Israel – Wikipedia

Statul Israel (ebraic , Medinat Israel; arab , Dawlat Isr’l) este o republic parlamentar localizat n Orientul Mijlociu, de-a lungul malului de est al Mrii Mediterane. Se nvecineaz cu Libanul, n nord, Siria n nord-est, Iordania i Cisiordania, n est, Egipt i Fia Gaza, la sud-vest, i conine caracteristici din punct de vedere geografic diverse n suprafaa sa relativ mic. Are capitala n oraul Ierusalim [8][9] Israelul este definit n Declaraia de Independen i n legile lui de baz ca un stat evreiesc i democratic i este singurul stat din lume unde evreii sunt majoritari[10].

n urma adoptrii planului de mprire a Palestinei din 1947 al Organizaiei Naiunilor Unite, pe data de 14 mai 1948, odat cu expirarea Mandatului britanic pentru Palestina, David Ben-Gurion, preedintele Organizaiei Sioniste i al Ageniei Evreieti pentru Palestina, a proclamat independena Statului Israel n cadrul liniilor de mprire teritorial cuprinse n decizia ONU[11][12]. Liga Arab i organizaiile palestiniene au respins att decizia ONU de mprire, ct i proclamarea unilateral a independenei Israelului. ase state arabe, au declanat cu Rzboiul arabo-israelian din 1948 interminabilul Conflict arabo-israelian care avea ca scop distrugerea Israelului i aruncarea evreilor n mare[13]. Ca urmare a rezultatelor rzboiului arabo-israelian din 1948-1949 teritoriul care ar fi trebuit, dup hotrrea ONU (neacceptat de partea arab), s revin unui stat arab palestinian, a fost, n cele din urma mprit ntre Israel i dou state arabe beligerante, Transiordania i Egiptul. n urma acordurilor de armistiiu ncheiate in urma Rzboiului de ase Zile din iunie 1967, poriuni din teritoriile ocupate n acest conflict de ctre Israel – Ierusalimul de Est inclusiv Oraul vechi, Cisiordania, Peninsula Sinai, Fia Gaza i nlimile Golan, – au intrat in controlul Israelului. Peninsula Sinai a fost retrocedat Egiptului n urma unui tratat de pace, dar celelalte granie nc nu au fost definite. Multe state consider linia de ncetare a focului din 1949 (armistiiul din 1949), aa numita Linie verde, ca o grani temporar a Israelului, iar teritoriile ocupate de Israel n cursul rzboiului din iunie 1967, ca teritoriile ocupate[14][15][16][17][18]

Populaia din Israel – conform Biroului Central de Statistic israelian – care include toi cetenii sau resortisanii, dar nu muncitorii strini, n interiorul Israelului n sine i n aezrile israeliene din teritoriile ocupate, a fost estimat n iunie 2011 la 7.751.000 milioane de oameni,[19] dintre care 5.818.200 sunt evrei.[19][20][21] Cetenii arabi, al doilea grup etnic ca mrime, include att musulmani ct i cretini. Alte minoriti sunt druzi, cerchezi, samariteni i armeni. La sfritul anului 2005, 93% din populaia arab din Ierusalimul de Est au cptat statut de reziden permanent i 5% au avut cetenie israelian[22]. n nlimile Golan, druzii au dreptul s aleag ntre cetenia israelian i cea sirian[23].

Israelul este o ar dezvoltat i o democraie reprezentativ, cu un sistem parlamentar i vot universal[24][25]. Prim-ministrul Israelului servete ca ef al guvernului, iar Knessetul, cu cei 120 de membrii, servete ca organism legislativ unicameral.

Israelul are una dintre rile cu mare longevitate din lume[26].

Economia: dei lipsit, pn nu demult, de resurse naturale (n anii 2011-2012 s-au descoperit rezerve de gaze naturale n aria maritim mediteranean aparinnd Israelului) n 2010 produsul intern brut nominal (PIB) israelian s-a situat pe locul 42 din lume[27] i are un rating foarte mare n clasamentul Indicelui Dezvoltrii Umane.[7]. n 2010, Israelul a aderat la OCDE[28].

Ierusalimul este capitala rii, dei nu este recunoscut de toate statele ca atare, printre care i Romania:

La proclamarea independenei n 14 mai 1948, noul stat evreiesc a fost denumit oficial Medinat Israel, sau Statul Israel (dup ce alte nume sugerate, istorice i religioase, inclusiv Eretz Israel (ara Israel), Tzion Sion, i Yehuda (Iudeea), au fost examinate i respinse).[30] n primele sptmni de independen, guvernul a ales termenul de israelian, pentru a indica un cetean al Israelului, cu anunul oficial fcut de ctre ministrul Afacerilor Externe, Moshe Sharett.[31]

Numele Israel, a fost folosit n cursul istoriei, n utilizarea comun i religioas, pentru a face referire la Regatul Israel antic, la noiunea geografic a rii lui Israel sau la ntregul poporul evreu. n conformitate cu Biblia ebraic numele de Israel a fost dat de Patriarhul Iacov (StandardYisrael, Isrl; Septuaginta greac ; lupta cu Dumnezeu[32]) , dup ce s-a luptat cu succes cu un nger al lui Dumnezeu.[33] Cei doisprezece fii ai lui, Iacov, au devenit strmoii israeliilor, de asemenea, cunoscut sub numele de dousprezece seminii ale lui Israel, sau copii lui Israel. Iacov i fiii si au trit n Canaan, dar au fost forai de foamete s mearg n Egipt timp de patru generaii pn la Moise, un str-strnepot lui Iacov,[34] care a condus israeliii napoi n Canaan, n Exodul. Cel mai vechi artefact arheologic, care menioneaz cuvntul Israel” este Stela lui Merneptah din Egiptul antic (datat la sfritul secolului al 13-lea .en).[35]

Zona este, de asemenea, cunoscut sub numele de ara Sfnt, fiind sfnt pentru toate religiile avraamice, inclusiv cretinism, iudaism, islam i Credina Baha’i. nainte de Declaraia de Independen a Israelului din 1948, ntreaga regiune a fost cunoscut sub nume diferite, inclusiv: Siria de Sud, Siria Palestina, Regatul Ierusalimului, provincia Iudaea, Coele-Siria, Retjenu, Canaan i, n special, Palestina.

Noiunea de ara Israel, cunoscut n ebraic ca Eretz Yisrael (sau Eretz Yisroel), a fost important i sacr pentru poporul evreu din timpurile biblice. Potrivit Pentateuh, Dumnezeu a promis terenul la trei Patriarhi poporului evreu.[38][39] Pe baza scripturii, perioada celor trei Patriarhi a fost plasat undeva la nceputul celui de-al doilea mileniu .Hr.,[40] iar primul Regat Israel a fost stabilit n jurul secolului al 11-lea .Hr.. Ulterior el s-a divizat n regatul Israel i cel al Iudeei sau Iuda, care au dinuit n urmtorii 400 ani,fiind cunoscute din Biblie i din diverse surse extrabiblice.[41][42][43][44] Dup cderea Regatului de nord a Israelului n 722 .Hr. regatul Iudeei a persistat pn la cucerirea babiloneana n 586 .e.n. Pn la cuceririle musulmane din secolul al 7-lea EC (pe o perioad de peste 1500 de ani), regiunea a stat sub dominaie asirian, babilonian, persan, greac seleucid, a cunoscut din nou o perioad de independen vreme de dou secole sub regatul ebraic al Hasmoneilor i Antipatrizilor , apoi a fost sub dominaie roman, persan sasanid i bizantin.[45][46] Prezena evreiasc din regiune s-a diminuat considerabil dup eecul revoltei Bar Kochba mpotriva Imperiului Roman n 132 EC.[47] Cu toate acestea, a existat pemanent o mic colectivitate evreieasc, iar Galileea a devenit centrul su religios.[48][49]Mina i o parte din Talmud, texte centrale evreieti, au fost compuse in timpul secolelor 2 i 4 EC n Tiberias i Ierusalim.[50] n 635 EC, regiunea, inclusiv Ierusalimul, au fost cucerite de ctre arabi i au rmas sub control musulman arab sau turc, cu o parantez cretin cruciat, pentru urmtorii 1300 de ani.[51] Controlul regiunii a fost transferat n urmtorele ase secole[51] ntre Califatul Umayyad[51], cel Abbasid[51] i state ale cruciailor, nainte de a fi cucerit de sultani mameluci ncepnd cu 1260.[52] n 1516, regiunea a fost cucerit de Imperiul Otoman i a rmas sub dominaie turceasc pn la nceputul secolului al 20-lea.[52]

Rspndii n lume, evreii – n marea lor majoritate – au aspirat s se ntoarc la Sion i la ara Israel,[53] dei marile efortorturi care trebuiau depuse pentru un astfel de obiectiv au creat dispute[54][55] Speranele i dorinele evreilor care triau n exil au fost formulate n Biblia ebraic[56] ca o tem important a credinei evreieti[54]. Ca urmare a expulzrii evreilor din Spania n 1492, unele comuniti s-au refugiat in Palestina[57] unde, n decursul secolului al 16-lea, comunitile evreieti au prins rdcini n patru orae sfinte: Ierusalim, Tiberias, Hebron i Safed. Se noteaz c n 1697, rabinul Yehuda Hahasid s-a stabilit, cu un grup de 1 500 de evrei, la Ierusalim[58].

n a doua jumtate a secolului al 18-lea s-au stabilit n Palestina comuniti din Europa de Est, adversari (n idi Misnagdim, sau Pruim ai hasidismului[59][60][61].

Prima Aliyah, primul val de emigraie evreiasc modern spre Palestina stpnit de otomani, a nceput n 1882, cnd evrei din Romnia au navigat de la Galai i mpreun cu ali evrei care au fugit de pogromurile din Rusia au iniiat colonii agricole n ara Israel[62].

Dei micarea sionist exista deja n practic, jurnalistul austro-ungar Theodor Herzl este creditat ca fondator al sionismul politic[63], o micare care a urmrit s creze un stat evreu, n ara Israel, ridicnd problema evreiasc la nivel internaional[64] n 1896, Herzl a publicat n Der Judenstaat (Statul Evreilor) viziunea sa asupra unui viitor stat evreu laic i suveran. n anul urmtor el a fost ales s prezideze primul Congres Mondial Sionist[65].

A doua Aliyah (1904-1914), a nceput ca urmare a primului pogrom de la Chiinu, cam 40 000 de evrei s-au stabilit n Palestina (aproape jumtate dintre ei au plecat mai trziu[62]) Att primul ct i al doilea val de emigrani au fost, n marea lor majoritate, evrei religioi, evrei ortodoci, dei a doua Aliyah a inclus i grupuri socialiste care au nfiinat primele kibuuri[66]. n timpul Primului rzboi mondial, secretarul britanic de externe, Arthur Balfour a trimis o scrisoare care declara:[67]

Legiunea evreiasc, n primul rnd un grup de voluntari sioniti, a asistat la cucerirea britanic a Palestinei n 1917. Opoziia arabilor fa de conducerea britanic i a imigraiei evreieti a dus la revoltele din 1920 din Palestina i formarea unei miliii evreieti cunoscut sub numele de Haganah (nsemnnd “Aprare” n ebraic), din care a aprut mai trziu gruprile paramilitare Irgun i Lehi (Grupul Stern).[69] n 1922, Liga Naiunilor a acordat un mandat Marii Britanii asupra Palestinei n condiii similare cu Declaraia Balfour.[70] Populaia din zona aceasta n acest moment a fost predominant arab i musulman, evreii reprezentnd aproximativ 11% din populaie.[71]

A treiea (1919-1923) i A patra Aliyah (1924-1929) au adus nc 100 000 de evrei n Palestina[62].

