The database will be updated periodically as new artifacts are added to the digital collection. In addition our staff will continue to update the information attached to each artifact as new research enhances the descriptive records.

Both Naar and Alhadeff, as well as graduate and undergraduate students, and other partners, both academic and lay, publish regular articles highlighting “treasures” from within the Sephardic Studies Collection. These articles both situate texts and artifacts within their historical context and often include excerpted translations from Ladino (and other languages) into English. These articles appear on the Sephardic Studies webpage of the Stroum Center for Jewish Studies website.

Sephardic Studies Founders Circle members: The Isaac Alhadeff Foundation, Eli and Rebecca Almo, Joel and Maureen Benoliel, Richard and Barrie Galanti, Harley and Lela Franco, and Marty and Sharon Lott

The Stroum Center for Jewish Studies

The Digital Strategies Office of the University of Washington Libraries

The Washington State Jewish Historical Society

Numerous community partners and supporters

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The Sephardic Studies Collection –

Sephardic Studies | UCLA Alan D. Leve Center for Jewish Studies

Housed in the UCLA Alan D. Leve Center for Jewish Studies, the Maurice Amado Program in Sephardic Studies offers students at the undergraduate and graduate level the rare opportunity to focus intensively on the study of Sephardic history and culture. It also hosts lectures, workshops and symposia open to the academic and wider Los Angeles community that cultivate and stimulate this field and situate UCLA as one of its principle hubs. It has supported international scholarship, building on the solid research and teaching program erected over the course of a decade and a half of Maurice Amado Lectures and more recently by the Maurice Amado Chair.

Since 2008, the Maurice Amado Program in Sephardic Studies at UCLA has been led by Prof. Sarah Abrevaya Stein, the Maurice Amado Chair in Sephardic Studies. Professor Steins appointment was the result of a nearly twenty-year search. Author of five books and an extensive body of scholarly articles, Steins research has been lauded and supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities, American Council of Learned Societies, American Historical Association, and National Jewish Book Council, which awarded her the 2010 Sami Rohr Prize for Jewish Literature. An elected member of the American Academy for Jewish Research, Stein is co-editor (with David Biale of UCD) of the distinguished Stanford University Press Series in Jewish History and Culture and co-editor (with Tony Michels and Ken Moss) of Jewish Social Studies.

UCLA has supported programming in Sephardic Studies since receiving an endowment from the Maurice Amado Foundation in 1989. Initially UCLA hosted a series of distinguished and diverse scholars to serve as Visiting Maurice Amado Professors for one quarter each year. Among the visitors were Professors Yom-Tov Assis, Jonathan Israel, David Gilitz, Moshe Idel, Moshe Lazar, Edward Seroussi, Jonathan Ray and Shalom Sabar.

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Sephardic Studies | UCLA Alan D. Leve Center for Jewish Studies

FLORIDA – Anti-Defamation League

American Front or its allies in the Confederate Hammerskins may have been responsible for fifteen Nazi banners found flying from freeway overpasses around Orlando, Florida, over the weekend of September 23, 2006. The flags commemorated Global Aryan Solidarity Day, planned to coincide with Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year. Lynch still has close ties to white supremacists in the Orlando area.

American Front led a nationwide rally December 9, 2006, on behalf of incarcerated members of The Order, a 1980s white supremacist terrorist group. While the largest gathering occurred in southern California, several banners describing Order members as prisoners of war were found around Orlando and Maitland.

American Nazis The American Nazis were a long-standing but low-profile white supremacist group based in New Port Richey that drew attention following a standoff with Pasco County deputies the night after a woman and a friend of her son were attacked with a knife in their home in New Port Richey on March 23, 2006. John A. Ditullio was arrested wearing a red American Nazis t-shirt the morning after the attack and was indicted in Pasco County, in October 2006 on first-degree murder and first-degree attempted murder charges for allegedly stabbing the woman and fatally stabbing the teenaged friend of her son.

