Anti-Defamation League: Huckabee ‘completely out of line …

Jonathan A. Greenblatt, the national director of the organization, issued a statement, calling the Republican 2016 hopeful’s comments invoking the Holocaust “completely out of line and unacceptable.”

“Israeli military and security officials have repeatedly said the Obama Administration has been as strong as any other American administration in keeping Israel secure,” Greenblat writes.

“To hear Mr. Huckabee invoke the Holocaust when America is Israel’s greatest ally and when Israel is a strong nation capable of defending itself is disheartening,” Greenblat continues.

Huckabee, a Repbulican presidential candidate, used social media Sunday to stand by his comments, tweeting “Tell Congress to do their constitutional duty & reject the Obama-Kerry #IranDeal” as well as quotes from the Ayatollah Khamenei making threats against Israel.

While the debate over the Iran deal is “serious,” the ADL called on both parties, as well as presidential candidates, “to conduct the debate responsibly and civilly.”

The ADL sent a letter to members of Congress last week, asking them to carefully review the Iran deal by pushing for answers from the administration on key questions that would “…decrease the likelihood Iran will become a nuclear weapons state.”

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Hasidic Judaism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hasidic Judaism (from the Hebrew: , Sephardic pronunciation: [asidut]; Ashkenazic pronunciation: [asidus]; Israeli pronunciation: [asidut]), meaning “piety” (or “loving-kindness”), is a branch of Orthodox Judaism that promotes spirituality through the popularization and internalization of Jewish mysticism as the fundamental aspect of the faith. It was founded in 18th-century Eastern Europe by Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov as a reaction against overly legalistic Judaism. His example began the characteristic veneration of leadership in Hasidism as embodiments and intercessors of Divinity for the followers.[1] Contrary to this, Hasidic teachings cherished the sincerity and concealed holiness of the unlettered common folk, and their equality with the scholarly elite. The emphasis on the Immanent Divine presence in everything gave new value to prayer and deeds of kindness, alongside rabbinical supremacy of study, and replaced historical mystical (kabbalistic) and ethical (musar) asceticism and admonishment with Simcha, encouragement, and daily fervor.[2]

Hasidism comprises part of contemporary Haredi Judaism,[citation needed] alongside the previous Talmudic Lithuanian-Yeshiva approach and the Sephardi and Mizrahi traditions. Its charismatic mysticism has inspired non-Orthodox Neo-Hasidic thinkers and influenced wider modern Jewish denominations, while its scholarly thought has interested contemporary academic study. Each Hasidic dynasty follows its own principles; thus, Hasidic Judaism is not one movement but a collection of separate groups with some commonality. There are approximately 30 larger Hasidic groups, and several hundred smaller groups. Though there is no one version of Hasidism, individual Hasidic groups often share with each other underlying philosophy, worship practices, dress (borrowed from local cultures), and songs (borrowed from local cultures).

Yisroel (Israel) ben Eliezer, most commonly known as Baal Shem Tov, founded Hasidic Judaism in the 18th century.

In Poland, where the bulk of Yiddish-speaking Jewry had established itself by the 18th century, three branches of Yiddishkeit (i.e. Jewishness) emerged: the first were those against the predominant study of Kabbalah (i.e. Jewish mysticism); the second were those supportive of the study of Kabbalah; and the third was the secular Yiddish theater culture originating in Lithuania but eventually spreading across the whole Yiddish speaking world.[citation needed] This schism became particularly acute after the Messianic movement of Sabbatai Zevi in the 17th century. Leanings to rigid mystical doctrines and sectarianism showed themselves prominently among the Jews of the south-eastern provinces of Poland, while in the Lithuanian and Estonian provinces, anti-kabbalistic (mysticism) orthodox leaders held sway. In part, this division in modes of thought reflected social differences between the northern (Estonian and Lithuanian) Jews and the southern Jews of Poland and the western Russian Empire. In Lithuania and Estonia, the Jewish masses lived mainly in densely populated towns where anti-kabbalistic (mysticism) rabbinical academic culture (in the yeshivot) flourished based on just the simple understanding getting deeper from there. In Poland itself, the Jews tended to live scattered in villages far removed from intellectual centers. In these villages, the influence of the kabbalists (mystics) prevailed; while other communities of Yiddish speakers were becoming completely secular and creating an identity in the Lithuanian, Belorussian, Ukrainian and Polish Yiddish theater separate from any serious mysticism, finding commonality with the Haskallah taking place within the Austro-Czech Yiddish speaking regions. This should be viewed in the context that there is really no form of original Judaica which does not believe in daily miracles and mysticism, a Jew’s whole life technically speaking has always related to mysticism and the Ruach Hakodesh. One view of Judaism is that it is just an ethnicity, with cultural ritual and mystical spiritualism. The schism was between the various ‘group thinks’ within the kabbalistic mystical communities of the descendants of the French and German Jews called at some point Ashkenazi, but more accurately should be described as the diverse Yiddish speaking world.

Pessimism in the south was more intense after the Cossacks’ Uprising (16481654) under Chmielnicki and the turbulent times in Poland (16481660), which violently ruined the Jewry of South East Poland, but did not much affect that of Lithuania and Estonia. The general population of Poland itself declined and economic chaos reigned, especially due to these events and the subsequent Turkish Invasion which left this region depopulated and barren. After the Polish magnates regained control of southern Rus in the last decade of the 17th century, an economic renaissance ensued. The magnates began a massive rebuilding and repopulation effort while being generally welcoming and benevolent towards the Jews. A type of frontier environment ensued where new people and new ideas were encouraged. The state of the Jews of what would later become southern Russia created a favorable field for mystical movements and religious sectarianism, which spread in the area from the middle of the 18th to the middle of the 19th century.

Besides these influences, deep-seated causes produced among many Jews a discontent and a gravitation toward mysticism. Rabbinism, which in Poland had become transformed into a system of religious formalism, no longer provided a satisfactory religious experience to many Jews. Although traditional Judaism had adopted some features of Kabbalah, it adapted them to fit its own system: it added to its own ritualism the asceticism of the “practical kabbalists” just across the eastern borders in the ancient Greek and Anatolian Jewish communities under the Ottoman Empire, who saw the essence of earthly existence only in fasting, in penance, and in spiritual sadness. Such a combination of religious practices, suitable for individuals and hermits, did not suit the bulk of the Jews. Many of these Jews would live in mountainous regions to get away from any non-Jewish influence.

Mystical individuals arose, outside the Rabbinic establishment, called Nistarim or Baal Shem (“Masters of the Name” of God, used for practical kabbalistic intervention and miracles), who sought to offer the downtrodden masses spiritual and physical encouragement, and practical healing. The image of these charismatic figures, often wandering among the people, became shaped by the Kabbalistic legend of the Lamed Vav Tzadikim (36 hidden righteous people who sustain the world). From these circles of spiritual inspiration, the early Hasidic movement arose, led by Israel ben Eliezer, the Baal Shem Tov, in 18th century Podolia (now Ukraine). He attracted to his cause the preceding followers of the ways of the Nistorim, who saw in his teachings a new direction in reviving and consoling the masses.

At the time in Jewish Eastern Europe were also public preachers (“Maggidim”), who would visit the shuls (synagogues) of the shtetls (towns and villages). During their Sabbath sermons, they would sometimes seek to encourage Jewish observance with ethical promises and warnings of Heaven and Hell. In their addresses, they also supported the communal Rabbi in helping to teach those who could not learn the spiritual and practical life of Jewish learning, and offered personal examples of Jewish conduct. The Baal Shem Tov opposed their use of ethical admonishments of punishment, which lacked love and inner spiritual values. Under the Hasidic movement, ideas of reward and punishment were avoided, and were replaced by the spiritual life of dveikus (cleaving) to God in all daily conduct. The Baal Shem Tov, and Hasidism, also opposed the earlier mystical and ethical ascetic paths of fasting and self-mortification,[citation needed] seeking to serve God by infusing physical activities with new spiritual inspiration.

The founder of Hasidism, Israel ben Eliezer (16981760), became known as the Baal Shem Tov (the “Master of the Good Name”, abbreviated “Besht”). Following on from the earlier communal tradition of Baal Shem, his fame as a healer spread among not only the Jews, but also the non-Jewish peasants and the Polish nobles. The hagiography of oral stories about his life, that were posthumously compiled in writing by his disciples, describe his spiritual powers and knowledge, miracle working, and ability to predict the future. In turn, these notions were passed on to his saintly students and successors, and shaped the Hasidic doctrine of the Tzadik or Rebbe (righteous leader who channels Divine sustenance to his followers). The particular Hasidic emphasis and interpretation of this earlier Jewish and Kabbalistic concept, became one of the ideas that singled it out from non-Hasidic Judaism. The Hasidic concept of a Rebbe also combines their role as a teacher of Judaism and as a charismatic spiritual example. To their followers they teach Hasidic mysticism and interpretations of Biblical and Rabbinic Judaism.

The traditional accounts of his biography describe the beginnings of his life as a public teacher and leader of the Jewish people from his 36th birthday. His role and unique talent as a teacher and communicator of mystical revival began a new era in Jewish mysticism. To the common people, the Besht appeared wholly admirable. Characterized by an extraordinary sincerity and simplicity, he sought to meet the spiritual needs of the masses. He taught them that true Divine service consisted of not only religious scholarship, but also a sincere love of God combined with warm faith and belief in the efficacy of prayer; that the ordinary person filled with a sincere belief in God, and whose prayers come from the heart, is more acceptable to God than someone versed in and fully observant of Jewish law who lacks inspiration in his divine service. This democratization of Judaism attracted to the teachings of the Besht not only the common people, but also the scholars whom the rabbinical scholasticism and ascetic Kabbalah failed to satisfy.

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British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument …

This article is about the Mandate instrument passed by the League of Nations granting Britain a mandate over the territories of the Ottoman Empire, that today are the State of Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Jordan. For a history of the period, see Mandatory Palestine and Emirate of Transjordan. League of Nations – Mandate for Palestine and Transjordan Memorandum

British Command Paper 1785, December 1922, containing the Mandate for Palestine and the Transjordan memorandum

The British Mandate for Palestine, shortly Mandate for Palestine, or the Palestine Mandate was a League of Nations mandate for the territory that had formerly constituted the Ottoman Empire sanjaks of Nablus, Acre, the Southern part of the Vilayet of Syria, the Southern portion of the Beirut Vilayet, and the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, prior to the Armistice of Mudros.

The draft of the Mandate for Palestine was formally confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations on 24 July 1922, supplemented via the 16 September 1922 Trans-Jordan memorandum[2][3] and then came into effect on 29 September 1923[2] following the ratification of the Treaty of Lausanne.[4][5] The mandate ended at midnight on 14 May 1948. The Palestine Mandate legalized the temporary rule of Palestine by Great Britain.