Nazismul i persecutarea evreilor n Europa anilor ’30 a dus la A cincea Aliyah, cu un aflux de un sfert de milion de evrei. Aceasta a fost o cauz major a revoltei arabe din anii 1936-1939 i a dus la introducerea de ctre britanici a unor restricii privind imigrarea evreilor n Palestina, cu Cartea alb din 1939. Deoarece rile din ntreaga lume refuzau, n general, s dea azil refugiailor evrei, care fugeau de Holocaust, o micare clandestin cunoscut sub numele de Aliyah Bet a fost organizat pentru a aduce evrei n Palestina.[62] Pn la sfritul celui de-al doilea rzboi mondial, populaia evreiasc din Palestina a crescut la 33% din totalul populaiei.[72]

Dup al doilea rzboi mondial, Marea Britanie s-a aflat n conflict aprig cu comunitatea evreiasc din Palestina, Haganah alturndu-se Irgun i Lehi ntr-o rezisten armat mpotriva politicii represive a administraiei britanice.[73] n acelai timp, mii de evrei supravieuitori ai Holocaustului, refugiai din Europa i din nordul Africii, au cutat o via nou n Palestina, dar au fost ntori din drum sau adunai i nchii de ctre britanici n tabere de detenie. n 1947, guvernul britanic a anunat c va ncheia Mandatul pentru Palestina,nereuind s ajung la o soluie acceptabil pentru ambele populaii n conflict: arabi i evrei.[74] Organizaia Naiunilor Unite, recent creat, a aprobat, Planul de mprire a Palestinei (Rezoluia nr. 181 a Adunrii Generale a Organizaiei Naiunilor Unite 181) din 29 noiembrie 1947, care a aprobat divizarea rii n dou state: unul arab i cellalt evreiesc. Ierusalimul a fost desemnat s fie un Corpus separatum internaionalizat i administrat de ONU.[75]

Colectivitatea evreiasc local a acceptat acest plan,[76] dar Liga Arab i naltul Comitet Arab din Palestina l-au respins.[77] La 1 decembrie 1947, naltul Comitet Arab a proclamat o grev de trei zile, iar grupuri de arabi au nceput s atace obiective civile evreieti.[78] La izbucnirea rzboiului civil evreii s-au aflat mai mult n defensiv, dar treptat au trecut i ei la atac.[79] Economia arabilor palestinieni s-a prbuit i n cursul ostilitilor 250.000 de arabi palestinieni au fugit sau au fost expulzai.[80]

La 14 mai 1948, cu o zi nainte de expirarea mandatului britanic, Agenia Evreiasc a proclamat independena, numind noul stat Israel.[81] n ziua urmtoare, armatele a cinci state arabe: Egipt, Transiordania, Siria, Liban i Irak – au atacat Israelul, lansnd al doilea Rzboi arabo-israelian din 1948; Arabia Saudit a trimis un contingent militar sub comand egiptean; Yemenul cel ndeprtat a declarat i el rzboi dar nu a ntreprins aciuni militare.[82] Dup un an de lupte, un acord de ncetarea focului a fost semnat i s-au stabilit o linie de armistiiu, frontiere temporare, cunoscute sub numele de Linia verde.[83]Iordania a anexat ceea ce a devenit cunoscut sub numele de Cisiordania i Ierusalimul de Est, iar Egiptul a preluat controlul Fiei Gaza. Organizaia Naiunilor Unite estimeaz c mai mult de 700.000 de palestinieni au fost expulzai sau au fugit n timpul conflictului din teritoriile pe care s-a alctuit Statul Israel .[84]

Israel a fost acceptat ca membru al Organizaiei Naiunilor Unite, cu majoritate de voturi, la 11 mai1949.[85] n primii ani de existen a statului, micarea social-democrat condus de primul ministru David Ben-Gurion a dominat politica israelian.[86][87] Aceti ani au fost marcai de un aflux de supravieuitori ai Holocaustului, precum i de imigrani i refugiai evrei din rile arabe, dintre care muli s-au confruntat cu persecuii i spolieri n rile lor de origine.[88] n consecin, populaia Israelului a crescut ntre 1948 i 1958 de la 800.000 la doua milioane de locuitori.[89] ntre 1948-1970, aproximativ 1.151.029 refugiai evrei s-au mutat n Israel.[90] Unii au ajuns ca refugiai fr nici un fel de bunuri i au fost cazai n tabere temporare cunoscute sub numele de ma’abarot; pn n 1952, peste 200.000 de imigrani au trit n aceste aezri temporare de corturi i barci.[91] Necesitatea de a rezolva criza l-a determinat pe Ben-Gurion s semneze un acord de despgubiri cu Germania de Vest, care a declanat proteste de mas ale unei pri a populaiei evreieti, mai ales din tabra naionalist i conservatoare, consternat de ideea ca Statul evreiesc accept compensaii bneti pentru Holocaust.[92]

n anii 1950, aezri israeliene au fost adesea atacate de Fedaini palestinieni, mai ales, din Fia Gaza ocupat de Egipt, dar i din Cisiordania, devenit parte a Iordaniei.[93] n 1950 Egiptul a nchis Canalul Suez pentru transporturile israeliene a avut loc o escaladare a tensiunii de-a lungul granielor Israelului, nsoit de incidente militare. n 1956, Israelul s-a alturat unei aliane secrete cu Marea Britanie i Frana, care urmreau rectigarea controlului Canalului Suez, pe care egiptenii l-au naionalizat (vezi Criza Suezului). Israelul a invadat Peninsula Sinai, dar a fost silit (sub presiunile SUA i ale URSS), s se retrag. n schimb Organizaia Naiunilor Unite urma s dea garanii pentru drepturile Israelului la acces liber n Marea Roie i Canalul de Suez.[94][95]

La nceputul anilor 1960, Israelul l-a capturat pe criminalul de rzboi nazist Adolf Eichmann n Argentina si l-a adus n Israel pentru a-l judeca.[96] Procesul a avut un impact major asupra contientizrii publicului asupra Holocaustului.[97] Eichmann rmne singura persoan din lume, care a fost condamnat la execuie de ctre un tribunal israelian.[98]

Naionalitii arabi condui de preedintele egiptean Gamal Abdel Nasser au continuat s refuze s recunoasc Israelul i au solicitat distrugerea lui.[13][99] Pn n 1966, relaiile israeliano-arab s-au deteriorat, pn la punctul cnd au avut loc lupte reale care au loc ntre forele israeliene i arabe.[100] n 1967, Egipt, a expulzat trupele de meninere a pcii ale ONU, staionate n Peninsula Sinai din 1957 i a anunat o blocada parial a accesului Israelului la Marea Roie. n mai 1967 o serie de state arabe au nceput s i mobilizeze forele lor.[101] Israel a vzut aceste aciuni ca un casus belli. La 5 iunie 1967, Israelul a lansat un atac preventiv mpotriva: Egipt, Iordania, Siria i Irak. n cadrul unui Rzboi de ase Zile, superioritatea militar israelian a fost demonstrat n mod clar mpotriva dumanilor mai numeroi arabi. Israelul a reuit s captureze: Cisiordania, Fia Gaza, Peninsula Sinai i nlimile Golan.[102] Graniele Ierusalimului au fost extinse, ncorpornd Ierusalimul de Est, iar Linia verde din 1949 a devenit grania administrativ dintre Israel i teritoriile ocupate.

n Rzboiul de ase Zile din 1967, Israelul a nvins armatele combinate din Egipt, Iordania i Siria. Dup rzboi, Israelul s-a confruntat cu mult rezisten intern din partea palestinienilor arabi. Cea mai important ntre diferitele grupuri palestiniene i arabe a fost Organizaia pentru Eliberarea Palestinei (OEP), nfiinat n 1964, care iniial s-a angajat la lupta armat ca singura modalitate de a elibera patria.[103][104] La sfritul anilor 1960 i nceputul anilor 1970, gruprile palestiniene au lansat un val de atacuri[105][106] mpotriva Israelului i a intelor evreieti din ntreaga lume,[107] inclusiv un masacru al atleilor israelieni la Jocurile Olimpice de var din 1972 din Mnchen.

La 6 octombrie 1973, cnd evreii srbtoreau Iom Kipur, armatele egiptene si siriene au lansat un atac surpriz mpotriva Israelului. Rzboiul s-a ncheiat la 26 octombrie cu Israelul respingnd cu succes forele egiptene i siriene, dar a suferit pierderi semnificative.[108] O anchet intern a exonerat Guvernul de responsabilitatea pentru eecurile de dinainte i din timpul rzboiului, dar furia public l-a forat pe prim-ministrul Golda Meir s demisioneze.[109]

n iulie 1976, trupele de comando israeliene au efectuat o misiune ndraznea, care a reuit salvarea a 95 de ostatici, care erau deinui de ctre gherilele Organizaiei pentru Eliberarea Palestinei la Aeroportul Internaional Entebbe aproape de Kampala, Uganda.

Alegerile Knesset-ului din 1977 au marcat un punct de cotitur n istoria politic a Israelului cnd partidul Likud al lui Menachem Begin a preluat controlul de la Partidul Laburist.[110] Mai trziu n acelai an, preedintele egiptean Anwar El Sadat a fcut o cltorie n Israel i a vorbit n faa Knesset-ului n ceea ce a fost prima recunoatere a Israelului de ctre un ef de stat arab.[111] n cei doi ani care au urmat, Sadat i Menahem Begin au semnat Acordurile de la Camp David (1978) i Tratatul de Pace Israel-Egipt (1979).[112] Israelul s-a retras din Peninsula Sinai i au convenit s iniieze negocieri asupra unei autonomii pentru palestinienii din Cisiordania i Fia Gaza.[113]

La 11 martie 1978, un raid de gheril OEP din Liban a dus la masacrul de pe drumul costier, n care 35 de civili israelieni au fost ucii i 75 rnii. Israelul a rspuns prin invazia sudulului Libanului pentru a distruge bazele OEP de la sud de rul Litani. Cei mai muli lupttori OEP s-au retras, dar Israelul a reuit s obin sudul Libanului pn ce o for ONU i armata libanez au putut prelua. Cu toate acestea, OEP a reluat n curnd politica sa de rezisten la Israel. n urmtorii civa ani OEP s-a infiltrat napoi n sud i a bombardardat sporadic peste grani. Israel a efectuat numeroase atacuri represive de aer i sol.

ntre timp guvernul lui Begin a ncurajat n mod activ israelieni s se stabileasc n Cisiordania ocupat.[114]

Legea fundamental: Ierusalim, capitala Israelului, adoptat n 1980, a fost considerat de unii reafirmarea anexrii Ierusalimului de ctre Israel n 1967 prin decret guvernamental i a reaprins controversele internaionale asupra statutului oraului. Cu toate acestea, nu existat niciodat un act n care guvernul israelian s defineasc ceea ce se consider a fi extinderea teritoriului Israelului i nici un act care s includ n mod specific n acesta Ierusalimul de Est.[115] Poziia majoritii statelor membre ale ONU se reflect n numeroase rezoluii n care se declar c aciunile ntreprinse de ctre Israel s i stabileasc cetenii si, n Cisiordania, i a impune legi i administrare asupra Ierusalimului de Est sunt ilegale i nu au nici o valabilitate.[116]

La 7 iunie 1981, aviaia israelian a distrus singura central de energie nuclear din Irak, care a fost n construcie chiar n afara Bagdadului.

Dup o serie de atacuri OEP, in 1982, Israelul a invadat Libanul, nc o dat pentru a distruge bazele de la care Organizaia pentru Eliberarea Palestinei au lansat atacuri i rachete n nordul Israelului n Primul rzboi din Liban.[117] n primele ase zile de lupte, israelienii au distrus forele militare ale OEP din Liban i i-au nvins decisiv pe sirieni. O anchet a guvernului israelian – Comisia Kahan – i-a considerat mai trziu pe Begin, Sharon i pe generalii israelieni indirect responsabili pentru masacrele de la Sabra i Shatila. n 1985, Israelul a rspuns la un atac terorist al OEP n Cipru prin bombardarea sediul OEP din Tunis. Israelul s-a retras din cea mai mare parte a Libanului n 1986, dar a meninut o zon tampon de frontier n sudul Libanului pn n 2000. Prima Intifada, o revolt palestinian mpotriva dominaiei israeliene,[118] a izbucnit n 1987, cu valuri de demonstraii necoordonate i violene care au loc n Cisiordania i Gaza. Pe parcursul urmtorilor sase ani, Intifada a devenit mult mai organizat i a inclus msuri economice i culturale, care vizeaz perturbarea ocupaiei israeliane. Mai mult de o mie de oameni au fost ucii n violene, muli dintre ei tineri care aruncau cu pietre.[119] Rspunznd la raidurile de gheril continue ale OEP n nordul Israelului, Israelul a lansat un alt raid represiv n sudul Libanului n 1988. Pe fondul tensiunilor n cretere cu privire la criza din Kuweit, poliitii de frontier israelieni au tras ntr-o mulime palestinian revoltat lng moscheea Al-Aqsa din Ierusalim. 20 de persoane au fost ucise i aproximativ 150 rnite. n timpul rzboiului din Golf din 1991, OEP l-a susinut pe Saddam Hussein i atacurile cu rachete scud mpotriva Israelului. n ciuda indignrii publice, Israel a luat n seam solicitarea SUA de-a se abine de a rspunde la atacuri i nu a participat la acest rzboi.[120][121]

n 1992, Ihak Rabin a devenit prim-ministru n urma unor alegeri n care partidul su a solicitat compromisul cu vecinii Israelului.[122][123] n anul urmtor, Shimon Peres, n numele Israelului, i Mahmoud Abbas din partea OEP, au semnat Acordurile de la Oslo, care au dat Autoritii Naionale Palestiniene dreptul de a guverna pri din Cisiordania i Fia Gaza.[124] OEP a recunoscut, de asemenea, dreptul Israelului de a exista i a promis ncetarea terorismului.[125] n 1994, Tratatul de pace Israel-Iordania a fost semnat, ceea ce face Iordania a doua ar arab care a normalizat relaiile cu Israelul.[126] Sprijinul arab public pentru Acorduri a fost deteriorat de continuarea colonizrii israeliene[127] i de punctele de control, precum i de deteriorarea condiiilor economice.[128] Sprijinul israelian public pentru Acorduri s-a diminuat deoarece Israelul a fost lovit de atacuri sinucigae palestiniene.[129] n cele din urm, n timp ce pleca de la un un miting de pace n noiembrie 1995, Ihak Rabin a fost asasinat de ctre un evreu din aripa de extrem dreapta care s-a opus Acordurilor.[130]