Brian Zero Buckley, 44, the alleged leader of the American Nazis, was convicted on October 12, 2006, of burglarizing the same home in March 2006. Buckley sports a racist acronym tattoo on his forehead, ANFFAN, which stands for American Nazi Forever, Forever American Nazi.

Combat 18 Josh Steever, a racist skinhead who led a small band of Combat 18 skinheads in Spring, Texas, moved in late 2005 to south Florida where joined up with a small crew of skinheads, most likely also a part of Combat 18. Shortly after his move, a Web site for Floridas chapter of Combat 18 appeared on the Internet. Steever, well-known for his forehead tattoo of the word racist, served a short stint in a Texas jail for attacking someone with an axe handle. In 2006, Steever moved to Charlotte, North Carolina, where he started a small unit of Combat 18 before being arrested for threatening to blow up a school in Newark, California, while visiting his girlfriend.

Confederate Hammerskins (CHS) This regional branch of the Hammerskin Nation, the largest racist skinhead group in the nation, is comprised of members primarily from Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Texas. The Florida contingent is allegedly led by Richard Richie Myers of Orlando.

The Hammerskins are particularly active in organizing white power music concerts for racist skinheads, neo-Nazis, and other white supremacists.

March 17, 2006: CHS hosted about 100 people on private property in the Ocala National Forest at a white power rock concert that featured several bands, including Attack, Definite Hate, Platoon 14, Red, White & Black, Youngblood, and Youngland. Notable attendees included Randal Lee Krager, leader of the racist skinhead organization Volksfront, based in Portland, Oregon, and David Gletty, who at the time was the leader of the neo-Nazi National Socialist Movement unit in Orlando.

March 19, 2005: CHS hosted a St. Patricks Day concert in Ocala. About 75 racists attended the gathering.

March 13, 2004: In conjunction with the now-defunct Minneapolis-based white power music company Panzerfaust Records, the Florida CHS organized a St. Patricks Day white power concert in Jacksonville.. Approximately 100 white supremacists attended the event. White supremacist organizations represented included the National Alliance, Aryan Nations, National Socialist Movement and Church of the Sons of Yahweh.

The Hated This racist skinhead group is based primarily in Gainesville and Jacksonville, Florida, but has a few members in New Jersey and Massachusetts. The Hated have about 30 members and associates, ranging in age from 18 to 28. The group’s symbol is a white fist with the word Hated written in white and black letters above the fist, which in some cases is tattooed on members bodies.

January 2005: The Hated hosted a white power rock concert in Jacksonville, which was attended by several Hammerskins and other racist skinheads.

January 2004: Two members of The Hated, Eddie F. Demaire III and Troy Stokes, both from Florida, were arrested in New Jersey, charged with possession of a firearm with an obliterated serial number. Police discovered a sawed-off shotgun with a scratched-off identification number and a knife with a blade over 3 inches inside their truck. Both men pled no contest to the charges.

In last few years, the SFAA has been very active, both in hosting events and supporting those of other groups. In September 2003, in line with their anti-immigrant and xenophobic agenda, SFAA joined about two dozen white supremacists in Immokalee, Florida, in an anti-immigrant protest. SFAA also participated in an anti-Israel rally at the University of Florida campus in Gainesville on November 9, 2002, sponsored by White Revolution. In addition, it hosted a South Florida Aryan White Pride Day on December 1, 2001, at White City Park in Ft. Pierce, Florida. SFAA was joined by members of the Florida ORION Knights of the KKK holding signs that read Illegal Immigration Equals Terrorism.

Vinlanders Social Club (VSC) The Vinlanders Social Club, also referred to as the Vinlanders, is a large racist skinhead umbrella organization based primarily in the Midwest and Northeast. There are a few members in Florida, including Robert Smith of American Front, as well as Florida State Skinhead Jody Lee Mathis, formerly of the Confederate Hammerskins, and Tommy South, previously involved with various Klan organizations.