The document was based on the principles contained in Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations and the San Remo Resolution of 25 April 1920, by the principal Allied and associated powers after the First World War. The objective of the League of Nations Mandate system was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire, which had been in control of the Middle East since the 16th century, “until such time as they are able to stand alone.”[6] The approximate northern border with the French Mandate was agreed upon in the PauletNewcombe Agreement of 23 December 1920.[7]

Transjordan had been a no man’s land following the July 1920 Battle of Maysalun.[8] During this period, the British chose to avoid any definite connection with Palestine[9] until a March 1921 conference at which it was agreed that Abdullah bin Hussein would administer the territory under the auspices of the Palestine Mandate. The Trans-Jordan Memorandum annulled the articles regarding the Jewish National Home in the territory east of the Jordan. It also established a separate “Administration of Trans-Jordan” for the application of the Mandate, under the general supervision of Great Britain. On 18 April 1946, Transjordan was formally separated from the Palestine Mandate,[10] with Abdullah remaining the king.

When the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in the First World War in April 1915, it threatened Britain’s communications with India via the Suez Canal, besides other strategic interests of the allies. The conquest of Palestine became part of British strategies aimed at establishing a land bridge between the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. This would enable rapid deployment of troops to the Gulf, then the forward line of defence for British interests in India, and protect against invasion from the north by Russia. A land bridge was also an alternative to the Suez Canal.[11]

In response to French initiatives, the United Kingdom established the de Bunsen Committee in 1915 to consider the nature of British objectives in Turkey and Asia in the event of a successful conclusion of the war. The committee considered various scenarios and provided guidelines for negotiations with France, Italy, and Russia regarding the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. The Committee recommended in favour of the creation of a decentralised and federal Ottoman state in Asia.[12]

At the same time, the British and French also opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915) and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Turks successfully repelled the British, French and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs).

From 1915, Zionist leader and anglophile Ze’ev Jabotinsky was pressing the British to agree to the formation of a Zionist volunteer corps that would serve under the aegis of the British army. The British eventually agreed to set up the Zion Mule Corps, which assisted in the failed invasion of Gallipoli. After Lloyd George was made prime minister during the war, the British waged the Sinai and Palestine Campaign under General Allenby. This time the British agreed to a “Jewish Legion”, which participated in the invasion. Russian Jews regarded the German army as a liberator and the creation of the Legion was designed to encourage them to participate in the war on Britain’s side.

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Jewish history – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jewish history (or the history of the Jewish people) is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Although Judaism as a religion first appears in Greek records during the Hellenistic period and the earliest mention of Israel is inscribed on the Merneptah Stele dated 12131203 BCE, religious literature tells the story of Israelites going back at least as far as c. 1500 BCE. The Jewish diaspora began with the Assyrian conquest and continued on a much larger scale with the Babylonian conquest. Jews were also widespread throughout the Roman Empire, and this carried on to a lesser extent in the period of Byzantine rule in the central and eastern Mediterranean. In 638 CE the Byzantine Empire lost control of the Levant. The Arab Islamic Empire under Caliph Omar conquered Jerusalem and the lands of Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt. The Golden Age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula. During that time, Jews were generally accepted in society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed.

During the Classical Ottoman period (13001600), the Jews, together with most other communities of the empire, enjoyed a certain level of prosperity. In the 17th century, there were many significant Jewish populations in Western Europe. During the period of the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, significant changes occurred within the Jewish community. Jews began in the 18th century to campaign for emancipation from restrictive laws and integration into the wider European society. During the 1870s and 1880s the Jewish population in Europe began to more actively discuss immigration back to Israel and the re-establishment of the Jewish Nation in its national homeland. The Zionist movement was founded officially in 1884. Meanwhile, the Jews of Europe and the United States gained success in the fields of the science, culture and the economy. Among those generally considered the most famous were scientist Albert Einstein and philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. A disproportionate number of Nobel Prize winners at this time were Jewish, as is still the case.[1]

In 1933, with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party in Germany, the Jewish situation became more severe. Economic crises, racial anti-Semitic laws, and a fear of an upcoming war led many Jews to flee from Europe to Palestine, to the United States and to the Soviet Union. In 1939 World War II began and until 1941 Hitler occupied almost all of Europe, including Polandwhere millions of Jews were living at that timeand France. In 1941, following the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Final Solution began, an extensive organized operation on an unprecedented scale, aimed at the annihilation of the Jewish people, and resulting in the persecution and murder of Jews in political Europe, inclusive of European North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy-North Africa and Italian Libya). This genocide, in which approximately six million Jews were murdered methodically and with horrifying cruelty, is known as The Holocaust or Shoah (Hebrew term). In Poland, three million Jews were murdered in gas chambers in all concentration camps combined, with one million at the Auschwitz concentration camp alone.

In 1945 the Jewish resistance organizations in Palestine unified and established the Jewish Resistance Movement. The movement began attacking the British authority. David Ben-Gurion proclaimed on May 14, 1948, the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel to be known as the State of Israel. In 1949 the war ended and the state of Israel started building the state and absorbing massive waves of hundreds of thousands of Jews from all over the world. Today (2014), Israel is a parliamentary democracy with a population of over 8 million people, of whom about 6 million are Jewish. The largest Jewish communities are in Israel and the United States, with major communities in France, Argentina, Russia, England, and Canada. For statistics related to modern Jewish demographics see Jewish population.

The history of the Jews and Judaism can be divided into five periods: (1) ancient Israel before Judaism, from the beginnings to 586 BCE; (2) the beginning of Judaism in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE; (3) the formation of rabbinic Judaism after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE; (4) the age of rabbinic Judaism, from the ascension of Christianity to political power under the emperor Constantine the Great in 312 CE to the end of the political hegemony of Christianity in the 18th century; and (5), the age of diverse Judaisms, from the French and American Revolutions to the present.

The history of the early Jews, and their neighbors, is mainly that of the Fertile Crescent and east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It begins among those people who occupied the area lying between the Nile, Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. Surrounded by ancient seats of culture in Egypt and Babylonia, by the deserts of Arabia, and by the highlands of Asia Minor, the land of Canaan (roughly corresponding to modern Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Jordan and Lebanon) was a meeting place of civilizations. The land was traversed by old-established trade routes and possessed important harbors on the Gulf of Aqaba and on the Mediterranean coast, the latter exposing it to the influence of other cultures of the Fertile Crescent.[citation needed]

According to the Jewish sacred writings, which became the Hebrew Bible, Jews are descended from the ancient people of Israel who settled in the land of Canaan between the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Ancient Hebrew writings describe the “Children of Israel” as descendants of common ancestors, including Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac’s son Jacob. Religious literature suggests that the nomadic travels of the Hebrews centered around Hebron in the first centuries of the second millennium BCE, apparently leading to the establishment of the Cave of the Patriarchs as their burial site in Hebron. The Children of Israel consisted of twelve tribes, each descended from one of Jacob’s twelve sons, Reuven, Shimon, Levi, Yehuda, Yissachar, Zevulun, Dan, Gad, Naftali, Asher, Yosef, and Benyamin.

Religious texts tell the story of Jacob and his twelve sons, who left Canaan during a severe famine and settled in Goshen of northern Egypt. While in Egypt their descendants were said to be enslaved by the government led by the Egyptian Pharaoh, although there is no independent evidence of this having occurred.[3] After some 400 years of slavery, YHWH, the God of Israel, sent the Hebrew prophet Moses of the tribe of Levi to release the Israelites from bondage. According to the Bible, the Hebrews miraculously emigrated out of Egypt (an event known as the Exodus), and returned to their ancestral homeland in Canaan. This event marks the formation of Israel as a political nation in Canaan, in 1400 BCE.[citation needed]

However, archaeology reveals a different story of the origins of the Jewish people: they did not necessarily leave the Levant. The archaeological evidence of the largely indigenous origins of Israel in Canaan, not Egypt, is “overwhelming” and leaves “no room for an Exodus from Egypt or a 40-year pilgrimage through the Sinai wilderness”, according to Biblical minimalists.[4] Many archaeologists have abandoned the archaeological investigation of Moses and the Exodus as “a fruitless pursuit”.[4] A century of research by archaeologists and Egyptologists has arguably found no evidence that can be directly related to the Exodus narrative of an Egyptian captivity and the escape and travels through the wilderness, leading to the suggestion that Iron Age Israelthe kingdoms of Judah and Israelhas its origins in Canaan, not Egypt:[5][6] The culture of the earliest Israelite settlements is Canaanite, their cult-objects are those of the Canaanite god El, the pottery remains in the local Canaanite tradition, and the alphabet used is early Canaanite. Almost the sole marker distinguishing the “Israelite” villages from Canaanite sites is an absence of pig bones, although whether this can be taken as an ethnic marker or is due to other factors remains a matter of dispute.[7]

According to the Bible, after their emancipation from Egyptian slavery, the people of Israel wandered around and lived in the Sinai desert for a span of forty years before conquering Canaan in 1400 BCE under the command of Joshua. While living in the desert, according to the Biblical writings, the nation of Israel received the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai from YHWH, carried by Moses. This marked a beginning for normative Judaism, and contributed to the formation of the first Abrahamic religion. After entering Canaan, portions of the land were given to each of the twelve tribes of Israel. For several hundred years, the Land of Israel was organized into a confederacy of twelve tribes ruled by a series of Judges. After that, notes the Bible, came the Israelite monarchy. In 1000 BCE, the monarchy was established under Saul, and continued under King David and his son, Solomon. During the reign of David, the already existing city of Jerusalem became the national and spiritual capital of Israel. Solomon built the First Temple on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem. However, the tribes were fracturing politically. Upon his death, a civil war erupted between the ten northern Israelite tribes, and the tribes of Judah (Simeon was absorbed into Judah) and Benjamin in the south. The nation split into the Kingdom of Israel in the north, and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. Israel was conquered by the Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser III in the 8th century BCE. There is no commonly accepted historical record of the fate of the ten northern tribes, sometimes referred to as the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, although speculation abounds.[8]

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Jewish history – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hasidic Women in the United States | Jewish Women’s Archive

Hasidic women represent a unique face of American Judaism. As Hasidimultra-Orthodox Jews belonging to sectarian communities, worshiping and working as followers of specific rebbesthey are set apart from assimilated, mainstream American Jews. But as women in a subculture primarily defined by male religious studies, rituals, and legal obligations, they are also set apart from Hasidic men, whose recognizable styles of dress and yeshiva ingatherings have long presented a masculine standard for outsiders understanding of Hasidism.

Hasidism, as a radical movement of Judaism, emerged from the teachings of Israel ben Eliezer (the Baal Shem Tov, or Besht, 16981760) in eighteenth-century Poland, spreading throughout Eastern Europe and giving rise to a variety of regional sects. These Hasidim, or pious ones, in Russia, Poland, Hungary, and Romania, fused meticulous devotion to Jewish practice with a joyful and mystical expression of faith, often expressed through male farbrengens (ritual gatherings of a rebbe and his followers for an inspiring evening of speeches, eating, song, and dance). Hasidic teachings suggest that even the most routine aspects of daily life can reveal a spiritual essence if approached fervently. By concentrating religious intentions toward all acts, some Hasidic followers hope to hasten the coming of Mashiah (the Messiah) and thus end the earthly persecution and suffering of all Jews.