La sfritul anilor 1990, Israel, sub conducerea lui Benjamin Netanyahu, s-a retras din Hebron, i a semnat Memorandumul Wye River, oferind un control mai mare la Autoritatea Naional Palestinian.[131]Ehud Barak, ales prim-ministru n 1999, a nceput noul mileniu prin retragerea forelor din sudul Libanului i a desfurarat negocieri cu preedintele Autoritii Palestiniene, Yasser Arafat i cu preedintele american Bill Clinton, la Summit-ul Camp David din 2000. n timpul reuniunii la nivel nalt, Barak a oferit un plan pentru nfiinarea unui stat palestinian, dar Yasser Arafat l-a respins.[132] Dup eecul negocierilor i o vizit controversat a liderului Likud, Ariel Sharon, la Muntele Templului, a nceput a doua Intifada. Sharon a devenit prim-ministru ntr-un scrutin special n 2001. n timpul mandatului su, Sharon a realizat planul su de a se retrage unilateral din Fia Gaza i, de asemenea, a iniiat construcia barierei israeliene de separare cu Cisiordania.[133]

n iulie 2006, un atac de artilerie al Hezbollah asupra comunitilor Israelului de la frontiera de nord i o rpire transfrontalier a doi soldai israelieni a declanat cel de-al doilea rzboi din Liban.[134][135] Doi ani mai trziu, n mai 2008, Israelul a confirmat c a fost discutat un tratat de pace cu Siria pentru un an, cu Turcia ca mediator.[136] Cu toate acestea, la sfritul anului, Israel a intrat ntr-un alt conflict, cnd ncetarea focului ntre Hamas i Israel a luat sfrit. Rzboiul din Gaza a durat trei sptmni i s-a ncheiat dup ce Israel, a anunat un armistiiu unilateral.[137][138] Hamas a anunat ncetarea focului separat, cu propriile sale condiii retragerea complet i deschiderea punctele de frontier. Dei nicio parte nu a ncetat complet focul, armistiiul a rmas stabil.

Israelul este situat la captul estic al Mrii Mediterane, delimitat de ctre Liban la nord, Siria la nord-est, Iordania la est, i Egipt, la sud-vest. Acesta se afl ntre latitudinile 29 i 34 N, i longitudinile 34 i 36 E.

Pe teritoriul suveran al Israelul, cu excepia tuturor teritoriilor capturate de Israel n timpul Rzboiului de ase Zile din 1967, suprafaa este de aproximativ 20.770km ptrai, dintre care doi la sut este ap.[139] Suprafaa total sub conducere israelian, cnd sunt incluse nlimile Golan i Ierusalimul de Est este de 22.072km ptrai,[140] iar suprafaa total sub control israelian, incluznd zona controlat militar i sub guvernare parial palestinian, Cisiordania, este 27.799km ptrai.[141] n ciuda dimensiunii sale mici, Israelul este cas, la o varietate de caracteristici geografice, de la deertul Negev, n sud, pn la zonele muntoase din Galileea, Carmel i spre nlimile Golan n partea de nord. Cmpia israelian de coast pe rmurile Mediteranei este casa, la aptezeci la sut din populaia naiunii. La est de zonele muntoase centrale se afl Valea Iordanului, care formeaz o mic parte din cei 6.500 de kilometri din Valea Rift.

Rul Iordan curge de-a lungul Vii Iordanului, de la Muntele Hermon, prin Valea Hulah i Marea Galileii la Marea Moart, cel mai de jos punct de pe suprafaa Pmntului.[142] Mai la sud este Arabah, care se ncheie cu Golful Eilat, o parte a Mrii Roii. Unice pentru Israel i Peninsula Sinai sunt makhteshim sau circurile de eroziune.[143] Cel mai mare makhtesh din lume este Craterul Ramon[144] n Negev, care msoar 40km cu 8km.[145] Un raport privind starea ecologic a bazinului Mrii Mediterane afirm c Israelul are cel mai mare numr de specii de plante pe metru ptrat din toate rile din bazin.[146]

Temperaturile n Israel variaz foarte mult, mai ales n timpul iernii. Regiunile mai mult muntoase pot fi vntoase, friguroase i uneori inzapezite; n Ierusalim ninge cel puin o dat n fiecare an.[147] ntre timp, oraele de coast, cum ar fi Tel Aviv i Haifa, au un climat tipic mediteranean, cu ierni reci, ploioase i veri lungi, calde. Zona Beer eva i Negevul de Nord au un climat semiarid, cu veri calde, ierni reci, dar cu zile mai puine ploioase dect la climatul mediteranean. Negevul de Sud i zonele Arava au clim deertic, cu veri foarte calde i uscate, i ierni blnde, cu cteva zile de ploaie. Cea mai mare temperatur din continentul Asia (53,7C/128.7F) a fost nregistrat n 1942, la Kibuul Tirat Zvi n valea nordului rului Iordanul.[148]

Din mai pn n septembrie, ploile n Israel sunt rare.[149][150] Cu resurse limitate de ap, Israelul a dezvoltat diferite tehnologii de economisire a apei, inclusiv irigare prin picurare.[151] Israelienii profit considerabil de asemenea de lumina soarelui disponibil pentru energie solar, ceea ce face Israelul naiunea lider n utilizarea energiei solare pe cap de locuitor (practic, la fiecare cas se folosesc panouri solare pentru ncalzirea apei).[152]

Patru regiuni diferite fitogeografice exist n Israel, din cauza localizrii rii ntre climat temperat i zonele tropicale, riverane la Marea Mediterana, la vest i n est deertul. Din acest motiv, flora si fauna din Israel este extrem de divers.

Exista 2.867 de specii cunoscute de plante gsite n Israel. Dintre acestea, cel puin 253 de specii sunt introduse i neindigene.[153] Din luna mai 2007, exist 190 de rezervaii naturale n Israel.[154]

Israel funcioneaz n cadrul unui sistem parlamentar ca o republic democratic cu sufragiu universal.[2] Un membru al parlamentului susinut de o majoritate parlamentar devine prim-ministru, de obicei, aceasta este preedintele celui mai mare partid. Prim-ministrul este eful guvernului i ef de cabinet.[155][156] Israelul este guvernat de un parlament de 120 de membri, cunoscut sub numele de Knesset. Statutul de membru al Knesset-ului se bazeaz pe reprezentarea proporional a partidelor politice,[157] cu un prag electoral de 2%, care, n practic, a dus la guvernele de coaliie.

Alegerile parlamentare sunt programate la fiecare patru ani, dar coaliiile instabile sau n urma unui vot de nencredere de ctre Knesset poate dizolva un guvern mai devreme. Legile de baz ale Israelului funcioneaz ca o constituie nescris. n 2003, Knesset-ul a nceput s elaboreze o constituie oficial pe baza acestor legi.[2][158]

Preedintele Israelului este eful statului, cu atribuii limitate i n mare parte ceremoniale.[155]

Israelul dispune de un sistem cu trei nivele juridice.

Sistemul juridic al Israelului combin trei tradiii juridice: drept comun englez, dreptul civil, dreptul evreiesc.[2] El se bazeaz pe principiul stare decisis (precedent) si este un sistem acuzator, unde prile n cauza aduc probe n faa instanei. Cazurile Curii sunt decise de judectori profesioniti, mai degrab dect de jurai.[159] Cstoria i divorul sunt sub jurisdicia instanelor religioase: evreieti, musulmane, druze i cretine. Un comitet format din membri ai Knesset-ului, judectorii Curii Supreme de Justiie, precum i membrii Israeli Bar realizeaz alegerea judectorilor.[162] Administraia instanelor Israelului (att instanele de judecat Generale ct i a instanelor Muncii), sunt efectuate de ctre administraia instanelor, situat n Ierusalim. Att instanele generale, ct i cele muncitoreti sunt instane fr suport pe hrtie: dosarele instanei precum i deciziile Curii sunt depozitate electronic.

Legea de baz Israelian: Demnitatea uman i Libertate ncearc s apere drepturile i libertile omului n Israel. Israel este singura ar din regiune clasat Liber de ctre Freedom House pe baza nivelului libertilor civile i a drepturilor politice; Teritoriile Ocupate Israeliene/Autoritatea Palestinien”, au fost clasate Nu sunt libere.[163][164] n 2010, Israelul propriu-zis fost clasat pe locul 86 n funcie de Indicele libertii presei realizat de Reporteri fr Frontiere, a doua cea mai bine clasat ar din regiune dup Liban, care se afl pe 78.[165]

Statul Israel este mprit n ase districte administrative principale, cunoscut sub numele de mehozot (; singular: mahoz) – Central, Haifa, Ierusalim, Nord, Sud, i districtele Tel Aviv. Districtele sunt n continuare mprite n cincisprezece subdistricte cunoscute sub numele de nafot (; singular: ANAF), care sunt ele nsele mprite n cincizeci de regiuni naturale.[166]

(350.000 coloniti evrei)[168]

n scopuri statistice, ara este mprit n trei zone metropolitane: Zona metropolitan Tel Aviv (populaie 3.206.400), Zona metropolitan Haifa (populaie 1.021.000), i Zona metropolitan Beer eva (populaie 559.700).[170] Cea mai mare municipalitate a Israelului, att n populaiei ct i n suprafa,[171] este Ierusalimul cu 773.800 de locuitori ntr-o zon de 126 de kilometri ptrai. Statisticile guvernului israelian asupra Ierusalimului includ populaia i suprafaa din Ierusalimul de Est, care este recunoscut pe scar larg ca parte a Teritoriilor palestiniene sub ocupaie israelian.[172]Tel Aviv, Haifa, i Rishon LeZion sunt urmtoarele orae ca populaie ale Israelului, cu o populaie de 393.900, 265.600 i respectiv 227.600.[171]

Statutul Ierusalimului de Est, n orice viitor acord de pace a fost uneori un obstacol dificil n cadrul negocierilor dintre Guvernul Israelian i reprezentani ai palestinienilor, Israel, considernd acest teritoriu ca fiind al su, precum i o parte din capitala sa. Cele mai multe negocieri cu privire la teritorii au fost pe baza Rezoluiei Consiliului de Securitate a ONU nr. 242, care subliniaz inadmisibilitatea dobndirii de teritorii prin rzboi i solicit Israelului s se retrag din teritoriile ocupate n schimbul normalizrii relaiilor cu statele arabe, un principiu cunoscut sub numele de Teren pentru pace.[178][179][180]

Israelul are o economie modern i diversificat, fiind unul dintre statele dezvoltate. Lipsit de resurse naturale Israelul ocup un loc de frunte – pe cap de locuitor – n dezvoltarea de tehnologii avansate i de patente[181].

Resursele naturale sunt foarte reduse, mai importante fiind rezervele de fosfai. n anii 2000 n spaiul maritim al Israelului n dreptul coastei mediteraniene s-au descoperit importante rezerve subacvatice de gaze naturale.

Industria tradiional (textil i alimentar) a fost completat de noi ramuri printre care prelucrarea petrolului, a cauciucului, construciile de maini. Recent, Israelul dezvolt i ramuri de vrf printre care industria aeronautic i electronic. O ramur industrial mai deosebit o reprezint prelucrarea diamantelor.