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FLORIDA – Anti-Defamation League

srael – Wikipedia

srael ella sraelsland (hebraiskt: , Yisr’el; arbiskt: , Isrl), alment kent sum sraelsrki (hebraiskt: , Mednat Yisr’el; arbiskt: , Dawlat Isrl), er eitt land Mieystri, statt eystan fyri Mijararhavi. Landi hevur mark vi Libanon norri, Sria ein landnyring, Jordan og Vestara arbakka eystri, Egyptaland og Gasageiran ein tsynning og hevur mong, landafriliga ymisk eykenni lutfalsliga sma ki snum [1][2]. sraelska rki var sett stovn 1948, til tess at jdar um allan heimin skuldu eiga eitt heimland. srael er einasta land heiminum, har meginparturin av bgvunum eru jdar, og er sett av sraelsku stjrnini at vera jdiskt flkari [3].

Landsparturin var ur nevndur Palestina, og 600-700 000 arbar, i hvdu b har ldir, vru noyddir at flyta, t i srael var stovna. Men arir vru verandi, og av teimum 7,8 mi. flkum, sum n bgva srael, eru 20,5% palestinarbar. Hvusstaur er Jersalem og arir strir bir er Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Haifa og Rishon LeZion. srael hevur umlei 7,2 mi. bgvar, og hevur tvey almenn ml: hebraiskt og arbiskt. Miallvsvin landinum er 82 r.

198 f.Kr. tk Antiokius 3., eisini nevndur Antiokius Mikli, sum var kongur Selevkia (Sria) ri srael. Hann royndi at noya grikska mentan og trarlru jdiska flki. Jdar hvdu vst sjlvstri, sum hvusprestarnir stu odda fyri, men nakrir teirra brutu jdiska lg fyri at toknast selevkum. 168 f.Kr. gjrdu jdar uppreistur vi Judasi Makkabeusi og brrum hansara odda og settu stovn egi rki, sum var strt eftir strongum trarlgum. Teir tku hvusstain, Jersalem, settu eitt r at stra og hvdu valdi til 63 f.Kr., t i rmverjar tku srael settu makkabearan Hyrkanus sum landshvdinga. 37 f.Kr. settu rmverjar rharra Hyrkanusar, Herdes, sum var hlvur jdi, til kong, og landi fekk navni Jdea. Herdes lt m.a. stra templi Jersalem byggja upp aftur, men hesin priligi bygningurin var fullkomiliga lagdur oyi, t i rmverjar bardu niur ein uppreistur og rndu Jersalem 70 f.Kr. mangar ldir sluppu jdar bara einafer um ri inn Jersalem at bija framman fyri t, i eftir var av tempulmrinum, Grtimrinum, og syrgja um bin, teir hvdu mist [4].

Makkabearar bygdu Masada, eitt verndarvirki ovast einum berligum fjalli sunnanfyri Jersalem. Herdes lt Masada byggja um til eina vl varda borg vi heitum bai, goymslurmum og snagogu. T i hann doyi, var borgin ikki ntt longur, men tey, sum livdu eftir, t i Jersalem var lagdur oyin, flddu hagar. tr r vardu tey seg fyri rmverskum lopum. T i ta umsir eydnaist rmverjum at taka Masada 73 f.Kr., su teir, at tey, sum hvdu vart borgina, hvdu beint fyri sr, t at tey vildu ikki falla fggindahendur.

Rmverska hersetingarvaldi rak jdiska flki r heimlandi teirra srael fyrstu ldirnar e.Kr. Jdarnir bsettu seg mongum londum Evropa, men gloymdu ongant at teir vru jdar og hildu fast um samleika sn. Javnan sktu onnur flkaslg at teimum. 19. ld hvdu hesar atsknir, ella jdahatri, vi sr, at ein rrsla, i hevi til endamls at fa jdum gamla heimland teirra, Palestina, aftur, var stovna. Rrslan var nevnd sionisma, og fekk stra undirtku t.d. Stra Bretlandi. brvi til Rothschild lord, ein av oddamonnunum fyri bretsku jdunum, kunnger uttanrkisrharrin Bretlandi Arthur Balfour alment, at stjrnin stulai kravinum. Brvi gjrdist kent sum Balfouryvirlsingin. Eftir Fyrra Heimsbardaga gjrdist Palestina bretskt yvirvaldski eftir at hava stai undir Osmannarki frahundra r. Nstan alt fyri eitt kyknai str millum jdiskar innflytarar og arbarar, sum hvdu b har ldir. 1937 skutu bretar upp at bta Palestina sundur tvey rki, eitt arbiskt og eitt jdiskt, men arbar gtku ikki uppskoti.