The emphasis on a religious education for Hasidic boys developed into a network of distinctive Eastern European yeshivas, producing more Hasidic scholars and rabbis to serve far-flung communities. Yet throughout the nineteenth century, women and girls were never expected to move past a basic literacy in daily and holiday prayers. That certain women functioned as respected scholars or mystical rebbetzins (female spiritual leaders or teachers), in the movements early decades is hotly contested by Jewish historians today. Only in the early twentieth century, when it became clear that young Hasidic women hungry for literacy were pursuing education through secular state schools (or the forbidden movements of Zionism and socialism), did Hasidic education for girls develop in Eastern Europe, for example, in the Bais Yaakov school system, founded by Sarah Schenirer in Poland. This educational awakening of Hasidic women not incidentally paralleled feminist movements in prewar Western Europe. Tragically, the new Hasidic girls academies served only one generation before their destruction in the Holocaust. By the time that agents of the Nazi Holocaust swept entire Hasidic villages into death camps, many Hasidim had already fled to transplanted communities in North America and Israel. From the 1920s to 1950s, a steady stream of displaced Hasidic leaders, followers, activists, and refugees flowed into low-income Jewish neighborhoods in Brooklyn and Jerusalem. Postwar Hasidism quickly flourished, rebuilding each devastated community of separate and scholarly lineage. Today, descendants of the Lubavitcher, Satmar, Belzer, Ger, Bobover, and other sects populate Hasidic communities on several continents.

Women have served as important agents of faith and family life in the transmission of Hasidic belief to new generations of followers, their public roles increasing with educational experience. Although Hasidic sects in America continue to differ in the work and educational opportunities permitted to women, without question one of the most profound postwar changes overall has been schooling for girls. The rapid expansion of Hasidic parochial schools and girls yeshivas, however, has not meant that women have joined the ranks of scholarly men as religious authority figures rendering interpretation of Jewish law. Girls schools primarily serve to protect Hasidic daughters from the secular influences of the outside society, rather than introducing them to the advanced Talmudic curriculum typical of boys education.

In the United States today, the Hasidic male, in black coat, black hat, zizit fringes, beard, and sidecurls, is easily recognized today as a symbol of ultra-Orthodox Judaism and Talmud scholarship. Visually, he summarizes an ongoing commitment to religious practices once confined to the Jewish shtetls of Eastern Europe. His yeshiva training and devotion to daily piety make him a holy man in our secular society, although some more assimilated Jews find the Hasidic life-style anachronistic or embarrassing. Far less visible is the contemporary Hasidic woman, though no less devout. While her secular education is limited to high school and perhaps some vocational training, she is often a family breadwinner, working outside the homeand this is considered perfectly appropriate, if such work frees a scholarly husband for study or pays for childrens yeshiva tuition. Economic roles for Hasidic women include shopkeeping, teaching in girls religious schools, secretarial and computer jobs, and work with a specific Jewish purpose: for instance, matchmaking, and catering simhas (weddings and other celebrations).

Outside their own communities, Hasidic women are not as identifiable as their male counterparts. Their dress is modest, one truly distinguishing feature being the sheytl (wig) or tikhel (scarf) worn by all married women. Indeed, in styled wigs some Hasidic women look far more glamorous than their assimilated Jewish counterparts. (Consequently, while all ultra-Orthodox women cover their hair, unique to Hasidim is the practice among some women to wear a small scarf on top of the wig, to prevent the wig from itself becoming a possible breach of modesty.) But the laws of zeni`ut (modesty) are strictly observed, including monthly visits to the Mikveh (the ritual immersion bath required after menstruation). Hasidic customs of modesty also prohibit mixed social events, mixed swimming at summer vacation retreats, coeducation or women performing in front of men. A strong womens culture results from such constant segregation by gender, and in the Lubavitcher movement, women have published articulate explanations of their roles in the separate womens sphere.

Most Hasidic communities are in fact closed to outsidersmeaning that even other Jews cannot join the specific sect if they were not born into its lineage. This clannishness has been a public relations nightmare for some groups. In the mid-1990s, several outstanding court challenges by the Satmar Hasidic communities of Monsey and Kiryas Joel in upstate New York called for greater religious autonomy and separation from outside control. One Hasidic sect, howeverthe Lubavitcher movement, also known as Chabadhas gained enormous power and visibility by deliberately recruiting assimilated, nonobservant Jews to its ranks. Here, Hasidic women have been highly influential as educated, multilingual outreach activists, speakers, and writers.

Based in Crown Heights, supported by the late Rebbe Menachem M. Schneerson (19021994), Lubavitcher women in America have enjoyed fantastic gains in educational and work opportunities. As activists, they represent the face of Hasidic women to other Jews, undertaking campaigns to popularize laws incumbent upon observant Jewish women (such as Sabbath candle-lighting and laws surrounding menstruation). From the moment he assumed leadership in 1950, the Lubavitcher Rebbe brought radical change to a movement that had always been symbolized by male activists. Within one eight-year period1951 to 1959the rebbe and his assistants approved the founding of a girls school system, an organization for all Lubavitcher women (Neshei Ubnos Chabad), two community publications by and for women (Di yiddishe heym and the Neshei Chabad Newsletter), and annual conventions for Lubavitcher women activists from all over North America. These institutions grew to provide a vast range of roles for women hungry for intellectual and religious challenge. By the early 1970s, when feminist criticism of ultra-Orthodox Judaisms role for women placed the Lubavitcher movement on the defensive, a spectrum of skilled women writers were ready to answer in kind. A variety of books on the Hasidic womans role and belief system appeared to confront feminist calls for change. These texts included The Modern Jewish Woman and AURA: A Reader on Jewish Womanhood, both prepared by the Lubavitch Womens Organization.

As outreach missionaries, or shluhos, Lubavitcher women as well as men now travel to remote locations or to turbulent college campuseswherever Jews liveproviding, through what is known as the Chabad House, a lively forum for dialogue and Jewish learning. This aggressive interaction has attracted many young and adult Jews to become Lubavitcher followers. The close-knit Lubavitcher community holds considerable appeal for displaced women in postmodern society, and several books in the 1980s and 1990s explored this appeal. Lis Harriss Holy Days, Deborah Kaufmans Rachels Daughters, and Lynn Davidmans Tradition in a Rootless World are examples of feminist investigators growing interest in Baalot Teshuvah (Jewish women who have embraced ultra-Orthodoxy). Because Harris, Kaufman, and Davidman let Hasidic women speak for themselves, the reading public has now met many a strong-minded Lubavitcher activist, and misconceptions about Hasidic practices are lessening.

However, for real insight into Lubavitcher womens concerns, there is no substitute for the quarterly Yiddish/English journal Di Yiddishe Heim, a Lubavitch publication which offers a mixture of Jewish history and legal interpretations, humorous anecdotes about Hasidic family life, and articles on developments in the Lubavitcher girls school system (Bais Rivkah). Moreover, most cities in the United States now feature a Chabad House where interested Jews may attend introductory talks or workshops on womens role in Hasidic Judaism. While other Hasidic sects scorn the Lubavitchers as opportunistic or too willing to compromise on issues of modernity, the Lubavitch movement has enabled Hasidic women to study, advocate, and publishin short, to gain an American voice.

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Hasidic Women in the United States | Jewish Women’s Archive

American Jews – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

County Jewish population % of total 1 Rockland County, New York 91,300 31.4% 2 Kings County, New York 561,000 22.4% 3 New York County, New York 314,500 19.9% 4 Palm Beach County, Florida 255,550 19.4% 5 Nassau County, New York 230,000 17.2% 6 Westchester County, New York 136,000 14.3% 7 Broward County, Florida 206,700 11.8% 8 Montgomery County, Maryland 113,000 11.6% 9 Ocean County, New Jersey 61,500 10.7% 10 Marin County, California 26,100 10.3% 11 Bergen County, New Jersey 92,500 10.2% 12 Monmouth County, New Jersey 64,000 10.2% 13 Sullivan County, New York 7,425 9.6% 14 Norfolk County, Massachusetts 63,600 9.5% 15 Queens County, New York 198,000 8.9% 16 Orange County, New York 32,300 8.7% 17 San Francisco County, California 65,800 8.2% 18 Montgomery County, Pennsylvania 64,500 8.1% 19 Middlesex County, Massachusetts 113,800 7.6% 20 Baltimore County, Maryland 60,000 7.5% 21 Lake County, Illinois 51,300 7.3% 21 Richmond County, New York 34,000 7.3% 23 Santa Clara County, California 128,000 7.2% 24 Arlington County, Virginia 14,000 6.7% 24 San Mateo County, California 47,800 6.7% 26 Bucks County, Pennsylvania 41,400 6.6% 26 Ventura County, California 54,000 6.6% 28 Middlesex County, New Jersey 52,000 6.4% 29 Camden County, New Jersey 32,100 6.2% 29 Essex County, New Jersey 48,800 6.2% 31 Falls Church City, Virginia 750 6.1% 32 Morris County, New Jersey 29,700 6.0% 32 Howard County, Maryland 17,200 6.0% 34 Somerset County, New Jersey 19,000 5.9% County Jewish population % of total 35 Suffolk County, New York 86,000 5.8% 36 Cuyahoga County, Ohio 70,300 5.5% 37 Fulton County, Georgia 50,000 5.4% 38 Los Angeles County, California 518,000 5.3% 39 Ozaukee County, Wisconsin 4,500 5.2% 40 Fairfield County, Connecticut 47,200 5.1% 40 Oakland County, Michigan 61,200 5.1% 42 Baltimore City, Maryland 30,900 5.0% 42 St. Louis County, Missouri 49,600 5.0% 44 Nantucket County, Massachusetts 500 4.9% 45 Union County, New Jersey 25,800 4.8% 45 Denver County, Colorado 28,700 4.8% 45 Sonoma County, California 23,100 4.8% 48 Washington, District of Columbia 28,000 4.7% 49 Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania 66,800 4.4% 49 Pitkin County, Colorado 750 4.4% 51 Arapahoe County, Colorado 24,600 4.3% 51 Geauga County, Ohio 4,000 4.3% 51 Atlantic County, New Jersey 11,700 4.3% 51 Miami-Dade County, Florida 106,300 4.3% 55 Cook County, Illinois 220,200 4.2% 55 Chester County, Pennsylvania 20,900 4.2% 57 Boulder County, Colorado 12,000 4.1% 58 Passaic County, New Jersey 20,000 4.0% 59 Albany County, New York 12,000 3.9% 59 Alameda County, California 59,100 3.9% 59 Putnam County, New York 3,900 3.9% 59 Bronx County, New York 54,000 3.9% 63 Delaware County, Pennsylvania 21,000 3.8% 64 Suffolk County, Massachusetts 27,000 3.7% 64 Clark County, Nevada 72,300 3.7% 66 DeKalb County, Georgia 25,000 3.6% 66 Fairfax County, Virginia 38,900 3.6% 68 Alexandria, Virginia 4,900 3.5% County Jewish population % of total 69 Napa County, California 4,600 3.4% 69 Dutchess County, New York 10,000 3.4% 69 Schenectady County, New York 5,200 3.4% 72 Fairfax City, Virginia 750 3.3% 72 Hartford County, Connecticut 29,600 3.3% 72 Allegheny County, Pennsylvania 40,500 3.3% 72 Berkshire County, Massachusetts 4,300 3.3% 76 Ulster County, New York 5,900 3.2% 77 New Haven County, Connecticut 27,100 3.1% 77 Contra Costa County, California 32,100 3.1% 79 Essex County, Massachusetts 22,300 3.0% 80 Sussex County, New Jersey 4,300 2.9% 80 San Diego County, California 89,000 2.9% 80 Burlington County, New Jersey 12,900 2.9% 83 Orange County, California 83,750 2.8% 83 Johnson County, Kansas 15,000 2.8% 85 Pinellas County, Florida 25,000 2.7% 85 Multnomah County, Oregon 20,000 2.7% 85 Hamilton County, Ohio 21,400 2.7% 88 Sarasota County, Florida 9,950 2.6% 88 Monroe County, New York 19,000 2.6% 90 Hennepin County, Minnesota 29,300 2.5% 90 Cobb County, Georgia 17,300 2.5% 90 Broomfield County, Colorado 1,400 2.5% 90 Collier County, Florida 8,000 2.5% 90 Mercer County, New Jersey 9,000 2.5% 95 Cumberland County, Maine 6,775 2.4% 95 Seminole County, Florida 10,000 2.4% 97 Cherokee County, Georgia 5,000 2.3% 97 Santa Fe County, New Mexico 3,300 2.3% 97 Hampden County, Massachusetts 10,600 2.3% 97 Santa Cruz County, California 6,000 2.3% 97 Dukes County, Massachusetts 300 2.3% Assimilation and population changes[edit]