Dei dispune de terenuri agricole reduse, mai mult de jumtate din suprafaa rii fiind deertic, iar clima i lipsa de resurse suficiente de ap o defavorizeaz, doar 20% din terenuri fiind arabile n mod natural[182], agricultura israelian are un nalt randament datorit mecanizrii i irigaiilor. Ponderea ei in economia statului este in prezent de 1.7% (din PIB)(2011). Producia agricol anual nsumeaz 30 miliarde de shekeli noi israelieni (2013), sum din care circa 60% este reprezentat de culturile vegetale, iar 40% de creterea animalelor i produsele animale. [183] Produsele agricole principale sunt citricele, mslinele, via de vie i cerealele. Se cresc intensiv psri i bovine.

n vreme ce fora de munc n agricultur este de numai 3.7% din fora total de munc, Israelul i suplinete 95% din necesitile de alimente, inclusiv totalitatea necesitilor de legume, fructe, lapte, carne de pasre i ou. n schimb, Israelul necesit importuri de cereale, carne de vit, zahr, [183],semine oleaginoase. cafea, cacao etc. Israelul este un mare exportator de produse agricole proaspete i un stat avansat n invenia de tehnologii agricole. Agricultura furnizeaz 3.6% din exporturi.[184]

Turismul este centrat pe vizitarea monumentelor istorice, a teritoriilor biblice i ndeosebi a oraului sfnt Ierusalim.

n dezvoltarea economic a Israelului, un rol important l are sectorul financiar-bancar.

Evreii din Israel cuprind o majoritate de nativi nscui n ar, poreclii n limbajul curent sabra (n romnete sabri, n ebraic tzabarim), restul fiind imigrani nscui n strintate i stabilii, la diferite vrste, n Israel.

n luna august a anului 2005, Israelul, mpreun cu Ierusalimul de Est, avea o populaie de 6.912.700 de locuitori, structurat astfel: 76% evrei, 20% (mpreun cu Ierusalimul de Est) arabi i 4% alte minoriti (druzi aici considerai separat de populaia arab , cerchezi, armeni), precum i un numr remarcabil de evrei avnd doar tatl evreu; de asemenea, nepoi de evrei, parteneri de via ai unor evrei de origine rus, ucrainean, romn etc. i care nu sunt recunoscui ca evrei dup legea religioas, dar care, n marea lor majoritate, sunt laici i se identific cu evreii israelieni moderni.

Dup criterii religioase conform unor statistici[necesitcitare] evreii israelieni sunt n proporie de 12% foarte religioi (ultraortodoci), 10% religioi (ortodoci), 35% tradiionaliti ortodoci, iar restul de 43% sunt laici. n rndurile laicilor, majoritatea prefer, la nevoie, serviciile religioase ale ritului ortodox pe care l cunosc din familie, iar o mic minoritate apeleaz la serviciile spirituale ale riturilor iudaice mai noi, ca de exemplu iudaismul conservativ i reformat. De asemenea exista mii de karaii, evrei cretinai – majoritatea membri ai unor comuniti protestante, denumite evrei mesianici, i un numr foarte mic de evrei romano-catolici, cteva sute de samariteni.

Arabii sunt 91% musulmani sunii i 9% cretini de mai multe rituri. Druzii, care, n general, se consider arabi, au un cult provenit din islamul iit ale crui revelaii sunt mprtite doar de o elit de iniiai. Cerchezii sunt o mic minoritate musulman sunit i vorbesc o limb caucazian – limba adghee . Armenii, cretini, sunt aici, de asemenea, o minoritate foarte mic.

Statul israelian are aproximativ 7,406,900 de locuitori, dup ultimul recensmnt din 2008, n 2010 populaia Israelului a ajuns la aproximativ 7,5 milioane de locuitori. Israelul are dou limbi oficiale: ebraic i arab. Ebraica este limba principal a statului i este vorbit de majoritatea populaiei, iar limba arab – n varianta palestinean – este vorbit curent de minoritatea arab, precum i, n graiuri i dialecte din diverse ri arabe, ca limb secundar, de ctre imigrani evrei, mai ales vrstnici, originari din aceste ri. ncepnd cu 2008, cetenii israelieni arabi au ajuns s reprezinte 20% din populaie. Muli israelieni vorbesc destul de bine n limba englez, care a fost i limba oficial a rii n timpul regimului colonial al mandatului britanic n Palestina ntre anii 1918-1948. Engleza este nvat nc din clasele primare. Fiind o ar de imigrani, sunt nca mult uzitate limbile ultimelor mari valuri de imigraie din anii 1970-2000, ca rusa i amharica. Ataamantul de ar al populaiei Israelului din 1948 i pn astzi este relativ mare n comparaie cu alte ri populate de imigrri n mas. Emigraia din Israel spre alte ri, mai ales n Statele Unite i Canada este descris de demografi ca fiind modest, dar pentru ministerele guvernului israelian reprezint uneori un motiv de preocupare. n 2009, 300,000 de ceteni israelieni triau n aezri aflate n Cisiordania (sau Iudeea i Samaria, dup terminologia folosit adesea n Israel) cum sunt Ma’ale Adumim i Ariel; comuniti evreiesti care existaser n vremea mandatului britanic i nainte de nfiinarea statului Israel, au fost renfiinate dup rzboiul de 6 zile, de pild n perimetrul oraului Hebron i n zona Gush Etzion. 18,000 de mii de israelieni triesc n zona Platoului Golan. n 2006, 20,000 de evrei locuiau n cartiere din Ierusalimul de Est. Numrul total de coloniti israelieni este de 500,000 (6,5% din populaia total a Israelului). Aproximativ 7,800 de evrei israelieni locuiau i practicau ramuri agricole n aezrile din Fia Gaza pn cnd au fost evacuai de guvernul Ariel Sharon n anul 2005.

Israelul a fost stabilit ca un cmin naional pentru evrei i este cunoscut ca Statul evreiesc. n ar, o lege de rentoarcere d dreptul tuturor evreilor i urmailor de evrei pn la treia generaie s primeasc cetenia israelian odata cu aezarea n ar. Mai mult de trei sferturi sau 75,5% din populaia evreiasc provin dintr-o diversitate de culturi evreieti din lume. Aproximativ 68% din evrei sunt nscui n Israel, 22% sunt imigrani din Europa i America i 10% sunt imigrani din Asia i Africa ( incluznd Lumea Arab ). Evreii care au imigrat n Israel din lumea arab i urmaii lor constituie circa 40%-50% din evreii israelieni.

ntre 1990 i 1994, imigraia evreilor din fosta URSS i a familiilor lor a crescut populaia Israelului cu mai mult de 12%. Circa 300,000 de imigrani vorbitori sau cunosctori de limba rus n Israel, majoritatea laici, sunt considerai cretini de ctre rabinii ortodoci, pentru c, n interpretarea iudaic ortodox, doar copiii care au mame evreice sunt considerai evrei. La momentul respectiv Israelul a acceptat primirea unui numr mic de refugiai din sudul Vietnamului i din Bosnia. De asemenea s-au mai stabilit n ar mici noi comuniti cretine protestante i neo- protestante din Germania, Finlanda, etc precum i o comunitate mic a evreilor negri din Statele Unite. n ultimul deceniu, un mic numr de persoane din ri europene Romnia, Rusia, Ucraina etc., din Filipine, Thailanda, China, din Africa i America de Sud care au venit la lucru n Israel s-au stabilit aici, de obicei n urma unor legturi de cstorie.n primul deceniu al secolului al XXI-lea au intrat n Israel multe mii de refugiai legali i ilegali, mai ales din Sudan, Sudanul de Sud i Eritreea.

n Israel triesc circa 130.000 de evrei romni[185]. La acest numr se adug i urmaii familiilor originare din Romnia, care mai au cunotine de limba romn, astfel nct se poate vorbi de un numr de cca. 350.000 de oameni[185]. Majoritatea evreilor din Romnia, circa 350,000-400.000[186], care au rmas n via dup al Doilea Rzboi Mondial, au emigrat n mai multe valuri n Israel.

n Israel funcioneaz nou universiti i cteva zeci de institute i colegii recunoscute i aflate sun controlul academic al Comisiei israeliene de studii superioare, cu dreptul de a acorda diplome de studii superioare. Doctorate pot fi acordate exclusiv de Institutul Weizmann i de universiti – cu excepia Universitii Libere (prin coresponden).

Lista universitilor israeliene de mai jos (conform acronimelor n limba englez) cuprinde saiturile pe internet, data ctitoriei, numrul de studeni i clasificarea internaional dup WebOMetrics (top 3000), [2] Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU)] (top 500) i The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) (top 200):

Deoarece nu se acord Premiul Nobel pentru matematic, premiul corespondent este Medalia Fields:

ISBN 0-471-67952-6, ISBN 978-0-471-67952-3.

Coordonate: 31N 35E / 31N 35E / 31; 35

Visit link:
Israel – Wikipedia

Jews of Yemen | Jewish Virtual Library

This increasingly perilous situation led to the emigration of virtually the entire Yemenite Jewish community – almost 50,000 – between June 1949 and September 1950 in Operation “Magic Carpet.” A smaller, continuous migration was allowed to continue into 1962, when a civil war put an abrupt halt to any further Jewish exodus.

Until 1976, when an American diplomat came across a small Jewish community in a remote region of northern Yemen, it was believed the Yemenite Jewish community was extinct. As a result, the plight of Yemenite Jews went unrecognized by the outside world.

It turned out some people stayed behind during Operation “Magic Carpet” because family members did not want to leave sick or elderly relatives behind. These Jews were forbidden from emigrating and not allowed to contact relatives abroad. They were isolated and trapped, scattered throughout the mountainous regions in northern Yemen and lacking food, clothing, medical care and religious articles. As a result, some Yemenite Jews abandoned their faith and converted to Islam.

For a short time, Jewish organizations were allowed to travel openly within Yemen, distributing Hebrew books and materials to the Jewish community.3

Today, Jews are the only indigenous religious minority besides a small number of Christians, Hindus and Baha’is. The small community that remains in the northern area of Yemen is tolerated and allowed to practice Judaism. However, its members are still treated as second-class citizens and cannot serve in the army or be elected to political positions. Jews are traditionally restricted to living in one section of a city or village and are often confined to a limited choice of employment, usually farming or handicrafts. Jews may, and do, own property.4

The Jews are scattered and a communal structure no longer exists. Yemenite Jews have little social interaction with their Muslim neighbors and are largely prevented from communicating with world Jewry. It is believed that there are two synagogues still functioning in Saiqaya and in Amlah.

Religious life has not changed much in Jewish dietary laws, Jews are not allowed to eat meals with Muslims. Also, marriage is absolutely forbidden outside of the religion.

During the past few years, about 400 Jews have immigrated to Israel, despite the official ban on emigration.5

The State Department reported that in mid-2000 “the Government suspended its policy of allowing Yemeni-origin Israeli passport holders to travel to Yemen on laissez-passer documents. However, Yemeni, Israeli, and other Jews may travel freely to and within Yemen on non-Israeli passports.”6

In January 2001, the ruling “General People’s Party” placed a Yemeni Jewish citizen on the slate for parliamentary elections for the first time. The candidate, Ibrahim Ezer, was reportedly recommended by President Ali Abdallah Salah as a gesture to the incoming Bush administration in a bid to receive economic aid for Yemen. The General Election Committee, subsequently rejected Ezer’s application on grounds that a candidate must be the child of two Muslim parents. Political analysts speculated that the true reason was a desire not to establish a precedent of allowing a Jew to run for office.7

In 2008, in response to multiple violent attacks on Jewish citizens, including the murder of Rabbi Moshe Yaish Nahara’i by an Islamist radical, President Salah planned to relocate the Jewish community members from the Amran district and the city of Raidah to the capital, Sana. Once there, each Jewish family would receive a plot of land and join the community of around 50 Jews already transferred to the capital city in 2007. In Sana, the Jews faced less danger of attack from their Muslim neighbors as the government maintains law and order.8

In 2009, also in response to the heightened threat to the Jewish community from Islamist radicals, the United Jewish Communities, the US State Department, local federations, and the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society began working together to implement the evacuation of close to half of the remaining Jewish population in Yemen. 110 Yemenite Jews were scheduled to be evacuated over the course of two weeks in March 2009. The expense of absorbing the immigrants would be $800,000 that would go towards resettlement costs including food, housing, and social-service programs.9

In 2009, Yemeni authorities moved 70 Jews from northern Yemen to a compound in Sanaa, openly admitting they could not protect them elsewhere; and the Yemeni Jews did not have the means to earn a living in their new homes. On May 22, 2012, Aaron Zindani, a Jewish Yemeni man, was stabbed to death in the capital city of Saana, and his friend believes Al-Qaeda may have been behind the attack.

Yemen’s Jews numbered fewer than 400 in 2009, but the numbers have seen a drop by 20 percent due to emigration, mostly to the United States.10

There are currently less than 200 Jews living in Yemen, with some estimates placing the community at less than 100 individuals. In October 2015 the Yemeni government handed down an ultimatum to the tiny Jewish community: convert to Islam, or leave. Yemen’s Jews sought out asylum in Israel and the United States due to the country’s ongoing war with Houthi rebel tribes. The government ultimatum stated that they would not be able to protect the Yemeni Jews if they remained in the country as Jews. 11 The U.S. and Britain, country’s that have historically helped Yemeni Jews and facilitated bringing groups of them to Israel, closed their embassies in Yemen in early November 2015. Yemeni Jews have suffered terribly during the country’s civil war, and are almost completely oppressed by the Houthi leadership.