rum heimsbardaga (1939-1945) tndu tsku nasistarnir einar 6 millinir jdar [5]. 1947 vitk ST at seta stovn eitt sraelskt og eitt palestinskt-arbiskt rki Palestina. srael var lst sum jdiskt rki 14. mai 1948. Fyri ta t landi Palestina. Strur partur av arbiska flkinum var noyddur at fara r srael og mtti liva sum flttaflk. Heimleysir palestinar flddu til flttaflkalegur t.d. Jordan, Gasa, Libanon og Sria. Arbisku grannalondini stttu fyri, at ST skuldi leggja seg upp, og lupu srael dagin eftir, men vru vi undirlutan. Fleiri enn 600 000 palestinar gjrdust heimleysir krgnum. T er mikil og haldandi fggindaskapur millum sraelsmenn, palestinar og arbisku grannalondini. Fyri ta, at sraelska rki var sett stovn, bu jdar spjaddir um allan heim. Mangan vru teir fyri herviligum atsknum [6]. Eftir annan heimsbardaga fluttu tggjutsundtals jdar r llum heiminum til sraels, heimlandi hj forfedrum snum [7].

friarsamringunum fekk srael alt ki, sum teimum var luta 1947, og mong ki, sum vru luta palestinum. srael noktai at lata palestinum ta, teir kravdu, og arbisku londini noktau at viurkenna srael, og ta elvdi til krggj 1956, 1967 og 1973. Seksdagakrgnum 1967 hersetti srael Gasageiran og Vestara arbakka vi Jordan, har yvir ein millin palestinar bu. Drgva stri hesum kjum hevi vi sr, at palestinar 1987 birtu uppreistur, nevndur intifada, mti sraelska hersetingarvaldinum, men hann var bardur niur.

september 1993 undirskrivau PLO-formaurin Yasser Arafat og sraelski forstisrharrin Yitzhak Rabin Oslo-avtaluna saman vi amerikanska forsetanum Bill Clinton. Teir vru samdur um palestinskt sjlvstri bi Jeriko og Gasa, og at eitt palestinskt r skuldi vera valt. Ttt bskaparligt samstarv skuldi vera millum partarnar. 1993 viurkendi Palestina rtt sraels at vera til aftur fyri, at sraelsku myndugleikarnir lovau at geva palestinum avmarka sjlvstri.

Sani 2003 eru 9.400 rakettir og spreingivarparar sendir r Gasa inn srael (2009) [8]. 2005 tk srael seg r Gasa sum ein part av “land fyri fri” politikkinum hj Ariel Sharon [9]. Tsundatals jdar vru noyddir at flyta r hsum snum Gasa t sraelska stjrning hevi gjrt eina avtalu vi palestinsku myndugleikarnar [10]. Heilar sraelskar bygdir og bygdalg, stdd vi Klaksvk, vru javnaar vi jrina av jdiskum myndugleikum, t ki skuldi vera givi palestinsku myndugleikunum Gasa [11].