These parallel themes have facilitated the extraordinary economic, political, and social success of the American Jewish community, but also have contributed to widespread cultural assimilation.[66] More recently however, the propriety and degree of assimilation has also become a significant and controversial issue within the modern American Jewish community, with both political and religious skeptics.[67]

While not all Jews disapprove of intermarriage, many members of the Jewish community have become concerned that the high rate of interfaith marriage will result in the eventual disappearance of the American Jewish community. Intermarriage rates have risen from roughly 6% in 1950 and 25% in 1974,[68] to approximately 4050% in the year 2000.[69] By 2013, the intermarriage rate had risen to 71%.[70] This, in combination with the comparatively low birthrate in the Jewish community, has led to a 5% decline in the Jewish population of the United States in the 1990s. In addition to this, when compared with the general American population, the American Jewish community is slightly older.

A third of intermarried couples provide their children with a Jewish upbringing, and doing so is more common among intermarried families raising their children in areas with high Jewish populations.[71] The Boston area, for example, is exceptional in that an estimated 60% percent of children of intermarriages are being raised Jewish, meaning that intermarriage would actually be contributing to a net increase in the number of Jews.[72] As well, some children raised through intermarriage rediscover and embrace their Jewish roots when they themselves marry and have children.

In contrast to the ongoing trends of assimilation, some communities within American Jewry, such as Orthodox Jews, have significantly higher birth rates and lower intermarriage rates, and are growing rapidly. The proportion of Jewish synagogue members who were Orthodox rose from 11% in 1971 to 21% in 2000, while the overall Jewish community declined in number.[73] In 2000, there were 360,000 so-called “ultra-orthodox” (Haredi) Jews in USA (7.2%).[74] The figure for 2006 is estimated at 468,000 (9.4%).[74] Data from the Pew Center shows that as of 2013, 27% of American Jews under the age of 18 live in Orthodox households, a dramatic increase from Jews aged 18 to 29, only 11% of whom are Orthodox. The UJA-Federation of New York reports that 60% of Jewish children in the New York City area live in Orthodox homes. In addition to economizing and sharing, Orthodox communities depend on government aid to support their high birth rate and large families. The Hasidic village of New Square, New York receives Section 8 housing subsidies at a higher rate than the rest of the region, and half of the population in the Hasidic village of Kiryas Joel, New York receive food stamps, while a third receive Medicaid.[75]

About half of the American Jews are considered to be religious. Out of this 2,831,000 religious Jewish population, 92% are non-Hispanic white, 5% Hispanic (Most commonly from Argentina, Venezuela, or Cuba), 1% Asian (Mostly Bukharian and Persian Jews), 1% Black and 1% Other (mixed race etc.). Almost this many non-religious Jews exist in United States, the proportion of Whites being higher than that among the religious population.[76]

Approximately 7.5% to 10% of American Jews are not classified as white, generally a result of interracial parents, adoption, or conversion to Judaism.[80] However, the relationship of Jews to whiteness remains complex, and some Americans of Jewish descent do not self-identify as white.[20][81][82][83]

The American Jewish community includes African American Jews and other American Jews of African descent (such as American Beta Israel), excluding North African Jewish Americans, who are considered Sephardi and are thus classified as white. Estimates of the number of American Jews of African descent in the United States range from 20,000[84] to 200,000.[85] Jews of African descent belong to all of American Jewish denominations. Like their white Jewish counterparts, some black Jews are Jewish atheists or ethnic Jews.

Notable African-American Jews include Lisa Bonet, Sammy Davis, Jr., Rashida Jones, Yaphet Kotto, Jordan Farmar, Taylor Mays, and rabbis Capers Funnye and Alysa Stanton.

Relations between American Jews of African descent and other Jewish Americans are generally cordial. There are, however, disagreements with a specific minority among African-Americans who consider themselves, but not other Jews, to be the true descendants of the Israelites of the Torah. They are generally not considered to be members of the mainstream Jewish community, since they have not formally converted to Judaism, nor are they ethnically related to other Jews. One such group, the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem, emigrated to Israel and was granted permanent residency status there.

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Palestinians – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Palestinians (, al-Filasniyyn) Total population c. 12,100,000[1] Regions with significant populations State of Palestine 4,420,549[2][a 1] West Bank 2,719,112[2] Gaza Strip 1,701,437[2] Jordan 3,240,000 Israel 1,658,000[3][a 1] Syria 630,000 Chile 500,000[4] Lebanon 402,582 Saudi Arabia 280,245 Egypt 270,245 United States 255,000[5] Honduras 250,000 United Arab Emirates 170,000 Mexico 120,000 Qatar 100,000 Germany 80,000[6] Kuwait 80,000[7] El Salvador 70,000[8] Brazil 59,000[9] Iraq 57,000[10] Yemen 55,000 Canada 50,975[11] Australia 45,000 Libya 44,000 United Kingdom 20,000[6] Peru 15,000 Colombia 12,000 Pakistan 10,500 Netherlands 9,000 Sweden 7,000[12] Algeria 4,030[13] Languages Palestinian territories and Israel: Palestinian Arabic, Hebrew, English, Neo-Aramaic, and Greek Diaspora: Other varieties of Arabic, the vernacular languages of other countries in the Palestinian diaspora. Religion Majority: Sunni Islam Minority: Christianity, Druze, Shia Islam, Judaism,[citation needed], non-denominational Muslims[14] Related ethnic groups Other Levantines, Mediterraneans, Semitic peoples: Ashkenazim, Sephardim, Mizrahim, Samaritans, other Arabs, Assyrians, Canaanites[15]

The Palestinian people (Arabic: , ash-shab al-Filasn), also referred to as Palestinians (Arabic: , al-Filasniyyn, Hebrew: ), are the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab due to Arabization of the region.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] Despite various wars and exoduses (such as that in 1948), roughly one half of the world’s Palestinian population continues to reside in historic Palestine, the area encompassing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and Israel.[24] In this combined area, as of 2004, Palestinians constituted 49% of all inhabitants,[25] encompassing the entire population of the Gaza Strip (1.6 million), the majority of the population of the West Bank (approximately 2.3 million versus close to 500,000 Jewish Israeli citizens which includes about 200,000 in East Jerusalem), and 16.5% of the population of Israel proper as Arab citizens of Israel.[26] Many are Palestinian refugees or internally displaced Palestinians, including more than a million in the Gaza Strip,[27] three-quarters of a million in the West Bank,[28] and about a quarter of a million in Israel proper. Of the Palestinian population who live abroad, known as the Palestinian diaspora, more than half are stateless lacking citizenship in any country.[29] 3.24 million of the diaspora population live in neighboring Jordan[30] where they make up approximately half the population, 1.5 million live between Syria and Lebanon, a quarter of a million in Saudi Arabia, with Chile’s half a million representing the largest concentration outside the Arab world.

A genetic study has suggested that a majority of the Muslims of Palestine, inclusive of Arab citizens of Israel, could be descendants of Christians, Jews and other earlier inhabitants of the southern Levant whose core may reach back to prehistoric times. A study of high-resolution haplotypes demonstrated that a substantial portion of Y chromosomes of Israeli Jews (70%) and of Palestinian Muslim Arabs (82%) belonged to the same chromosome pool.[31] Since the time of the Muslim conquests in the 7th century, religious conversions[citation needed] have resulted in Palestinians being predominantly Sunni Muslim by religious affiliation, though there is a significant Palestinian Christian minority of various Christian denominations, as well as Druze and a small Samaritan community.[citation needed] Though Palestinian Jews made up part of the population of Palestine prior to the creation of the State of Israel, few identify as “Palestinian” today. Acculturation, independent from conversion to Islam, resulted in Palestinians being linguistically and culturally Arab.[16] The vernacular of Palestinians, irrespective of religion, is the Palestinian dialect of Arabic. Many Arab citizens of Israel, including Palestinians, are bilingual and fluent in Hebrew.

The history of a distinct Palestinian national identity is a disputed issue amongst scholars.[32] Legal historian Assaf Likhovski states that the prevailing view is that Palestinian identity originated in the early decades of the 20th century.[32] “Palestinian” was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by the Arabs of Palestine in a limited way until World War I.[20][21] The first demand for national independence of the Levant was issued by the SyrianPalestinian Congress on 21 September 1921.[33] After the creation of the State of Israel, the exodus of 1948, and more so after the exodus of 1967, the term came to signify not only a place of origin, but also the sense of a shared past and future in the form of a Palestinian state.[20] According to Rashid Khalidi, the modern Palestinian people now understand their identity as encompassing the heritage of all ages from biblical times up to the Ottoman period.[34]

Founded in 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) is an umbrella organization for groups that represent the Palestinian people before the international community.[35] The Palestinian National Authority, officially established as a result of the Oslo Accords, is an interim administrative body nominally responsible for governance in Palestinian population centers in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.[36] Since 1978, the United Nations has observed an annual International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People.