Sources: 1. David Singer and Lawrence Grossman, Eds. American Jewish Year Book 2003. NY: American Jewish Committee, 2003. 2. Howard Sachar, A History of Israel, (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), pp. 397-98; Maurice Roumani, The Case of the Jews from Arab Countries: A Neglected Issue, (Tel Aviv: World Organization of Jews from Arab Countries, 1977), pp. 32-33; Norman Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times, (NY: Jewish Publication Society, 1991), p. 498. 3.Jerusalem Post, (February 15, 1992); Jewish Telegraphic Agency, (February 26, 1992). 4.Jewish Communities of the World; U.S. State Department Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997. 5.Jewish Communities of the World. 6. U.S. Department of State, 2001 Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, Released by the Bureau for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor Washington, DC, (October 26, 2001). 7. Jerusalem Post, (January 30, 2001). 8. Haaretz. (December 18, 2008). 9Jerusalem Post, (March 18, 2009). 10 Gabe Kahn, “Yemeni Jew Murdered in Sanaa,” Israel National News, May 22, 2012.

More:
Jews of Yemen | Jewish Virtual Library

The Jews are not the Chosen People

Jews think they are something special …

For the record – I was raised Jewish – sort of. My parents are Jewish – sort of – in name only. Much like the followers of any other religion of people who identify with a religion because of ancestry rather than actually believing and practicing something. I remember back when I was 5 years old being forced to study the old testament and thinking – no way in hell does this make sense. Having said that – Judaism is perhaps one of the least stupid of the stupid religions in that they aren’t out beating on your door like the Christians do wanting to know if you know Moses. But come on! Judaism is based on ancient bullshit and it’s time to give it up and move on.

Judaism is a prime example of what happens when you fail to admit that you’re beliefs are just plain wrong. In it’s day, 5000 years ago, Judaism represented state of the art thinking. They had the most advanced Tree of Knowledge on the planet. It represented the best of human understanding at that time. The problem is – their ego got in the way. God had chosen them – the Bible was the holy word of God – who can never be wrong. Their knowledge tree became frozen and as time progressed – it’s real apparent that these beliefs are ridiculous in the context of current scientific thinking. But the Jews and their derivative religions stick with it because if they start changing things – then they have to admit that Jews are just people like everyone else and that there’s nothing special about being a Jew. But they are too arrogant to face reality – and they remain frozen in time.

Jews believe that world was created in 6 days – with God resting on the 7th day. This occurred about 7000 years ago. Well – wrong! We now know that the universe is about 15 billion years old. But the Jews still believe it anyhow. Now – many Jews will admit that this is probably wrong. In fact – probably most of them. So then – why the obsession with the Sabbath and all the stupid rituals associated with it. Isn’t it time to pull that one from the Ten Commandments? Well – can’t do that because God gave Moses those commandments …. except that never happened either. Noah and the Ark – never happened. Tower of Babel … never happened. It’s all just stories and none of it ever occurred. It just isn’t real.

The Jewish god is modeled after the early oppressive kings. In those times kings had absolute power and if they got in a bad mood – they might have thousands slaughtered. Since God is the supreme king – then he would be the ultimate oppressor. The God of the Bible fits this model. He’s a tyrant who loses his temper and slaughters a lot of people when he gets pissed off. And he gets pissed off because he’s not worshiped the right way. Think about it – God needs animal sacrifices? The being that created all the universe – all the galaxies – needs people to sacrifice animals to it? hmmmmm … do you buy that? The God of the Jews is nothing more than a petty tyrant modeled after their petty tyrant kings – and that’s according to THEIR beliefs!

So – if the Bible isn’t real – then God didn’t pick the Jews as the “Chosen People” and Jews are just ordinary people – just like all the rest of us. If you give up the Old Testament – then you have no basis for claiming that God gave you property in the Middle East. It takes away your justification for slaughtering Muslims because it puts you on the same level as they are. Jews of course believe that they are superior to Muslims and are therefore justified in taking their land.

Just as Muslims believe they are God’s chosen people and they are justified in slaughtering Jews and taking they land. But the reality is – Muslims and Jews are both pigs and maybe if they spend a few more hundred years slaughtering each other, they might learn that it makes more sense to get along and build on reality and work together to lift each other up. Or – at least there will be less of them to contaminate the knowledge pool of humanity.

The Jews in Israel are both the victims and perpetrators of terrorism. Both sides believe God is on their side in spite of the fact that God has failed to take a public stand on his preferences as to you gets the property. In fact – God doesn’t get involved in anything and if he (the god with a penis) exists, he doesn’t care enough to get involved. This lack of involvement is interpreted as meaning that God is somewhat impotent and needs us puny little earthlings to act in his behalf. How the hell did God ever get along without us?

You would think that after World War II and the mass slaughter of Jews by the Nazis that the Jews would finally get it – but whoosh – right over their heads! Let me spell it out – Hey Jews! It’s not OK to slaughter other people! If you think it’s wrong to be persecuted – then it’s it wrong to persecute others? Figure it out! You are not the chosen people – and it is not OK to commit terrorist acts against non-jews. You’re no better than the fucking Arabs! If Jews are so fucking smart – then why are you stuck in the past?

As far as Jerusalem goes – these nothing holy about any place on earth. In fact this whole planet is just a speck of dust in the universe and it is more likely than not that we don’t even rate as significant in the big picture. You want to do something holy? You want to do something to impress God – then learn how to live in peace with your neighbors! And the first step in doing that is to admit that you are NOT the chosen people!

I can understand where Jews are angry over terrorist acts committed against them. But I have looked at what is going on in the middle east and even though I am biased in favor of the Jews – it’s pretty clear to me that there is an attitude of systematic ethnic cleansing against the Palestinians and this is not only wrong – but it makes me ashamed to have ever identified myself as a Jew. The way I see it – if the Jews are the smarter party – and certainly the more powerful party – then they have the responsibility to take the initiative and forge a peace.

The knowledge tree of the Jews is frozen in time and is static. Judaism looks only backwards and there is no model for advancement of the Jewish knowledge tree – and because of that – Judaism is doomed to extinction. Judaism can be compared to a carefully preserved dead plant that slowly rots away over thousands of years. Jews like to consider themselves knowledgeable and wise and able to tackle deep philosophical questions. I therefore pose this question to all wise Jews everywhere. If you believe in something and it turns out that what you believe in is wrong – doesn’t it make sense to abandon what is wrong – admit your mistake – and move on to what is right? How wise is a man who clings to false knowledge? Who among the Jews will stand up and defy the death of the Jewish Tree of Knowledge and create a new model for the advancement of wisdom? How can you claim to be the chosen people when your Tree of Knowledge is dead and your vision of the future is looking into the past? Think about it next Sabbath when you honor a commandment that has no basis in reality whatsoever.

Partly because I pick on everyone. Partly because I’m somewhat ashamed of what Israel is doing and somehow I think that Jews should be above that. You see – the problem with being God’s chosen people is that ass holes like me pop up and hold you to a higher standard. If you’re God’s chosen people – then why can’t you make peace with your neighbors? Huh? You guys are making God look really bad here!

It would be more enlightened of me if I were more respectful of other religions and their beliefs. I should treat them with more honor and dignity and act in a more enlightened manner. After all, I am the founder of the Church of Reality – the religion that might eventually become the dominant religion on this planet. Shouldn’t I set a better example?

The short answer is – hell no. I am not an enlightened individual. I’m just a fucking ass hole. It’s a disability – and I live with it. It’s who I really am. I believe in evolution because I’m just the third generation in my family to walk upright. Sometimes I just want to go back to the trees! Being an ass hole keeps me humble and dispels any illusions others might have that I am something special. It also relieves me of the responsibilities of being held to a higher standard. I don’t have the burdens of being God’s chosen people. I’m just a genius with a bad attitude.

Besides – Why shouldn’t I look down my nose at all these other stupid religions? They all look down their noses at me! I want to indulge in a little self-righteousness too! A little moral masturbation never hurt anyone. What makes me SUPERIOR is that I’m more HUMBLE than they are – and proud of it!

Here is the original post:
The Jews are not the Chosen People

jews – Fathers’ Manifesto

Are jews Intelligent?

Take five minutes to complete the Poll on Exiling Blacks

The most common misperception in the US today about jews is that they are “intelligent”, with IQs of 115, compared to Whites of 100 and blacks of 85. How did this happen, since it was US immigration policy which was based on IQs just 77 years ago that caused many jews to be refused admission to the US?:

Gould’s most inflammatory allegation is to blame IQ testers for increasing the toll of the Holocaust. His thesis is that early IQ testers claimed Jews as a group scored low on their tests. This finding was then allegedly used to support passage of the restrictive Immigration Act of 1924, under which Jewish refugees were denied entry in the 1930s. Gould even claims that Henry H. Goddard in 1917 and Carl C. Brigham in 1923 labeled four-fifths of Jewish immigrants as “feeble-minded . . . morons.” http://www.eugenics.net/papers/jprnr.html

By what process did jews transform from “feeble minded … morons” to “intelligent” in only 77 years. How did this transformation benefit the US? Why are the SAT, NAEP, ACT, GRE, and other scores for jews not readily available, particularly when every other race is broken down by every demographic category you might be curious about? Why did jews complain at Harvard in 1922, when they were 21% of the freshman class that year, that they were being “discriminated against”? Why, with the support by so many jewish judges and lawyers and politicians for affirmative action, are jews now 50% of the students in the Harvard Law School at the same time that White men are vilified for “discriminating against” women and other races? What can be intelligent about this?

Why are almost none of the jew boys and jew girls in Miami-Dade County, Rochester, Jersey City, and Chicago (the intellectual ground zero of the nation) able to answer the SIMPLEST of math problems, many problems of which 90% or more of the children in Singapore, Japan, Korea, Naperville, and North Dakota were able to answer with ease? Why did Israel, which is almost exclusively jews now, score as low on PISA as they scored on TIMSS?

JEWS CONTROL AMERICAN EDUCATION

Consider what happened to this country immediately following the jews’ involvement in our “education” process:

“American blacks as well as whites, wherever they lived, reached their highest levels of educational achievement in the Thirties and early Forties during the Depression and the war years. In 1930, 80% of the blacks and 98% of the whites over 14 were literate. Nearly all black and white students in the 4th through the 12th grade could read at 4th through 12th grade levels. For teachers rarely promoted unprepared students. In contrast, scores on the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey tests show that only about 56% of the blacks and 83% of the whites over sixteen are literate. Scores on 1994 NAEP reading tests indicate that 42% of the 4th graders can’t read; 72% of the 8th graders can’t read 8th grade assignments; and 66% of the nation’s high school seniors can’t read 9th grade textbooks in any core subject.”

“To put it simply, schooling doesn’t start, even for potential geniuses, until students learn to read. And because American teachers switched in the 1930s from reading instruction that worked for everyone to reading instruction that neuroscientists now tell us does not work for anyone, schooling has never begun for over 43 million Americans with an average 12 years of school attendance. And every year the number of high school graduates who receive diplomas they cannot read grows. Few realize it has been growing for 45 years. In 1952, Army personnel officers started hiring psychologists to interview thousands of nonreading high school graduates they mistakenly thought were faking illiteracy to stay out of the Korean War. After the psychologists told the officers that the graduates weren’t faking, Defense Department administrators knew that something terrible had happened to grade school reading instruction. And they knew that it had started in the Thirties. Why they remained silent, no one knows. The switch back to reading instruction that worked for everyone should have been made then.”

“The numbers of illiterate American adults have jumped from 3 million with little or no schooling in the early Thirties to about 43 million with an average 12 years of school instruction in the early Nineties. The 96% literacy rate for 18 million military registrants tested during World War II dropped to nearly 80% for several million prospective recruits tested during the Korean War. This was an incredible 400% increase in illiteracy for young men in the 8 years between 1945 (the end of World War II) and 1953 (the end of the Korean War).”

What happened? Was this accidental? Why is the jewish controlled media so studiously ignoring this catastrophe? Why did jews go to the US Census Bureau in 1957 and insist that jews not be listed as a separate category in any of the racial and religious demographics, thus concealing their over-representation in the “education” of our Christian children and their under-representation in high test scores and academic achievement?

JEWS CONTROL IMMIGRATION POLICY

It was jewish control of US immigration policy which decimated our immigration standards and enabled “feeble minded … morons” to immigrate to this country by the millions.

WHY THE LOW TEST SCORES OF NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK?