Hamas hevur ri Gasageiranum. Teir hava sent rakettir hpatali inn yvir sraelskar bygdir og srt og dripi ngvar sraelar hesi seinastu rini [12]. Mestsum hvnn tann einasta dag hava rakettir veri sendar r Gasa inn srael. 2008 vru 3278 rakettir og spreingivarparar send r Gasa inn srael [13]. Serstakliga burin Sderot hevur veri dktur undir rakettum fr Hamas [14]. Mestsum hvnn dag 2008 so mong hava bgvararnir Sdereot og arastani Suursrael veri noyddir at fara bumbuskli [15][16].

vpnahvldartarskeiinum millum Hamas og srael 19. juni til 19. desember 2008 sendi Hamas 543 rakettir og spreingivarparar inn srael [17]. ll hesi raktett- og spreingivarparalopini r Gasa hava veri gjrd vi t endamli at oyileggja og drepa so ngvar jdar sum gjrligt, brn, kvinnu og menn [18][19]. Ongi hernaarml hava veri nr nmind av har sum rakettirnar hava rakt [20][21].

Sani lopini r Gasa byrjau 2001 hava 28 flk srael lati lv, summi av hesum hava veri palestinar og arbeiarar r rum londum, sum hava arbeitt srael [22]. hesum sama tarskeiinum, 2001-2008 eru 1000 flk Suursrael srd av somu rakettlopum [23]. heili 8 r hava sraelsmenn veri dktir undir rakettum og spreingivarparum r Gasa.

srael hevur ngv samband vi m.a. USA.

Marijuana er lgligt srael um t hevur lknavttan. Tikun Olam-fyritkan hevur serloyvi til at selja marijuana til heilsuendaml [24]. “tlan 70 Pluss” er ein roynd at hjlpa eldri vi tunglyndi, svvnmangul, etingarlagi, v.f. Ngv av teimum sum eru vi tlanini yvirlivdu tningarlegurnar hj Adolf Hitler, men la av seinrinum. Hesi eru millum tey sum n fa marijuana fyri at fa kroppin og sinni at slappa av [25].

Ngvar strar oyimerkur eru veltar, og dnaurin er ntmans og fjlbroyttur. sraelsmenn brna ngvar diamantar, og fjringurin av tflutningsinntkum landsins eru fr diamanthandli. brndu diamantarnir vera innfluttir og san skildir, brndir og blankair.

Nstan helvtin av matinum srael kemur r strum samyrkisbgvum, Kibbutzum, har mong hski bgva og starva saman. Tey bta alt gerandisarbeii snmillum, til dmis reinger, matger og bnaararbeii. Soleiis hava sraelmenn lagt inn strt oyimarkarlendi, sum verur vta vi teldustrdum vatnveitingum. Av t at stugt str hevur stai millum srael og palestinar, og landi ofta hevur krggjast vi grannalond sni, eru herur og hertnasta natrligur partur lvi sraelsmanna. 18 ra gomul mega bi dreingir og gentur gera hertnastu nkur r. Genturnar fa somu hervenjing sum dreingirnir, men sleppa undan at fara vgvllin bardaga.

Av teimum 7 miljnum bgvunum srael, eru 20,5 prosent arbar; umlei ein fimtapartur av bgvum sraels eru arbar, sum annahvrt eru muslimar ella kristin. 1,6 prosent av jdiska flkatalinum, i er 8 millinir, eru kristnir arbarar. Arbiskir borgarar srael eru frtiknir fyri tnastu sraelska herinum. Hetta hevur veri so sani 1948, t i fleiri arbiskar bygdir og bir gjrdust partur av nstovnaa sraelska statinum, og flki hesum bygdum og bum fingu sraelskan borgarartt.

srael liggur t mti eystaru Mijararhavsstrondini. Noranfyri er Libanon, eystanfyri eru Jordan og Sria, og ein tsynning er Egyptaland. srael er langt, smalt land eysturstrondini vi Mijararhav. Landslagi er skiftandi, fruktagir dalar, turrar oyimerkur, fjll, vtn og ir. dnaurin landinum er fjlbroyttur, og landbnaurin er framkomin. Ein fjallaryggur noran r Libanon og suur gjgnum srael skilur strandalendi fr oyimrkunum eystanfyri. Fjallatindarnir eru kavataktir nstan alt ri, og hagar fara mong trttarflk at aka skum. markinum millum srael og Jordan er strt vatn, i eitur Deyahav. Hetta er lgsti staur heiminum (-395 m nian sjvar).

srael – Wikipedia

Israel Tours, Israel Tour, Israel Vacations, Israel Vacation …

These itineraries reveal many treasures and antiquities, such as the Tomb of King David, the room of the Last Supper on Mount Zion, the Old City of Jerusalem and the Shrine of the Book, which houses the Dead Sea Scrolls. Some vacations include a stop in Qumran, where the scrolls were discovered. Other highlights include the Basilica of the Annunciation in Nazareth and the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.