The Greek toponym Palaistn (), with which the Arabic Filastin () is cognate, first occurs in the work of the 5th century BCE Greek historian Herodotus, where it denotes generally[37] the coastal land from Phoenicia down to Egypt.[38][39] Herodotus also employs the term as an ethnonym, as when he speaks of the ‘Syrians of Palestine’ or ‘Palestinian-Syrians’,[40] an ethnically amorphous group he distinguishes from the Phoenicians.[41][42] Herodotus makes no distinction between the Jews and other inhabitants of Palestine.[43] The Greek word bears comparison to a congeries of ancient ethnonyms and toponyms. In Ancient Egyptian Peleset/Purusati[44] has been conjectured to refer to the “Sea Peoples”.[45][46] Among Semitic languages, Assyrian Palastu generally refers to an undefined area.[47]Biblical Hebrew’s cognate word Plitim,[48] is usually translated Philistines.[49]

Syria Palestina continued to be used by historians and geographers and others to refer to the area between the Mediterranean sea and the Jordan river, as in the writings of Philo, Josephus and Pliny the Elder. After the Romans adopted the term as the official administrative name for the region in the 2nd century CE, “Palestine” as a stand-alone term came into widespread use, printed on coins, in inscriptions and even in rabbinic texts.[50] The Arabic word Filastin has been used to refer to the region since the time of the earliest medieval Arab geographers. It appears to have been used as an Arabic adjectival noun in the region since as early as the 7th century CE.[51] The Arabic language newspaper Filasteen (est. 1911), published in Jaffa by Issa and Yusef al-Issa, addressed its readers as “Palestinians”.[52]

The first Zionist bank, the Jewish Colonial Trust, was founded at the Second Zionist Congress and incorporated in London in 1899. The JCT was intended to be the financial instrument of the Zionist Organization, and was to obtain capital and credit to help attain a charter for Palestine. On 27 February 1902, a subsidiary of this Trust called the “Anglo-Palestine Company” (APC) was established in London with the assistance of Zalman David Levontin. This Company was to become the future Bank Leumi.[53] During the Mandatory Palestine period, the term “Palestinian” was used to refer to all people residing there, regardless of religion or ethnicity, and those granted citizenship by the British Mandatory authorities were granted “Palestinian citizenship”.[54] Other examples include the use of the term Palestine Regiment to refer to the Jewish Infantry Brigade Group of the British Army during World War II, and the term “Palestinian Talmud”, which is an alternative name of the Jerusalem Talmud, used mainly in academic sources.

Following the 1948 establishment of Israel, the use and application of the terms “Palestine” and “Palestinian” by and to Palestinian Jews largely dropped from use. For example, the English-language newspaper The Palestine Post, founded by Jews in 1932, changed its name in 1950 to The Jerusalem Post. Jews in Israel and the West Bank today generally identify as Israelis. Arab citizens of Israel identify themselves as Israeli and/or Palestinian and/or Arab.[55]

The Palestinian National Charter, as amended by the PLO’s Palestine National Council in July 1968, defined “Palestinians” as “those Arab nationals who, until 1947, normally resided in Palestine regardless of whether they were evicted from it or stayed there. Anyone born, after that date, of a Palestinian father whether in Palestine or outside it is also a Palestinian.”[56] Note that “Arab nationals” is not religious-specific, and it implicitly includes not only the Arabic-speaking Muslims of Palestine, but also the Arabic-speaking Christians of Palestine and other religious communities of Palestine who were at that time Arabic-speakers, such as the Samaritans and Druze. Thus, the Jews of Palestine were/are also included, although limited only to “the [Arabic-speaking] Jews who had normally resided in Palestine until the beginning of the [pre-state] Zionist invasion.” The Charter also states that “Palestine with the boundaries it had during the British Mandate, is an indivisible territorial unit.”[56][57]

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Torah / Bible by Quotes | Torah Truth

Set of quotes is chosen to present Gods view in His own words on the most important and also the most misinterpreted topics of the Covenant. This set, as a mini-Torah, is intended to clear widespread confusions arising from wrong interpretations and wrong ideas. In addition this compendium includes those quotes spelling out the commandments which are usually omitted in traditional Rabbinical commentaries and excluded from the traditional list of Divine commandments. In no way can this compendium be considered to represent whole of Torah as it is impossible for any human being to reduce Torah without loosing parts of the Divine Wisdom.

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1. The Ultimate Goal Of Life, Spirituality, and Religion 2. Researching the Science of Creation 3. Understanding the Principle of Oneness of God 4. The Goal for Each Man is to Commune with God 5. Understanding the Source of Good and Evil God is the Creator of Both, But People Choose Evil 6. Hidden Source of Jewish Power the Blessings and Power of God 7. God is the Source of all the Wisdom and Creativity Revealed Through Man 8. On Israel As a Chosen Nation, Set Apart From Others 9. All Men Are Created Equal 10. On Relation Between Man and Man 11. Giving the Law Tied to the Promised Land 12. Everything is Property of God The Land of Israel and People of Israel 13. On Foundation of Judgment, Justice in Society 14. On Fighting Evil Within Israel 15. Sins Which Are Prescribed Monetary Compensations as Punishment 16. Sins Which Are Prescribed Non-Monetary Direct Punishment 17. Commandments on Jewish Warfare 18. Is Torah Only One, or Are There Two Written and Oral ? Gods answer 19. Gods View on Rabbinical Opinion Stating That No Man is Capable To Understand Torah Without Traditional Commentaries 20. The Warning On Jewish Religion Going Astray From God, Being Replaced With Worshiping the Rituals 21. On Idol Worship 22. One Explicitly Suggested Method of Meditation Meditation on the Text of Torah 23. Eternity of People of Israel, the Covenant and the Land of Israel 24. Nature of Prophecy. True versus False Prophets 25. Passover the Ultimate Lesson 26. On charity

Then you will begin to seek YHVH your God, and if you pursue Him with all your heart and soul, you will eventually find Him. (Deuteronomy, 4:29)

And you will love the YHVH your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength (Deuteronomy 6:5)

Remain in awe of God, serve Him, cling to Him. (Deuteronomy, 10:20)

And it will be that if you listen to My commandments which I command you today to love YHVH your God and serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul, I will give you (Deuteronomy 11:13)

And YHVH your God will give to you and to your descendants a circumcision of the heart, so that, loving him with all your heart and all your soul, you may live. (Deuteronomy 30:6)

I command you today to love YHVH your God and to walk in His ways and to keep His commandments, His decrees and His civil laws so that you may live and that you may increase and YHVH your God will bless you in the land into which you are coming to take as a possession. (Deuteronomy, 30:16)

(You should choose) to love YHVH your God, to listen to His voice and to attach yourself to Him because that is your life and the length of your days to dwell in the Land ( Deuteronomy 30:20)

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Jews – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the Jewish people. For their religion, see Judaism. Jews Hebrew: (Yehudim) Total population 13,854,80018,197,400[1] Regions with significant populations Israel 6,042,000[2][3] United States 5,425,000 (2011)[4] 6,800,000[5] France 480,000[4] Canada 375,000[4] United Kingdom 291,000[4] Russia 194,000 over 500,000[6][4] Argentina 182,300 230,000[7][4] Germany 119,000[4] Brazil 110,000[8] Australia 107,500[4] Hungary 100,000 120,000[4][9][10] South Africa 70,800[4] Ukraine 67,000 200,000[11][4] Mexico 67,476[12] Belgium 30,300[4] Netherlands 30,000[4] Italy 28,400[4] Turkey 26,000[13] Chile 18,500[4] Colombia 12,000- over 25,000[14] All other countries 250,200[4] Languages Predominant spoken languages:[15] Historical languages: Sacred languages: Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups other Levantines,[16][17][18][19]Samaritans,[18]Arabs,[18][20]Assyrians[18][19]

The Jews (Hebrew: ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation [jehudim]), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious[21] and ethno-cultural group[22] descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East[23][24][25][26][27][28][29] and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.[30][31][32]

According to the Hebrew Bible narrative, Jewish ancestry is traced back to the Biblical patriarchs such as Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and the Biblical matriarchs Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel, who lived in Canaan around the 18th century BCE. Jacob and his family migrated to Ancient Egypt after being invited to live with Joseph (who rose to the rank of Pharaoh’s Vizier) in the Land of Goshen region by Pharaoh himself. The patriarchs’ descendants were later enslaved until the Exodus led by Moses, which is commonly dated to the 13th century BCE.

Historically, Jews have descended mostly from the tribes of Judah and Simeon, and partially from the tribes of Benjamin and Levi, who had all together formed the ancient Kingdom of Judah[33] (alongside the remnants of the Northern Kingdom of Israel who migrated to their Southern counterpart and assimilated there).[34][35] A closely related group is the Samaritans, who according to their tradition trace their ancestry back to the Israelite tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh,[36] while according to the Bible their origin is in the people brought to Israel by the Neo-Assyrian Empire and some Kohanim (Jewish priests) who taught them how to worship the “native God”.[37]

Jewish ethnicity, nationality and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation.[38][39][40]Converts to Judaism typically have a status within the Jewish ethnos equal to those born into it.[41] Conversion is not encouraged by mainstream Judaism, and is considered a tough task, mainly applicable for cases of mixed marriages.[42]

The modern State of Israel was established as a Jewish state and defines itself as such in its Basic Laws. Its Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to any Jew who requests it.[43] Israel is the only country where Jews are a majority of the population.

According to the Bible, Israelites enjoyed political independence twice in ancient history, first during the periods of the biblical judges followed by the United Monarchy. After the fall of the United Monarchy the land was divided into Israel and Judah. The term Jew originated from the Roman Judean and denoted someone from the southern kingdom of Judah.[44] The shift of ethnonym from “Israelites” to “Jews” (inhabitant of Judah), although not contained in the Torah, is made explicit in the Book of Esther (4th century BCE),[45] a book in the Ketuvim, the third section of the Jewish Tanakh. In 587 BC Nebuchadnezzar II, King of the Chaldeans, besieged Jerusalem, destroyed the First Temple, and deported the most prominent citizens of Judah.[46] In 586 BC, Judah itself ceased to be an independent kingdom, and its remaining Jews were left stateless. The Babylonian exile ended in 539 BCE when the Persians conquered Babylon and Cyrus the Great allowed the exiled Jews to return to Yehud and rebuild their Temple, which was completed in 515 BCE. Yehud province was a peaceful part of the Persian Empire until the fall of the Empire in c. 333 BCE to Alexander the Great. Jews were also politically independent during the Hasmonean dynasty spanning from 140 to 37 BCE and to some degree under Herodians from 37 BCE to 6 CE. Since the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, most Jews have lived in diaspora.[47] As an ethnic minority in every country in which they live (except Israel), they have frequently experienced persecution throughout history, resulting in a population that has fluctuated both in numbers and distribution over the centuries.