The SAT Math score of the average college bound black in 1992 was 385, which was 198 points lower than the average of 583 for all students in Iowa, many of whom were denied admission to college that year because of affirmative action for blacks. Even the average SAT Math score for students in Washington, DC, the consistently lowest scoring area of the country, year in and year out, was 56 points higher, at 441. But college bound Whites, whose SAT score was 489, also had lower SAT Math scores than the average of all students in half the states in the country, with students in Iowa scoring 94 points higher. The average students in Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Utah, Kansas, Nebraska, and Illinois scored more than 50 points higher than college bound Whites and higher even than college bound Asians. How is it possible for college bound students to score consistently lower than *average* high school graduates in half the states? Why do jews, who constitute 50% of the student body and 50% of the faculty of Harvard Law School, and thus are perhaps half of our lawyers and judges, support the admission of so many unqualified students to our once fine universities? How can the *average* scores of all students in Iowa be 94 points higher than the average score of college bound WHITES?

Based on the ethnic composition of students in Iowa (90.6% Whites, 3.4% blacks, 2.4% Hispanics, 1.6% Asians, .5% Indians, and 1.5% jews), and the known average SAT scores for each race, Iowa SHOULD have scored only 490, or 93 points lower than their actual score of 583. Similarly, Nebraska scored 57 points higher than expected, Minnesota scored 89 points higher, Utah scored 72 points higher, Wyoming scored 36 points higher, North Dakota scored 96 points higher. Even more significantly, all of these states spend considerably less for education per student than New Jersey or New York do. It’s impossible for the average Whites in those states to have such low average SAT scores if the average score for the entire state is so much higher. The only way this couldhave happened is if the Whites in those states actually have an average SAT Math score of 576, or 85 points higher than that reported by the ETS. It’s also possible, but highly unlikely, that:

There are two other reasons Whites in those states probably have such higher SAT scores than the average “Whites” in the rest of the country, which is that states like New Jersey and New York include 6% more Latinos and 30% more jews in their categories for “Whites”.

The best fit for these western states is an SAT Math score of 590 for Whites, but this causes New Jersey’s and New York’s calculated scores to be 66 and 56 points higher, respectively, than their actual scores of 478 and 473. 83% of the 5.5 million jews in the US are in the Northeast and 30% and 29% of the population of New Jersey and New York who are counted as “Whites” are actually jews. The ONLY thing that can account for New Jersey’s and New York’s dismal SAT Math scores is that jews have an average SAT Math score of 340. There is NO other known way, with New Jersey spending 3 times as much for education ($9,225 per student per year) as these Western states, for this to happen. It explains a lot about how the jews suddenly got so “intelligent” but still don’t want to brag about their test scores. And why they support the admission of blacks to universities who score hundreds of points lower than millions of more qualified Whites. And why the 1.9% of the population who are jews support affirmative action, even though they supposedly have 115 IQs.

This is a much lower SAT Math score than average: 61 points lower than blacks, 121 points lower than the “average college bound White”, 210 points lower than Asians, and 206 points lower than Whites in Iowa.

The ACT Composite score has a similar problem, with the average scores of these Western states being proportionately higher than all “Whites” who participated in the ACT, and New Jersey and New York scoring proportionately lower than their composite average score predicts they should score. Once the ACT score for Whites is adjusted up, from 21.8 to 22.1, and that for jews is adjusted downward, from 21.8 to 20.7, all of these states score within 0.3 points of their anticipated composite average.

NAEP confirms this trend. New Jersey and New York are again the exceptions to the rule–until the score for jews is adjusted–downward–considerably. After the scores for Whites are increased from 270 to 281 to match the actual scores of the Western states, and when it’s presumed that the scores for jews are similar to that for Whites, New Jersey and New York score, respectively, 1 and 5 points lower than their predicted score. The only explanation for why states which spend so much for education score so low on all the standardized tests is the very low academic performance of jews. To normalize the scores for all these states requires the NAEP score for jews to be set at 265, which again is considerably lower than the average: 16 points lower than Whites, and 14 points lower than Asians.

Race by State

blacks

Whites

Hispanic

Asian

Indian

jews

New Jersey

14.60%

37.20%

12.40%

5.80%

0.10%

30.0%

New York

20.30%

27.40%

17.60%

5.20%

0.50%

29.0%

Nebraska

6.00%

85.40%

4.90%

1.30%

1.40%

1.0%

Minnesota

5.20%

86.40%

2.20%

4.10%

1.90%

0.2%

Utah

0.70%

88.40%

6.00%

2.40%

1.50%

1.0%

Wyoming

1.20%

88.20%

6.20%

0.80%

2.80%

0.8%

N. Dakota

0.90%

88.20%

1.10%

0.70%

8.10%

1.0%

Iowa

3.40%

90.60%

2.40%

1.60%

0.50%

1.5%

Scores by State

SAT M original

431

491

480

580

437

491

SAT M adjusted

431

576

480

Read the original post:
jews – Fathers’ Manifesto

Jews – Encyclopedia of Ukraine

Jews (Ukrainian: , , ; zhydy, iudei, ievre). Jews first settled on Ukrainian territories in the 4th century BC in the Crimea and among the Greek colonies on the northeast coast of the Black Sea (see Ancient states on the northern Black Sea coast). From there they migrated to the valleys of the three major riversthe Volga River, Don River, and Dnieper Riverwhere they maintained active economic and diplomatic relations with Byzantium, Persia, and the Khazar kaganate. The latter empire consisted of Turkic tribes that converted to Judaism in about 740 AD. In the aftermath of Khazaria’s conquest in 964 by the Kyivan prince Sviatoslav I Ihorovych, Khazarian Jews settled in Kyiv, the Crimea (see Karaites), and Caucasia.

Throughout the 11th and 12th centuries Khazarian Jews steadily migrated northwards. In Kyivan Rus the Jewish population developed a distinct presence. In Kyiv they settled in their own district called Zhydove, the entrance to which was called the Zhydivski vorota (Jewish gate). Jews fleeing the Crusaders came to Ukraine as well, and the first western-European Jews began to arrive from Germany, probably in the 11th century.

The Kyivan princes Iziaslav Mstyslavych and Sviatopolk II Iziaslavych, Prince Danylo Romanovych of Galicia-Volhynia, and the Volhynian prince Volodymyr Vasylkovych were well disposed to their Jewish subjects and assisted their activities in trade and finance. Jews were also appointed to administrative and financial posts. However, as in other parts of Europe, this benevolent treatment was not consistent. During the Kyiv Uprising in 1113 the Zhydove district was ransacked, and during the rule of Volodymyr Monomakh Jews were expelled from Kyiv. The Mongol conquest of the Crimea and of Kyivan Rus strengthened commercial relations, and brought peace and prosperity to the Jewish community up to the time of the Tatar-Lithuanian War (139699).

The expulsion of the Jews from the states and cities of Western and Central Europe in the 13th15th centuries led Jews to flee eastward, to Austria, Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and the Ottoman Empire. By 1500, Jews living in Ukrainian lands under Polish rule could be found in 23 towns and constituted one-third of all Jews in the Polish kingdom. The central European Jews (ashkenazim) spoke Yiddish (a German dialect), wore distinctive dress, and lived apart from the local population, either in separate districts or ghettos of cities, or in small, predominantly Jewish, settlements (shtetl). They were usually poorer than the earliest Jewish immigrants to Ukraine. Barred from owning land and from the professions, the majority of Jews were engaged in modest occupations, as artisans and in petty trade. Protected by the Polish monarchs against hostile nobles and urban dwellers, Jews were directly subordinate to the king, paying a separate tax for which they were collectively responsible. In return, royal decrees (dating back as early as 1264) allowed the Jews to govern themselves. In 1495 King Alexander Jagielloczyk established autonomous local governments (see Kahal), with jurisdiction over schools, welfare, the lower judiciary, and religious affairs. From the mid-16th century to 1763 the central institution of Jewish life in the Polish Kingdom was the Council of the Four Lands (Great Poland, Little Poland, Chervona Rus [Galicia], and Volhynia). The council met semiannually (later irregularly), with the site alternating between Jarosaw and Lublin, to apportion the responsibility for taxes and decide on matters of concern to the Jewish community.

In the late 15th century Jews from Poland and Germany began arriving in Ukrainian territories under Lithuanian rule (especially the Kyiv region and Podilia). Kyiv became a famous center of Jewish religious education. This period was also one of suffering for both the indigenous and the Jewish populations because of the Tatar raids. In 1482 many Jews were seized by the Tatars and sold into slavery in the Crimea.

The largest migration of Jews to Ukrainian territories took place in the last quarter of the 16th century. Some came from other parts of Poland and Lithuania to settle the newly opened areas; others from as far as Italy and Germany. In 1569, with the creation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (see Union of Lublin) and the transfer of Ukraine from Lithuanian to Polish administration, vast areas of Ukraine were opened to colonization and to commercial agricultural development for trade with Western Europe. Between 1569 and 1648 the number of Jews in Ukraine increased from about 4,000 to nearly 51,325, dispersed among 115 towns and settlements in the Kyiv voivodeship, Podilia voivodeship, Volhynia voivodeship, and Bratslav voivodeship. If the older Jewish community in the Rus voivodeship and Belz voivodeship is included, at the turn of the century there were 120,000 Jews in Ukrainian territories, out of an estimated total population of 2 to 5 million. This rapid increase was a result not only of migration but also of natural population growth.

Jews began taking advantage of the new professional and economic opportunities in the frontier territories of Ukraine. As Polish and Lithuanian nobles accumulated more land, Jews came to act as their middlemen, providing indispensable services to the absentee and local lords as leaseholders of large estates, tax collectors (see Tax farming), estate stewards (with the right to administer justice, including the death penalty), business agents, and operators and managers of inns, dairies, mills, lumber yards, and distilleries. In trade, they supplanted Armenians and competed with urban Ukrainians. Jews came to be perceived as the immediate overlords of the peasantry and the most important competitors to the urban Christian Orthodox population.

The situation of the Jewish population became increasingly vulnerable in the early 17th century. Dissatisfaction with the difficult conditions on the part of the enserfed peasantry, the Cossacks, and urban Orthodox Ukrainians led to the 1648 uprising under Bohdan Khmelnytsky (see Cossack-Polish War). Polish landowners, Catholics, and Jews were the main victims of the uprising. In many cities, particularly in the Podilia and Volhynia regions and Left-Bank Ukraine, the Jewish population was decimated. Jewish eyewitness chroniclers (eg, Nathan Hanover) estimate the figure of casualties between 100,000 and 120,000. In light of the size of the estimated Jewish population in Ukraine in 1648 (51,325) this figure reflects rather the trauma of the experience and not the actual numbers. Nonetheless Jews, perceived as representatives of the Polish landlords, suffered greatly during the uprising. To escape persecution, some Jews converted to Christianity.

The status of Jews was very different in the Russian-dominated Hetman state. The Russian government was opposed to Jewish immigration and, beginning with Peter I, forbade Jews from settling in Left-Bank Ukraine. Nevertheless, because the economic value of Jewish settlers was recognized by officials of the Hetmanate, the decrees issued by Saint Petersburg for the expulsion of Jews from Left-Bank Ukraine were not always enforced, and several petitions were addressed to Saint Petersburg requesting permission to allow Jews in. Most Jews, however, lived in Right-Bank Ukraine, which remained under Polish control until 1772.

The economic hardship of the peasantry and the intensified national and religious oppression by Poland in these areas caused popular unrest that came to be directed also against Jews. This unrest was manifested in the Haidamaka uprisings, and especially the Koliivshchyna rebellion of 1768, when 50,00060,000 Jews perished out of a total Jewish population of about 300,000 in Right-Bank Ukraine. Nevertheless, Jewish immigration to Ukraine continued throughout the 18th century, and while most Jews lived in poverty, some began to acquire great wealth.

After the partition of Poland in the late 18th century, the presence of 900,000 Jews on what was now Russian imperial territory forced the Russian government to abandon its previous policy of exclusion of Jews from Russia proper. In 1772 (and 1791, 1804, 1835) the government established a territorial region called the Pale of Settlement beyond which Jewish settlement was prohibited. In Ukraine this area included almost all the former Polish-controlled territories; the Left-Bank Chernihiv gubernia and Poltava gubernia, except for the crown hamlets; New Russia gubernia; Kyiv gubernia, but not the city of Kyiv; and Bessarabia (1812). The Pale existed, with some special criteria permitting individual Jews to live outside it, until 1915.