Israel’s natural attractions have their own allure. Desert, mountains and the Dead Sea — which marks the world’s lowest point of elevation — are a few scenic highlights of these vacations.

The vacations below are divided into two groups. First, there is a list of trips that visit only Israel, followed by a list of multi-country itineraries that include Israel.

Trips are rated according to the quality of accommodations, the number of included amenities and activities, and the level of service delivered. The vacations below are categorized according to the industry rating scale (budget, first class and deluxe). Click any vacation name for the itinerary, dates and prices.

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Israel Tours, Israel Tour, Israel Vacations, Israel Vacation …

Map of Israel, Israel Map – Maps of World – Israel

Description about Map :-On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel was founded by the efforts of the World Zionist Organization. Since inception Israel has been in bitter conflict with the neighboring Arab nations. The Palestinians of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip have engaged in violent conflict for many decades now. Jerusalem, the capital city is itself not acknowledged to be part of Israel by many nations but is largely under Israeli occupation. The Western Wall, the Israel Museum, the Tower of David, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and the Temple Mount of Jerusalem are its greatest attractions. The Map of Israel also points out the Baha’i Gardens of Haifa, the Sea of Galilee, the Diamond Museum of Tel Aviv, Nazereth, the Asdod Sand Dune Park, the Dead Sea, Masada National Park, and the Shivta National Park.

In 586 BC, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Israel, followed by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 583 BC, who conquered the Babylonian Kingdom, which included the region of Israel.

The Roman Empire arrived and invaded Israel in 63 BC, forcing the Jews to leave the region between 132 to 135 AD, when it was named as Palestine.

The Arabs came in 635 AD, conquering and ruling Israel for over a thousand years.

In 1516, the Ottoman Empire conquered the region and remained as rulers until the First World War, when the British took over. The 1900′s began the intense conflicts between the Arabs and the Jews, which led to the United Nations’ 1947division of the region into the Arab and the Jewish state.

On May 14, 1948, the “State of Israel” was founded. The next decades after Israel’s independence has been filled with conflict between them and Palestine, as well as their Arab neighbors. Conflict over ownership of the land considered holy by the Jews, Christians, and Muslims, have resulted to ongoing regional wars in the region.

The Israeli Coastal Plain, which is found on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, is home to 57% of the population. The entire region is characterized by a variety of geographical features. Fertile land is found in the Jezreel Valley, while mountain ranges are found in Galilee, and the south covered in desert, where the Negev desert is found.

Politics The State of Israel is a representative democratic country. It has a parliament system, with the Prime Minister as Head of Government and Head of Cabinet. A 120-member parliament called Knesset is the country’s legislative body.

The President of Israel acts as Head of State but duties are very limited and largely ceremonial.

Travel Tourism is 1 of Israel’s major sources of national income. Over 3.5 million people from all across the world visited Israel in 2013.

The country is popular for its historic and religious sites first and foremost, with beach resorts and archaeological sites coming in 2nd.

Among the most visited sites in Israel is Jerusalem’s Western Wall or Wailing Wall. Located in the Jerusalem Old City area, at the foot of the western part of the Temple Mount, the wall is a famous site of pilgrimage and prayer for the Jews. Considered sacred and holy, it is common practice for people to place prayer notes in between the cracks of the wall.