The world Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7million prior to World War II,[48] but approximately 6million Jews were killed in the Holocaust. Since then the population has risen again, and as of 2014[update] was estimated at 13.90million by the North American Jewish Data Bank,[48] or less than 0.2% of the total world population (roughly one in every 514 people).[49] According to this report, about 43% of all Jews reside in Israel (6million), and 40% in the United States (5.36.8million), with most of the remainder living in Europe (1.41million) and Canada (0.39million).[48] These numbers include all those who self-identified as Jews in a socio-demographic study or were identified as so by a respondent in the same household.[50] The exact world Jewish population, however, is difficult to measure. In addition to issues with census methodology, there are halakhic disputes regarding who is a Jew and secular, political, and ancestral identification factors that may affect the figure considerably.[51]

The Jews (Israelites) wrote the Hebrew Bible which covers their national and religious history, and created the first of the Abrahamic Religions, which are now practiced by 54% of the world. Jews have greatly influenced and contributed to human thought in many fields, including ethics,[52]medicine,[53][54]science, music, philosophy[55] and business,[56][57] both historically and contemporarily.

The English word Jew continues Middle English Gyw, Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which had elided (dropped) the letter “d” from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, which, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both Jews and Judeans / “of Judea”.[58]

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Kehilat Ariel Messianic Synagogue

KA Blog TUESDAY PRAYER MINYAN AND MESSIANIC JEWISH INSTITUTE

TUESDAY PRAYER MINYAN AND MESSIANIC JEWISH INSTITUTE Come learn about the amazing predictions in Tenakh about the coming of Mashiach! Messianic Jewish Institute Read More

Time Warner Ch. 19 Mondays @ 10:00PM Cox Cable Ch. 23 Tuesdays @ 9:30PM Read More

The United Jewish Federation of San Diego held a rally in support of Israels Operation Protective Edge. There appeared to be a few hundred in attendance with American and Israeli flags waving side-by-side and news trucks from Channels 5, 7 & 8. While it is sad that our community should feel a need to justify Israels right to…[Read more of this review]

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A prayer ride through all Israel, March-April, 2014 From Dan to Beer-Sheva appears in the Hebrew Bible to describe all Israel, both the physical extent of the Land and the whole people, as in 2 Sam 3:10: . . .and set up the throne of David over Israel and over Judah, from Dan to Beer-Sheva. The UMJC team will bike throughout the length…[Read more of this review]

Hanukkah by Gabe Pacheco Many people will be celebrating Hanukkah this year with friends and family surrounding and lighting a delightfully beautiful Hanukkiya or Hanukkah Menorah. Hanukkah is an ancient tradition of commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem. This year is unique, because the first day…[Read more of this review]

If you would like to give a financial gift to our work in the Jewish community, you may send a check to Kehilat Ariel, PO Box 178755, San Diego, CA 92177 or simply click on the Donate button on the website home page. You can also contact our office about other creative ways to support our synagogue such as a charitable trust or by designating…[Read more of this review]

YeshuaNEVERsaid in order to follow him one needed to say a prayer in ones heart. He said, Come after me, and I will make you fishers for men!As Yeshua walked by Lake Kinneret he invited those to follow him and become his Talmidim. Matthew 4:18-25 Complete Jewish Bible (CJB) 18 As Yeshua walked by Lake Kinneret,…[Read more of this review]

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Kehilat Ariel Messianic Synagogue

Report on Global Anti-Semitism

July 1, 2003 – December 15, 2004, submitted by the Department of State to the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on International Relations in accordance with Section 4 of PL 108-332, December 30, 2004

Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor January 5, 2005

Executive Summary

I. Anti-Semitism

Anti-Semitism has plagued the world for centuries. Taken to its most far-reaching and violent extreme, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism resulted in the deaths of millions of Jews and the suffering of countless others. Subtler, less vile forms of anti-Semitism have disrupted lives, decimated religious communities, created social and political cleavages, and complicated relations between countries as well as the work of international organizations. For an increasingly interdependent world, anti-Semitism is an intolerable burden.

The increasing frequency and severity of anti-Semitic incidents since the start of the 21st century, particularly in Europe, has compelled the international community to focus on anti-Semitism with renewed vigor. Attacks on individual Jews and on Jewish properties occurred in the immediate post World War II period, but decreased over time and were primarily linked to vandalism and criminal activity. In recent years, incidents have been more targeted in nature with perpetrators appearing to have the specific intent to attack Jews and Judaism. These attacks have disrupted the sense of safety and well being of Jewish communities.

The definition of anti-Semitism has been the focus of innumerable discussions and studies. While there is no universally accepted definition, there is a generally clear understanding of what the term encompasses.

For the purposes of this report, anti-Semitism is considered to be hatred toward Jewsindividually and as a groupthat can be attributed to the Jewish religion and/or ethnicity. An important issue is the distinction between legitimate criticism of policies and practices of the State of Israel, and commentary that assumes an anti-Semitic character. The demonization of Israel, or vilification of Israeli leaders, sometimes through comparisons with Nazi leaders, and through the use of Nazi symbols to caricature them, indicates an anti-Semitic bias rather than a valid criticism of policy concerning a controversial issue.

Global anti-Semitism in recent years has had four main sources:

Traditional anti-Jewish prejudice that has pervaded Europe and some countries in other parts of the world for centuries. This includes ultra-nationalists and others who assert that the Jewish community controls governments, the media, international business, and the financial world.

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Report on Global Anti-Semitism

Torah Observant Messianic Jewish Yeshiva Teaching Torah

Spiritual Unity Strong Community

ABOUT-Torah is the web interface for the Torah Observant Messianic Community of Ruach V’Emet Messianic Synagogue. At ABOUT-Torah and Ruach VEmet we understand that all believers who “Hold to the testimony of Yeshua and keep the commandments of God” (Revelation 12:17) are spiritually complete followers of Yeshua. However, this completeness does not come without quality messianic teaching and messianic training. Therefore, the resources of the local synagogue and the ABOUT Torah web network are dedicated to develop quality messianic training and messianic teaching resources to help in the spiritual growth of the entire messianic community. To help in the spiritual growth of all messianic leaders ABOUT-Torah also offers messianic leadership training through the messianic yeshiva program.

ABOUT-Torah Yeshiva is called to train future messianic leaders using holy-spirit led messianic teachings as well as encouraging the messianic leadership to live a Torah based life. The ultimate goal is for all messianic leaders to walk in Spirit and Truth by embracing the Ruach HaKodesh (Holy Spirit) and becoming obedient to the Torah (truth). Unfortunately, many messianic leaders never reach this level of understanding. Even though the scriptural commandment to worship in Spirit and Truth is given to all messianic believers. In other words, all Messianic believers are given the Holy Spirit so that through obedience we are perfected and empowered to walk in the light of Messiah. This is what is required to please the God of Israel as we can see in John 4:22-23 which states

The in filling of the Holy Spirit as well as the rock solid truth of the Torah trains the believer to be obedient. Obedience is required for the messianic believer to present the image of Messiah to the world. Yeshua clearly makes the case that the Father desires that all believers worship him in spirit and in truth. Therefore, it is a requirement that all messianic individuals seeking leadership roles learn about obedience through Torah training and spirit led messianic teaching. With quality training and teaching a messianic leader can become a witness to his congregation as well as the world. As a result, the whole world will see that there is a God in Israel and learn that true worshipers must worship in “Spirit and in Truth”(Ruach VEmet) as demonstrated through the Holy Spirit and obedience to the Torah.

ABOUT-Torah is the acronym for, Association of Believers Observing, Understanding and Teaching Torah. ABOUT Torah is a messianic association with the goal of providing training and fellowship for Torah Observant believers in messiah Yeshua. Any Torah Observant believer can become a embers of the ABOUT Torah association. This includes Torah Observant Christians, the Ephraimite movement (aka. Messianic Israel), and the Torah Observant Messianic Jewish. The ABOUT Torah association desires to bring several diverse groups together who are the true remnant of the followers of Yeshua and also “Hold to the testimony of Yeshua and keep the commandments of God”(Revelation 12:17).

ABOUT-Torah is the binding force that unifies the Ruach VEmet messianic Yeshiva, the local synagogue, and Torah research institute. Ruach VEmet also encourages its staff and leaders to seek continuing education and memberships in other professional and like-minded organizations. As a result, of the training, access to professional organizations, ministries and affiliations ABOUT-Torah is capable of organizing and motivating individuals who desire to learn about the Torah, seek ordination, fellowship locally, research specific aspects of the Torah Observant life style, or just fellowship with supportive like minded messianic individuals.

The future hope of the world is that Torah Observant Messianic Jewish and non-Jewish movements will unify as believers in Yeshua and doers of the Torah by laying down our differences an forming a unified community. Thereby becoming the light of the world that we are expected to be.

With local and Internet resources ABOUT-Torah has the ability to organize events that bring like-minded believers together in spiritual unity for the Holy Days and other local events. As a result, the whole Torah observant messianic community becomes a stronger community as the whole body of messiah is edified by the diversity of the ABOUT-Torah & Ruach V’Emet network.

There are many ways to join the ABOUT-Torah movement. If you are considering ordination we recommend taking classes at the ABOUT-Torah Yeshiva. If you are not considering ordination you can subscribe to our weekly Torah Portions & News Letter. You can also follow us on our Pod Teachings or our Facebook or Twitter accounts.

Yashivat Ruach VEmet is the yeshiva (Torah School) of Ruach VEmet Messianic Synagogue. Yashivat Ruach VEmet consists of a local presence which is operated under the authority of the Synagogue. However, Yashivat Ruach VEmet also maintains a virtual presence on the world wide web. The web presence of Yashivat Ruach VEmet is the Internet portal for the training and mentoring of future messianic leaders who will join the ABOUT-Torah network and teach other believers to ignite the flame of Torah in every individuals life. If you desire to take classes:

Link:
Torah Observant Messianic Jewish Yeshiva Teaching Torah

The Deep Roots of Anti-Semitism in European Society …

Jewish Political Studies Review 17:1-2 (Spring 2005) The Deep Roots of Anti-Semitism in European Society*1 Manfred Gerstenfeld

The resurgence of European anti-Semitism after the Holocaust suggests that it has deep roots in society. It has been fostered in a great variety of ways by so many, for such a long time, in all European countries that one might consider this form of hate and discrimination as inherent to European culture and a part of European “values.” New European anti-Semitism often originates from a young age, which indicates that it is an anti-Semitism of the future rather than of the past.