During the reign of Alexander I (180125) the position of Jews initially improved as restrictions on their movement and enrollment in schools were eased and official anti-Semitic propaganda abated. Economically, Jews prospered in Southern Ukraine, where they played a major role in the grain trade; they acquired an especially strong presence in such commercial centers as Odesa, Kremenchuk, and Berdychiv. In 1817 Jews owned 30 percent of the factories in Russian-ruled Ukraine. Towards the end of Alexander’s rule, however, state-sponsored conversion attempts and expulsions from certain areas were encouraged.

Under Nicholas I (182555) official persecution of the Jews increased dramatically. Of the 1,200 laws affecting Jews between 1649 and 1881, more than half were instituted during his reign. Among these provisions were compulsory military service for Jews (1827), including the conscription of children; expulsions from cities (Kyiv, Kherson, and Sevastopol); abolition of the kahal (1844); banning of the public use of Hebrew and Yiddish; aggressive conversion measures; and further travel and settlement restrictions (1835). In 1844 a decree was issued that created new Jewish schools similar to the parish and district schools and that aimed to assimilate the Jews.

Jews benefited from the brief period of liberalism that initially characterized the reign of Alexander II (185581). With the rise of the Jewish emancipation movement a few restrictions were loosened: some Jewsamong them merchants of the first guild (1859), university graduates (1861), and various categories of artisans and tradesmen (1865)were granted freedom of movement; and conscription of Jews into the army was placed on the same basis as for other subjects of the empire (1856), which included the abolition of the conscription of children. By 1872 Jews were actively engaged in the major industries in Ukraine: they comprised 90 percent of all those occupied in distilling and 32 percent in the sugar industry. But with the Odesa pogrom in 1871, the momentum for reform was quickly reversed, especially after the assassination of the tsar, and new laws restricting Jewish economic activity were introduced. In 1873, the rabbinical college in Zhytomyr was transformed by the authorities into a secular school.

The reign of the tsar’s successors, Alexander III (188196) and Nicholas II (18961917), ushered in an era of state-supported pogroms (18812, 1903, 1905), charges of ritual murder in the Beilis affair (1913), expulsions from Kyiv (1886) and Moscow (1891), and stricter segregation of the Jewish population with in the Pale of Settlement (1882). Wide-scale pogroms took place in October 1905, when in one month 690 pogroms were carried out in 28 gubernias (of which 329 pogroms were in Chernihiv gubernia alone). Many of these outbursts were encouraged by the anti-Semitic Black Hundreds movement.

The government limited educational opportunities in 1887 and again in 1907 by placing a quota on Jews to be admitted to secondary schools and universities: 10 percent within the Pale of Setllement, 3 percent in Moscow and Saint Petersburg, and 5 percent in the rest of the empire. Jews could be admitted to the bar only with permission of the minister of justice (1887), and they could not vote in district zemstvo assembly elections (1890), even though they were obliged to pay zemstvo taxes. Economically, Jews were deprived of an important source of livelihood when the government forbade them to acquire property outside towns or large villages (1882), forcing them into the cities, and again (1894) when the state declared a monopoly on the sale of spirits, refusing Jews licences to sell spirits (see Propination). The desperate economic position of Jews in the Pale was reflected in the fact that 30 percent had to be supported by philanthropic relief. In essence, the Jews never achieved or were never granted emancipation under tsarist Russian rule.

The reaction to these repressive measures and activities was a dramatic increase in Jewish emigration to North America, increased support for the Zionist movement (the largest Jewish political movement by 1917), and active participation in all-Russian revolutionary or Jewish socialist political parties. Among the latter were the Bund and the smaller Jewish Socialist Labor party, Zionist Socialist Labor party, and Poale Zion.

During the First World War more than 500,000 Jews were deported from the military zones, and as the Russian army defeats increased, so the position of the Jews deteriorated. They were accused of being spies and traitors and of undermining the regime.

In Austria-Hungary, Jews did not receive rights equal to those of the general population until 1868. Until then, their rights were limited by the Josephine patents (see Joseph II), which sought to assimilate Jews and to involve them in agriculture. When Galicia (1772) and Bukovyna (1774) were incorporated into the Austro-Hungarian Empire, most Jews in Galicia were concentrated in the eastern part of this crown land. They made up about 11 percent of the population of Galicia both in 1869 (575,433) and in 1900 (811,183). Sixty percent of Jews were engaged in trade and commerce in an area where 75 percent of the population (and 94 percent of Ukrainians) earned its livelihood from agriculture and forestry. Jews formed an absolute majority in many important trading centers, such as Brody on the Russian border. Jews figured prominently as officials attached to the estates (stewards, overseers, labor recruiters); as storekeepers, leaseholders of Polish estates, and tavernkeepers; as officials in local government; and in the working class (as workers in the petroleum industry centered in the Drohobych- Boryslav Industrial Region).

Only about 60 percent of eastern Galicia’s Jews lived in cities and towns. Jews in rural areas represented a sizable portion of Galicia’s Jewish population, and they were an anomaly in comparison to Jewish demographic patterns elsewhere. Both in terms of their numbers and because of their precarious position as middlemen between lord and peasant, rural Jews were often the scapegoats for dissatisfaction and resentment. Many among the non-Jewish population shared a hostile view of Jews as exploiters and servants of the Polish nobility and landowners, even though the vast majority of Jews lived in poverty, like their Ukrainian neighbors. In contrast to conditions in the Russian Empire, however, there were no pogroms; rather, the social and economic character of this antagonism was expressed in political and economic competition. As a vulnerable minority, Jews in Galicia usually voted with the ruling Polish nation, and throughout the second half of the 19th century Poles and Jews worked closely during the elections to parliament. After universal male suffrage was proclaimed in 1907, some Jews (especially supporters of the Zionist movement) allied themselves with Ukrainian political parties.

The collapse of tsarism in March 1917 (see February Revolution of 1917) soon brought emancipation for the Jews in the Russian Empire. On 20 March the Provisional Government declared that Jews were now equal citizens; they were not, however, granted national minority status or autonomy.

In Ukraine, the Central Rada established in March 1917 decided in late July to invite the minority nationalities (Russians, Poles, and Jews) to join its ranks. As a result, 50 Jews, from all the major parties, joined the Central Rada and 5 joined the Little Rada. The Jewish parties were also represented in the General Secretariat of the Central Rada (later the Council of National Ministers of the Ukrainian National Republic). Moisei Rafes, a Bundist, took on the post of general controller. Within the secretariat of nationalities, departments were set up for each minority and Moishe Zilberfarb, of the United Jewish Socialist Workers’ party, was appointed under secretary for Jewish affairs. He became general secretary for Jewish affairs, with ministerial ranking, on the formation of the Ukrainian National Republic (20 November 1917), and then minister for Jewish affairs when the proclamation of Ukrainian independence was issued (25 January 1918). Responsibility for Jewish affairs under the Central Rada thus passed from a department (undersecretariat) to a secretariat and then to a ministry. An advisory council representing the main Jewish parties was formed on 10 October 1917 and the Provisional National Council of the Jews of Ukraine convened in November 1918. Yiddish was one of the languages used by the Central Rada on its official currency and in proclamations, and the law on national-personal autonomy gave non-Ukrainian nationalities the right to manage their national life independently. However, during the regime of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky (see Hetman government), this law was rescinded (9 July 1918) and the Ministry of Jewish Affairs abolished.

Under the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic, the Ministry of Jewish Affairs (headed at first by Abraham Revusky) was re-established, and the law on national-personal autonomy was re-enacted. From April 1919, as the Directory was forced to move constantly westwards, the minister of Jewish affairs was Pinkhas Krasny. Other Jews who occupied prominent positions in the Central Rada or Directory governments were Solomon Goldelman, a deputy minister of trade and industry and of labor, and Arnold Margolin, a member of the Ukrainian Party of Socialists-Federalists who was deputy minister of foreign affairs and a diplomatic representative in London and at the Paris Peace Conference talks. Several prominent Zionists also supported Ukrainian autonomy, including Vladimir Zhabotinsky, D. Pasmanik, and Joseph Schechtman.

The Central Rada government was the first in history to grant Jews autonomy (see National minorities), and its relationship with Jewish political parties was generally amicable. All Jewish parties in the Central Rada voted for the creation of the Ukrainian National Republic and, because they were categorically opposed to the Bolsheviks, saw the Republic as the only remaining parliamentary democracy. The subsequent declaration of independence, however, was opposed by the Bund, and the other Jewish parties, including the Zionists, abstained from voting. In general, the mainstream Jewish public did not respond positively to the Central Rada and Jews preferred a united all-Russian government to better represent the interests of the Jewish minority. Neither was there full confidence in the Ukrainian government’s ability or willingness to halt the spread of pogroms in Ukraine and to organize a strong military presence.

The scale of the pogroms during the struggle for independence (191720) in Ukraine was devastating for the Jewish population. The Whites (see Anton Denikin), peasant bands, otamans, and some units of the Army of the Ukrainian National Republic, having regarded Jews as pro-Bolshevik, all took part in these atrocities, as did the anarchists (see Nestor Makhno) and the Red Army. However, just before the formation of the Directory of the Ukrainian National Republic, elections to the Jewish communal councils indicated that of the 270,497 votes cast, 66 percent were for non-socialist parties (Orthodox and Zionist), while 34 percent voted for socialist party representatives.

The government and high command of the Army of the Ukrainian National Republic tried to combat the instigators of the pogroms. Orders were issued imposing courts-martial for pogromists and some executions were carried out. The government assisted pogrom survivors and co-operated with both the Jewish community and foreign representatives in investigations of the pogroms.

In Galicia, Jews were neutral in the Polish-Ukrainian conflict (see Ukrainian-Polish War in Galicia, 191819) but later supported the Western Ukrainian National Republic government. They were granted equality and national rights, including permission to create their own police units. Some Jews served in the ranks of the Ukrainian Galician Army (see Jewish Battalion of the Ukrainian Galician Army).

The consolidation of Bolshevik rule brought the Jewish community both hardships and opportunities. Under War Communism (191821), when free commerce was banned and private businesses nationalized, Jews suffered great economic setbacks. Moreover, the Bolsheviks seemed determined to destroy the last vestiges of organized Jewish life. In April 1919 they abolished most community organizations. As part of their general antireligious propaganda they also closed down many synagogues and outlawed religious and Hebrew education. In Ukraine the Bolsheviks pursued a vigorous anti-Yiddish policy aimed at assimilating Jews; eg, the number of Yiddish books published declined from 274 in 1919 to 40 in 1923.

At the same time, formal and informal restrictions against Jewish participation in government and administration were abolished, especially for those who chose the path of assimilation. Special Jewish sections (the so-called yevsektsii) were formed within the Communist Party to facilitate Jewish participation, and it was often these groups that most strongly attacked the Zionist and traditional Jewish parties. Individual Jews benefited from the pro-Russian and pro-urban orientation of the Party, and many became part of the system, especially in education, the economy, and the middle echelons of the Party administration and government. Although only one-half of 1 percent of the total Jewish population joined the Bolshevik party, they constituted a large percentage of all Bolsheviks in Ukraine, in 1922 approx 13.6 percent of the Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine (CP[B]U). Fully 15.5 percent of the delegates to the 5th and 7th All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets in 1921 and 1922 were of Jewish origin.

In an effort to consolidate the regime and broaden its support among the non-Russian nations, the Bolsheviks instituted a number of important changes in 1923. As a solution to the nationalities problem the policy of indigenization was adopted. This policy encouraged the use of national languages and the recruitment of non-Russians into the Party, education, and the government. It is difficult to judge what effect the Ukrainian version of indigenization, Ukrainization, had on Ukraine’s Jewish population. Since only 0.9 percent of all Ukrainian Jews (in 1926) declared their mother tongue to be Ukrainian, the introduction of Ukrainian as the official language certainly limited their opportunities in the Party, government, and scholarship. Moreover, the active recruitment of Ukrainians meant that the Jewish proportion would decline in these sectors. In 1923 Jews constituted 47.4 percent of students at higher educational institutions, but in 1929, only 23.3 percent, and their percentage in the CP(B)U fell from 13.6 in 1923 to 11.2 in 1926. Yet, in a speech to the 15th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) (CP[B]) in December 1927, Grigorii Ordzhonikidze, the head of the Central Control Commission of the Party, reported that Jews still constituted 22.6 percent of the governmental machinery in Ukraine and 30.3 percent in the city of Kyiv. The first secretary of the Central Committee of the CP(B)U from 1925 to 1926, Lazar Kaganovich, was of Jewish descent. In the end, Ukrainization was only a partial success, and it was finally abandoned in 1933 in favor of strict Russification.

Indigenization brought obvious benefits to the Jews as well. Jewish culture flourished in Ukraine, and several Yiddish theaters, institutes, periodical publications, and schools were established. Soviets in which the official language was Yiddish were established to administer the Jewish population: there were 117 such Soviets in 1926 and 156 by 1931. Moreover, Yiddish-language courts were set up, and the government offered a variety of services in Yiddish.