The Masada is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the 2nd most visited site in Israel next to Jerusalem. It used to be a fortress and a palace, which was built by Herod the Great. Perched on top of an isolated rock plateau on the Judaean Desert, the ruins are a popular attraction for many foreign tourists.

Tel Aviv is the country’s 2nd largest city, with its collection of Bauhaus architecture protected by the UNESCO. It has a thriving nightlife scene, and is a cosmopolitan, cultural, and financial global city.

Israel’s State Education Law was established in 1953, establishing 5 types of schools: state religious, state secular, ultra orthodox, Arab schools, and communal settlement schools. The largest group is the state secular, attended by majority of Israel’s student population.

The top institutions in the country are Tel Aviv University &The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


Last Updated : Aug 02,2015

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Hasidic neighborhood in B’klyn is a top beneficiary of …

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What do Jews Believe? The 13 Principles of Jewish Faith

By Chaviva Gordon-Bennett

Updated February 05, 2016.

Written in the 12th century by Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as Maimonides or Rambam, the Thirteen Principles of Jewish Faith (Shloshah Asar Ikkarim)are considered the “fundamental truths of our religion and its very foundations.”

The treatise is also known as the Thirteen Attributes of Faith or the Thirteen Creeds.

Written as part of his commentary on the Mishnah in Sanhedrin 10, these are the Thirteen Principles that are considered core to Judaism, specifically within the Orthodox community.

The Thirteen Principles conclude with the following:

“When all these foundations are perfectly understood and believed in by a person he enters the community of Israel and one is obligated to love and pity him But if a man doubts any of these foundations, he leaves the community [of Israel], denies the fundamentals, and is called a sectarian,apikores …One is required to hate him and destroy him.”

According to Maimonides, anyone who did not believe in these Thirteen Principles and live a life accordingly was to be declared a heretic and loses their portion in Olam ha’Ba (the World to Come).

Although Maimonides based these principles on Talmudic sources, they were considered controversial when first proposed. According to Menachem Kellner in “Dogma in Medieval Jewish Thought,” these principles were ignored for much of the medieval period thanks to criticism by Rabbi Hasdai Crescas and Rabbi Joseph Albo for minimizing the requirement for the acceptance of the whole of the Torah and its 613 commandments (mitzvot).

For example, Principle 5, the imperativeto worship God exclusively without intermediaries. However, many of the prayers of repentance recited on fast days and during the High Holidays, as well as a portion of Shalom Aleichem that is sung prior to the Sabbath evening meal, are directed at angels. Many rabbinic leaders have approved of petitioning angels to intercede on one’s behalf with God, with one leader of Babylonian Jewry (between 7th and 11th centuries) stating that an angel could even fulfill an individual’s prayer and petition without consulting God (Ozar ha’Geonim,Shabbat 4-6).

Furthermore, the principles regarding the Messiah and resurrection are not widely accepted by Conservative and Reform Judaism, and these tend to be two of the most difficult principles for many to grasp. By and large, outside of Orthodoxy, these principles are viewed as suggestions or options for leading a Jewish life.

Interestingly, the Mormon religion has a set of thirteen principlescomposed by John Smith and Wiccans also have a set of thirteen principles.

Aside from living a life according to these Thirteen Principles, many congregations will recite these in a poetic format, beginning with the words “I believe …” (Anima’amin) every day after the morning services in synagogue.

Also, the poeticYigdal,which is based on the Thirteen Principles, is sung on Friday nights after the conclusion of the Sabbath service. It was composed byDaniel ben Judah Dayyan and completed in 1404.

There is a story in the Talmud that is often told when someone is asked to summarize the essence of Judaism. During the 1st century B.C.E., the great sage Hillel was asked to sum up Judaism while standing on one foot. He replied:

“Certainly! What is hateful to you, do not do to your neighbor. That is the Torah. The rest is commentary, now go and study” (Talmud Shabbat 31a).

Hence, at its core Judaism is concerned with the well-being of humanity. The particulars of every Jew’s individual belief system is the commentary.

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What do Jews Believe? The 13 Principles of Jewish Faith