The European Union’s attitude toward anti-Semitism is double-handed. Through its discriminatory declarations and votes in international bodies the EU acts as an arsonist, fanning the flames of anti-Semitism in its anti-Israeli disguise. Simultaneously it also serves as fireman, trying to quench the flames of classic religious and ethnic anti-Semitism. France is paradigmatic of this approach. Although European anti-Semitism cannot be eradicated, certain steps can be taken to mitigate it. This requires a major change in discriminatory EU policies toward Israel. In the meantime there are increasing indications that the European battle against anti-Semitism may be used, to the contrary, to facilitate attacks on Israel.

A substantial number of Europeans hold anti-Semitic opinions. The widespread resurgence of European anti-Semitism after the Holocaust suggests it is inherent in European culture and values. This does not imply that all or most Europeans are anti-Semites. In a similar manner, a significant number of Europeans like ballet, while many others find it boring, decadent, or disgusting. Yet dancing is part of European culture and has been practiced as a performing art for a long time. It originated in Europe, developed over many years, and is widely taught as well as frequently discussed by the cultural elite and shown in the major media.

European anti-Semitism can be said to have similar characteristics. That many Europeans condemn, dislike, or are indifferent to anti-Semitism does not contradict its role in European culture, as statements of European politicians, the mainstream media, and leading intellectuals prove. Also, various types of anti-Semitic sentiments are expressed in polls. The statistics would probably reveal that the number of European anti-Semites far exceeds those who like ballet.

A phenomenon that develops intensely in an entire continent over a period of many centuries becomes deeply embedded in the societal mindset and behavior. The anti-Semitic wave of the past few years seems to prove that it is impossible to eradicate such a deep-seated irrational attitude.

In the words of UK Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks:

Let me state the point as simply as I can: anti-Semitism is alive, active and virulent in the year 2002, after more than half a century of Holocaust education, interfaith dialogue, United Nations’ declarations, dozens of museums and memorials, hundreds of films, thousands of courses, and tens of thousands of books dedicated to exposing its evils; after the Stockholm Conference, after the creation of a National Holocaust Memorial Day, after 2,000 religious leaders came together in the United Nations in August 2000 to commit themselves to fight hatred and engender mutual respect. . . .What more could have been done? What more could and can we do to fight anti-Semitism?2

Two years later, Sacks’s ideas had evolved. He asserted that when civilizations clash, Jews die. In his view, in certain European circles, revenge is being taken against the Jews because “nobody will ever forgive the Jews for the Holocaust.” Sacks drew attention to the manipulation of words, like genocide and ethnic cleansing, by Israel’s adversaries. He added that what should have been learned from the Holocaust is: “one, that bad things are preceded by demonization – and right now Israelis are being demonized – and, two, the early warning sign in culture is when words lose their meaning.”3

The often-heard argument that postwar European anti-Semitism parallels developments in the Middle East conflict is untrue. It appears in waves, which may, but do not necessarily, correspond to developments in the Israeli-Arab conflict, with each wave being higher than the previous one.4 In the Arab world, anti-Jewish incitement continued in parallel with the Oslo process.

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The Deep Roots of Anti-Semitism in European Society …

Why Did Canada Nix Jewish Heritage Month? – Opinion …

It was a slap in the face to Canadian Jews by anti-Semitic legislators. Or maybe it was a procedural snafu in a ready-to-bolt-for-vacation Parliament.

In any case, the motion to designate November as Jewish Heritage Month in Canada is dead in the water after fellow lawmakers declined to support Liberal MP Irwin Cotler , who floated the idea last week.

The proposal from Cotler a former Justice Minister and attorney general of Canada who is retiring from politics this month seems innocuous enough: That the House recognize the month of November as Jewish heritage month in recognition of the important contributions of Jewish Canadians to the settlement, development and growth of Canada; the cultural diversity of the Canadian Jewish community; the present significance of the Canadian Jewish community to this country; and the importance of creating opportunities for Canadians to learn more about each other in order to foster greater awareness, cohesion and mutual respect.

But with a No from the floor that indicated a lack of unanimous support, the proposal evaporated.

Whats the larger message here, the Forward asked Cotler, especially in a country where every ethnic group seems to earn some kind of heritage goodie from the federal government and where the ruling Conservatives have, under Stephen Harper, made support for Israel a pillar of their political platform?

Im not sure there is one, Cotler said from his home in Montreal. Its not easy to get unanimous consent for a motion. I had the consent of my party [the Liberals] and the NDP, the left-leaning New Democratic Party. But, Cotler added, Conservative party House leader Peter Van Loan hadnt agreed to the proposal, and thats a formality you need to get consent.

The Forward asked Van Loan through his spokesperson why he didnt support Cotlers measure. Between mentioning Harpers recent King David Award, the Canada-Israel Free Trade Agreement, and Israels right to defend itself, Van Loans statement said the Canadian government believes that motions to commemorate days and months should go through the proper legislative process.

Cotler added that he was told too many Heritage Month proposals had been brought up for unanimous-consent votes. I was associated with a number of them Islamic, Asian, black, he said. The house leaders reasoning this time had nothing to do with my motion in particular, but that wed had too many similar motions, and we had to move this one forward by way of legislative initiative, otherwise known as a private-members bill. But procedural complications made that option impossible, so Cotler went with what was essentially a Hail-Mary pass.

Whatever the gamesmanship behind it, the proposals defeat signals serious problems to Sue-Ann Levy.

When you asked me about this, I thought, Here we go again, said Levy, the Toronto Sun investigative columnist whos made headlines herself for outspoken pro-Israel and pro-Jewish views. Irwin Cotlers a great champion for Jewish rights. But I believe theres anti-Semitic sentiment among Liberals and other members of leftist parties like the NDP, she told the Forward. Theyd never admit it, but it comes out, especially as anti-Israel rhetoric, which to me is the new anti-Semitism.

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Why Did Canada Nix Jewish Heritage Month? – Opinion …

anti-Semitism | Britannica.com

anti-Semitism,hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious or racial group. The term anti-Semitism was coined in 1879 by the German agitator Wilhelm Marr to designate the anti-Jewish campaigns under way in central Europe at that time. Although the term now has wide currency, it is a misnomer, since it implies a discrimination against all Semites. Arabs and other peoples are also Semites, and yet they are not the targets of anti-Semitism as it is usually understood. The term is especially inappropriate as a label for the anti-Jewish prejudices, statements, or actions of Arabs or other Semites. Nazi anti-Semitism, which culminated in the Holocaust, had a racist dimension in that it targeted Jews because of their supposed biological characteristicseven those who had themselves converted to other religions or whose parents were converts. This variety of anti-Jewish racism dates only to the emergence of so-called scientific racism in the 19th century and is different in nature from earlier anti-Jewish prejudices.

Anti-Semitism has existed to some degree wherever Jews have settled outside Palestine. In the ancient Greco-Roman world, religious differences were the primary basis for anti-Semitism. In the Hellenistic Age, for instance, Jews social segregation and their refusal to acknowledge the gods worshiped by other peoples aroused resentment among some pagans, particularly in the 1st century bce1st century ce. Unlike polytheistic religions, which acknowledge multiple gods, Judaism is monotheisticit recognizes only one god. However, pagans saw Jews principled refusal to worship emperors as gods as a sign of disloyalty.

Although Jesus of Nazareth and his disciples were practicing Jews and Christianity is rooted in the Jewish teaching of monotheism, Judaism and Christianity became rivals soon after Jesus was crucified by Pontius Pilate, who executed him according to contemporary Roman practice. Religious rivalry initially was theological. It soon also became political.

Historians agree that the break between Judaism and Christianity followed the Roman destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in the year 70 ce and the subsequent exile of Jews. In the aftermath of this devastating defeat, which was interpreted by Jew and Christian alike as a sign of divine punishment, the Gospels diminished Roman responsibility and expressed Jewish culpability in the death of Jesus both explicitly (Matthew 27:25) and implicitly. Jews were depicted as killers of the Son of God.

Christianity was intent on replacing Judaism by making its own particular message universal. The New Testament was seen as fulfilling the Old Testament (the Hebrew Bible); Christians were the new Israel, both in flesh and in spirit. The God of justice had been replaced by the God of love. Thus, some early Church Fathers taught that God had finished with the Jews, whose only purpose in history was to prepare for the arrival of his Son. According to this view, the Jews should have left the scene. Their continued survival seemed to be an act of stubborn defiance. Exile was taken as a sign of divine disfavour incurred by the Jews denial that Jesus was the Messiah and by their role in his crucifixion.

As Christianity spread in the first centuries ce, most Jews continued to reject that religion. As a consequence, by the 4th century, Christians tended to regard Jews as an alien people who, because of their repudiation of Christ and his church, were condemned to perpetual migration (a belief best illustrated in the legend of the Wandering Jew). When the Christian church became dominant in the Roman Empire, its leaders inspired many laws by Roman emperors designed to segregate Jews and curtail their freedoms when they appeared to threaten Christian religious domination. As a consequence, Jews were increasingly forced to the margins of European society.

Enmity toward the Jews was expressed most acutely in the churchs teaching of contempt. From St. Augustine in the 4th century to Martin Luther in the 16th, some of the most eloquent and persuasive Christian theologians excoriated the Jews as rebels against God and murderers of the Lord. They were described as companions of the Devil and a race of vipers. Church liturgy, particularly the scriptural readings for the Good Friday commemoration of the Crucifixion, contributed to this enmity. Such views were finally renounced by the Roman Catholic Church decades after the Holocaust with the Vatican II declaration of Nostra aetate (Latin: In Our Era) in 1965, which transformed Roman Catholic teaching regarding Jews and Judaism.

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anti-Semitism | Britannica.com

Judaism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the Jewish religion. For consideration of ethnic, historic and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity, see Jews.

Judaism (from Latin: Iudaismus, derived from Greek , originally from Hebrew , Yehudah, “Judah”;[1][2] in Hebrew: , Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos)[3] encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.[4] Judaism is an ancient monotheistic religion, with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel.[5]

Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah.[6] Historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups such as the Sadducees and Hellenistic Judaism during the Second Temple period; the Karaites and Sabbateans during the early and later medieval period;[7] and among segments of the modern non-Orthodox denominations. Liberal movements in modern times such as Humanistic Judaism may be nontheistic.[8] Today, the largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism (Haredi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism), Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism. Major sources of difference between these groups are their approaches to Jewish law, the authority of the Rabbinic tradition, and the significance of the State of Israel.[9] Orthodox Judaism maintains that the Torah and Jewish law are divine in origin, eternal and unalterable, and that they should be strictly followed. Conservative and Reform Judaism are more liberal, with Conservative Judaism generally promoting a more “traditional” interpretation of Judaism’s requirements than Reform Judaism. A typical Reform position is that Jewish law should be viewed as a set of general guidelines rather than as a set of restrictions and obligations whose observance is required of all Jews.[10][11] Historically, special courts enforced Jewish law; today, these courts still exist but the practice of Judaism is mostly voluntary.[12] Authority on theological and legal matters is not vested in any one person or organization, but in the sacred texts and rabbis and scholars who interpret them.[13]

Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning more than 3,000 years. Judaism has its roots as a structured religion in the Middle East during the Bronze Age.[14] Of the major world religions, Judaism is considered one of the oldest monotheistic religions.[15][16] The Hebrews / Israelites were already referred to as “Jews” in later books of the Tanakh such as the Book of Esther, with the term Jews replacing the title “Children of Israel”.[17] Judaism’s texts, traditions and values strongly influenced later Abrahamic religions, including Christianity, Islam and the Baha’i Faith.[18][19] Many aspects of Judaism have also directly or indirectly influenced secular Western ethics and civil law.[20]

Jews are an ethnoreligious group[21] and include those born Jewish and converts to Judaism. In 2012, the world Jewish population was estimated at about 14 million, or roughly 0.2% of the total world population.[22] About 42% of all Jews reside in Israel and another 42% reside in North America, with most of the remainder living in Europe, and other minority groups spread throughout South America, Asia, Africa, and Australia.[23]

Unlike other ancient Near Eastern gods, the Hebrew God is portrayed as unitary and solitary; consequently, the Hebrew God’s principal relationships are not with other gods, but with the world, and more specifically, with the people He created.[24] Judaism thus begins with ethical monotheism: the belief that God is one and is concerned with the actions of humankind.[25] According to the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), God promised Abraham to make of his offspring a great nation.[26] Many generations later, he commanded the nation of Israel to love and worship only one God; that is, the Jewish nation is to reciprocate God’s concern for the world.[27] He also commanded the Jewish people to love one another; that is, Jews are to imitate God’s love for people.[28] These commandments are but two of a large corpus of commandments and laws that constitute this covenant, which is the substance of Judaism.

Thus, although there is an esoteric tradition in Judaism (Kabbalah), Rabbinic scholar Max Kadushin has characterized normative Judaism as “normal mysticism”, because it involves everyday personal experiences of God through ways or modes that are common to all Jews.[29] This is played out through the observance of the Halakha and given verbal expression in the Birkat Ha-Mizvot, the short blessings that are spoken every time a positive commandment is to be fulfilled.

Whereas Jewish philosophers often debate whether God is immanent or transcendent, and whether people have free will or their lives are determined, Halakha is a system through which any Jew acts to bring God into the world.

Ethical monotheism is central in all sacred or normative texts of Judaism. However, monotheism has not always been followed in practice. The Jewish Bible (Tanakh) records and repeatedly condemns the widespread worship of other gods in ancient Israel.[31] In the Greco-Roman era, many different interpretations of monotheism existed in Judaism, including the interpretations that gave rise to Christianity.[32]

Moreover, as a non-creedal religion, some have argued that Judaism does not require one to believe in God. For some, observance of Jewish law is more important than belief in God per se.[33] In modern times, some liberal Jewish movements do not accept the existence of a personified deity active in history.[34][35]

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Judaism – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Torah – My Jewish Learning

For Jews, the concept of Torah is much broader than the books themselves, the delimited concept of the Torah. Torah can refer to all of traditional Jewish learning, but the Torah usually refers to the Torah shebiktav, the written Torah, also known as the Humash (the five volumes or Pentateuch, sometimes referred to as the Five Books of Moses). Readings from the Torah, which are divided into 54 weekly portions (parshiyot), have always been the centerpiece of the Sabbath morning service, and as such, its stories, laws, and poetry stand at the center of Jewish culture.

The Torah retells Gods creation of the world, the selection and growth of the family of Abraham and Sarah in relationship to God in the land of Canaan, the exile and redemption from Egypt of that family-become-nation known as Israel, and their travels through the desert until they return to the land of Canaan. Along the way, Israel enters into a covenanted relationship with God, and God reveals many of the rules for governing a just society and for establishing appropriate worship.

Traditionally, the Torah has been seen either as a document that was entirely revealed to Moses by God on Mount Sinai (along with the whole of the Oral Torah, i.e. the Mishnah and other works of Rabbinic literature which build upon the written Torah) or that Moses completed the Torah during the trek through the wilderness (including what was revealed on Mount Sinai). Historians and literary critics, noting historical inaccuracies and duplications that indicate a composite text have suggested that the Torah includes sources from the period of King David and King Solomon (around 1000 BCE), from the seventh century BCE during the reign of King Josiah, and from the sixth century BCE during the Babylonian exile.

In the works of the prophets, and in many of the writings, narrative elements from the Torah like the exodus from Egypt are re-used to make new points. Laws from the Torah like the specifics of Sabbath law prohibitions are also commented upon and expand their scope in later works. Another set of connections between the Torah and the Prophets is indicated by the weekly Prophetic portions (haftarot), which are paired with each of the 54 weekly Torah portions (Parshat haShavua).

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The Torah – My Jewish Learning

Why Does No One Care About Jewish Heritage Month …

So how did you commemorate Jewish American Heritage Month this May?

If you didnt or if you didnt even know such a month existed you are in good company, that of the majority of American Jews.

But after nearly a decade of relative obscurity, Jewish American Heritage Month got national recognition this year when President Obama took a rare trip from the White House to Washingtons Adas Israel synagogue to deliver an address in honor of the month-long occasion on May 22.

JAMH organizers believe the event, which was intensively covered by national and international media, could boost the otherwise little-known celebration of American Jews and their contributions, and lift it from obscurity. But even for the month of May, they face some ruthless competition. May is also officially the month for celebrating Asian Pacific American heritage. Its Older Americans month, too.

Still, JAHM proponents saw the Adas Israel event as a potential turning point. In the first 10 years of Jewish American Heritage Month, a large part of what has been done was Jews talking to Jews about the contribution of other Jews, said JAHM board chairman Greg Rosenbaum, a private equity investor who used to head Americas largest kosher poultry producer, But in order for it to be a success, it needs to tell non-Jews the story of Jewish contribution to American society.

JAHM may not stack up as one of the nations most visible ethnic commemoration months, but that doesnt mean it has not been a lot of fun for Jewish communal figures attending events. It is what brought Obama to Adas Israel on May 22; it is the reason 250 Jewish activists crammed into a congressional hall two days earlier to mingle with lawmakers commemorating the event, and for several years, JAHM also gave the president an opportunity to throw an annual reception where the lucky couple hundred guests got a chance to rub elbows with Jewish luminaries such as Sandy Koufax, Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Barbara Walters.

Dedicating a month to a certain part of the population is the governments way of making the group feel that its history, heritage and struggles are recognized by the nation.

The most well known of the 10 congressionally officially proclaimed months is clearly African-American History Month, which is marked each February in schools across the country, in TV specials and with a series of events. Other groups that can show an officially proclaimed month for their name include Latino-Americans, Italian-Americans and Indian-Americans, and there are also months dedicated to womens history, disability awareness, and gay and lesbian pride.

At best, ethnic heritage months increase awareness for a finite amount of time, said Jason Low, a publisher focused on books promoting diversity who has written on the issue. Once the month has ended, the very problem that the given heritage month was designed to address resets itself, and those books are put away and ignored for another year.

But William Daroff, senior vice president for public policy at the Jewish Federations of North America, believes that at least in the case of Jewish Americans, heritage month had an impact.

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Why Does No One Care About Jewish Heritage Month …

Remarks by the President on Jewish American Heritage Month

The White House

Office of the Press Secretary

For Immediate Release

May 22, 2015

Adas Israel Congregation Washington, D.C.

10:57 A.M. EDT

THE PRESIDENT: Thank you so much. (Applause.) Thank you, everybody. (Applause.) Thank you. Well, good morning, everybody!

AUDIENCE: Good morning!

THE PRESIDENT: A slightly early Shabbat Shalom. (Laughter.) I want to thank Rabbi Steinlauf for the very kind introduction. And to all the members of the congregation, thank you so much for such an extraordinary and warm welcome.

I want to thank a couple of outstanding members of Congress who are here. Senator Michael Bennet — where did Michael Bennet go? There he is. (Applause.) And Representative Sandy Levin, who is here. (Applause.) I want to thank our special envoy to combat anti-Semitism, Ira Forman, for his important work. There he is. (Applause) But as I said, most of all I want to thank the entire congregation of Adas Israel for having me here today.

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Remarks by the President on Jewish American Heritage Month

National Jewish American Heritage Month: What It Means to …

Jewish American values are woven into the fabric of American life and have shaped the progress weve made as a country. That history has fundamentally shaped the Presidents personal views and leadership. As he told The Atlantics Jeffrey Goldberg:

“To me, being pro-Israel and pro-Jewish is part and parcel with the values that I’ve been fighting for since I was politically conscious and started getting involved in politics. Theres a direct line between supporting the right of the Jewish people to have a homeland and to feel safe and free of discrimination and persecution, and the right of African Americans to vote and have equal protection under the law.”

Today at 11:00 am ET, in honor of National Jewish American Heritage Month, President Obama will address the Adas Israel congregation in Washington, D.C., the first synagogue in the U.S. to be addressed by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Watch his remarks live:

Before the President speaks, he’ll meet with a few leaders from the American Jewish community who exemplify the many ways that American Jews contribute to and strengthen our country. And we wanted to share a first look with you.

Rabbi Shira Stutman Sixth & I, Washington, D.C.

As the Director of Jewish Programming at a historic nondenominational synagogue, Rabbi Stutman works daily tobuild the Jewish community for young professionals in the city. To her, the Jewish faith is about recognizing the joy that comes from a community of people who are interested in deepening themselves and bettering the world to bringing justice to all who deserve it and to make that tradition real and relevant for future generations. Her favorite t-shirt reads: This is what a real rabbi looks like.

When my great-grandfather came to America from Russia in the early days of the 20th century, his name was Joseph Address. He kept that name through his journey from Ellis Island to South Philadelphia. And through the years that it took him, a tailor, to scrape together enough money to open his own shop. With his final pennies, he hired someone to write his name, in golden script, on the front window: ‘Andress Tailor Shop’ it read. The painter has misspelled his name.

“My great-grandfather did not have the English skills to fight it out with the painter, nor did he have the money to get it repainted. So Andress it became. Many immigrants have a story like minenot the exact same story, of course, but a story of a poor ancestor who came to this country with little to nothing and built it into something. I love these stories, romanticized and hyperbolized as they usually are. Once upon a time, we were all strangers here. Once upon a time, no one cared enough to learn our names.

“Too many Americans still feel like strangers in this countryor, even worse, are treated as such by those around them. At the intersection of my family storymy proud Jewish identity, and my proud American identity–is the demand that I work to bring justice to every American, that we learn each others names and stories, that we take responsibility for each other. That we participate in the work of social justice, which requires that we work with directly affected people, recognize our privilege, and use our power to make lasting change that people really need.

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National Jewish American Heritage Month: What It Means to …