The New Economic Policy (NEP), which was introduced in 1921 to allow for some measure of private capitalist activity, was another significant development for the Jewish community. Many Jewish artisans re-established their private shops and at least 13 percent of all Ukrainian Jews became involved in commerce (1926). According to the census of 1926, fully 78.5 percent of all private factories in Ukraine under NEP were Jewish owned. This situation was short-lived. In the second half of the 1920s the Soviet authorities increasingly cut back on private capitalism, and NEP was for all practical purposes stopped by 1930.

In the 1920s the Soviet regime placed a major emphasis on changing the traditional social and economic structure of Jewish life, primarily by encouraging Jews to become engaged in agriculture. Jewish agricultural colonies had existed in Ukraine, especially Southern Ukraine, from the late 18th century. In 1924 the Soviet government setup two official bodies to promote Jewish rural settlement; they were assisted by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, which provided funds and machinery. From 69,000 in 1926, the number of Jewish farmers in the Ukrainian SSR increased to 172,000 in 1931; of these, 37,000 lived on colonies established under Soviet rule. One of the goals of some Jewish community leaders was the establishment of a Jewish territorial unitan autonomous oblast or even Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republicon Ukrainian territory. As a first step, three Jewish raions were established: Kalinindorf (in Kherson okruha), founded in 1927; Novozlatopil (Zaporizhia okruha), in 1929; and Stalindorf (Kryvyi Rih okruha), in 1930. Eventually this plan was abandoned, at least partly because of the opposition of Ukrainian government leaders who feared the truncation of their republic; instead, in 1934 the Birobidzhan Jewish Autonomous oblast was established in the Far East. In the second half of the 1930s, most Jews left these agricultural colonies, either for Birobidzhan or for the cities.

The end of indigenization brought an end to the renaissance of organized Jewish life in the USSR. The Yiddish-language governmental institutions, the yevsektsii, the Yiddish writers’ organizations, and many major cultural and scholarly institutions (eg, the Institute of Jewish Culture of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kyiv) were closed down, and the formal support given by the regime to Jewish developments was replaced by a growing official anti-Semitism. Many Jewish activists fell victims to the Stalinist terror of the 1930s.

In Western Ukraine during the interwar period strong economic competition from Ukrainian co-operatives and from private commercial and industrial firms eroded the economic base of Jewish life in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. The Polish government, and such Polish anti-Semitic groups as Rozwj, initiated anti-Jewish measures and activities. Despite the perception of economic antagonism between Jews and Ukrainians, there was some political co-operation: eg, in the 1922 and 1928 elections to the Polish Sejm, when Ukrainian and Jewish parties joined the coalition Bloc of National Minorities, and in the elections to the Czechoslovak and Romanian parliaments. Repressive Polish measures against Ukrainians and the co-operation of some Jewish leaders with the Polish government led to resentment of the Jews.

The first Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine (193941) followed the pattern already established in the USSR. On the one hand, Jewish national and cultural rights were limited, traditional institutions were abolished, and the economy was restructured and nationalized, bringing great hardships to artisans and merchants. On the other, individual Jews were given better opportunities as the official quotas, limiting their access to education and the professions, were abolished. Overall, many Jews welcomed the Soviet occupation, as it brought an end to the official anti-Semitism of the Polish regime and staved off the threat of Nazi occupation.

The German occupation of Ukraine during the Second World Warand, indeed, the entire war periodwas a tragedy for Ukrainian Jews (see Holocaust). Within the enlarged 1941 boundaries of the Soviet Union, 2.5 of the 4.8 million Jews were killed. In Western Ukraine only 2 percent (17,000) of the entire Jewish population survived. The destruction of Jews began in fall 1941, initially in central Ukraine and then in Western Ukraine. In Kyiv alone, 35,00070,000 Jews were murdered at Babyn Yar. Mass murder of Jews was carried out throughout Ukraine in 19424. Apart from the involvement of individuals and some organized auxiliary units, the Ukrainian population did not take part in these genocidal actions. Despite the penalty of death for aiding Jews, a number of Ukrainians, among them Metropolitan Andrei Sheptytsky, tried to save Jews.

The Jewish population suffered severe discrimination in the postwar years. The crackdown on Jewish community life intensified as the teaching of Hebrew was prohibited, the Yiddish theater was abolished, Yiddish publications were suspended, hundreds of Jewish leaders were arrested (1948), and Yiddish writers were imprisoned. Twenty-four of the more prominent leaders and writers in the USSR were executed after a secret trial in August 1952. In 1953 Joseph Stalin’s persecutions came to a head with the so-called doctors’ plot, in which nine doctors, six of them Jewish, were accused of conspiring with Western powers to poison Soviet leaders. Thousands of Jews were removed from official posts, particularly from the armed forces and security services, and their role in the Communist Party was reduced. In higher educational institutions quotas were imposed on the numbers of Jewish students admitted.

After Stalin’s death the situation for individual Jews improved somewhat, but the assimilatory campaign and repression of Jewish culture and religion continued. Anti-Semitism in the guise of anti-Zionism became part of Soviet internal and foreign policy. Soviet Ukrainian educational institutions were also used in this campaign; for example, the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in 1963 published T. Kichko’s anti-Semitic pamphlet, Judaism without Embellishment. Only about 60 synagogues survived into the 1980s in the USSR, and, of these, more than half were in Georgia.

After the 1967 Six-Day War in the Middle East and the emergence of the dissident movement in the Soviet Union, a strong Jewish emigration movement arose. In the 1970s there was a massive emigration of Jews from Ukraine to the West, including Israel and North America. Between 1970 and 1980, 250,000 Soviet citizens emigrated on Israeli visas. By 1980 severe restrictions were placed on Jewish emigration; it is estimated that in 1981 alone, approx 40,000 were refused permission to emigrate.

Ukrainian dissidents, including Ivan Dziuba, Sviatoslav Karavansky, Yevhen Sverstiuk, Viacheslav Chornovil, Leonid Pliushch, and Petro Grigorenko (Hryhorenko), have worked with Jewish activists (eg. E. Kuznetsov, A. Shifrin, A. Radygin, and Yosyf Zisels) in advocating Jewish-Ukrainian co-operation. Ukranskyi visnyk, the Ukrainian samvydav journal, continuously reported on the persecution of Jewish activists.

In 1979 Ukrainian Jewish migrs in Israel formed the Public Committee for Jewish-Ukrainian Cooperation, which in 1981 became the Society of Jewish-Ukrainian Relations, headed by Ya. Suslensky. Even earlier, in the 1950s, a commission of Jewish-Ukrainian affairs was established at the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in New York, and in 1953 the Association to Perpetuate the Memory of Ukrainian Jews was formed in New York, headed by Mendl Osherowitch.

Demography. At the end of the 19th century there were approx 3 million Jews living in ethnographic Ukrainian territories (see Table 1). Ukraine at that time had the highest concentration of Jews in the world, with some 30 percent of the total world population of Jewry (1.3 million Jews lived in Poland and 1.2 million in Lithuania and Belarus). In the eight Ukrainian gubernias of Russian-ruled Ukraine in 1897, 43.3 percent of all Jews worked in commerce, 32.2 in crafts and industry, 7.3 in private services, 5.8 in public services (including the liberal professions), 3.7 in communication, 2.9 in agriculture, and 4.8 in no permanent occupation.

Almost 60 percent of Ukrainian Jews lived in cities and constituted one-third of the urban population of the country. Because of their confinement to the Pale of Settlement, the Dnieper River served as a major demographic demarcation line. In Western Ukraine and Right-Bank Ukraine, Jews made up 1015 percent of the population, but in Left-Bank Ukraine, only 46 percent. In most cities of Western and Right-Bank Ukraine they constituted a relative majority (40 percent on average), while they formed an absolute majority in such cities as Berdychiv (78 percent), Uman (58 percent), and Bila Tserkva (53 percent).

The First World War and the subsequent upheavals of 191721 in the central and western lands led to a significant decrease in the Jewish population as a result of casualties and a sizable emigration. The abolition of the Pale of Settlement enabled Jews to move to other parts of the old Russian Empire as well as to eastern Ukraine and the Kuban region. As a result, the Jewish population in Ukrainian territories decreased from 8.3 percent of the total population in 1897 to 5.5 percent in 1926. (Jewish population distribution is given in Table 2.)

Overall, the greatest percentage decreases occurred in Right-Bank Ukraine, while the greatest increases occurred in Slobidska Ukraine (particularly in Kharkiv). The distribution of Jewish population by geographic region for 1897 and 1926 is given in Table 3.

Demographic data for the Ukrainian SSR in 1926 (see map: Jews in Ukraine in 192631) illustrate the high rates of Jewish urbanization: 26 percent of the total Jewish population lived in villages, 51.6 percent lived in cities of 100,000 or less, and 22.2 percent lived in cities with a population of more than 100,000. Moreover, the concentration of Jews in medium- and large-sized cities, a process that began in the 19th century, continued. Between 1897 and 1926, the number of Jews decreased by 33 percent in villages and by 22 percent in towns of less than 20,000; meanwhile, their number increased by 7 percent in cities of 20,000 to 100,000 and by 106 percent in cities of over 100,000. In 1897, 27.4 percent of Ukraine’s urban population was Jewish; in 1926, 22.8 percent.

The cities with the largest populations of Jews in 1926 (1897 figures in parentheses) were Odesa, 154,000 or 36.5 percent of the total population (140,000, 34.8 percent); Kyiv, 140,500 or 27.3 percent (31,800, 12.8); Kharkiv, 81,500 or 19.5 percent (11,000, 6.3); and Dnipropetrovske, 62,000 or 26.7 percent (40,000, 35.5). In 1931 Lviv’s Jewish population numbered 98,000 or 31.9 percent (in 1900 the respective figures were 44,300 and 26.5), and in Chernivtsi, 42,600 or 37.9 percent (21,600 or 32.8 percent). Before the First World War, Odesa had the third-largest Jewish population in the world after New York and Warsaw. According to the 1926 Soviet Ukrainian census, the distribution of the Jews by occupation was as follows: 20.6 percent in arts and crafts, 20.6 in public services (administrative work), 15.3 workers, 13.3 in commerce, 9.2 in agriculture, 1.6 in liberal professions, 8.9 unemployed, 7.3 of no profession; the rest were classified in a miscellaneous category. The proportion of Jews in economic administration was 40.6 percent, and in medical-sanitary administration, 31.9 percent.

The use, and even the knowledge, of Yiddish began to decline sharply in the 20th century, particularly in larger cities: in 1926 only 76 percent of Jews in the Ukrainian SSR claimed Yiddish as their mother tongue (70 percent of the urban and 95 percent of the rural population), while 23 percent listed Russian and barely 1 percent listed Ukrainian. The extent of Russification is evidenced by the fact that only 16 percent had no written knowledge of Russian and as many as 31 percent had no written knowledge of Yiddish (78 percent could not write in Ukrainian).

On the eve of the Second World War there were about 3 million Jews in Ukrainian lands; they constituted 20 percent of the total world Jewish population and 60 percent of the Jewish population of the USSR. During the war the Germans murdered most of the Jews in the territories they occupied. The only ones who survived were those who had been saved by Ukrainians at the risk of their own lives or were evacuated to the eastern reaches of the USSR before the German advance, and some in Transcarpathia, Bessarabia, and Bukovyna, where there was no direct German occupation, and where the deportation and extermination of the Jewish population was not as complete.

Since the Second World War the Jewish population in the Ukrainian SSR has declined steadily. In the 20 years from 1959 to 1979 it decreased by 24.5 percent, from 840,000 in 1959 to 777,000 in 1970 (which constituted 1.65 percent of the population of Ukraine, and 36.1 percent of the total Soviet Jewish population) and 634,000 in 1979. This decline has been caused by low birth rates, the rise in intermarriages, and, since 1971, mass emigration. Table 4 shows the 1959 and 1970 figures of the distribution of Jews in Kyiv and in oblasts in which they numbered more than 20,000. Jews now live almost exclusively in provincial centers and in larger cities. They are virtually absent in towns and villages.

Cultural life. From the very beginning of mass Jewish settlement in Ukraine, Jewish cultural and religious life was highly developed. The impressive stone synagogues throughout Ukraine serve as interesting historical monuments to Jewish material culture. The more notable ones, such as those in Volhynia (in Dubno, Lutsk, and Liuboml), date back to the 16th18th centuries. The Cossack uprisings of the 17th century, the destruction wrought by the Cossack-Polish War of 164857, and the general social and economic dislocations of the era initiated a period of great change for the Jewish population of Ukraine. Many Jewish scholars fled to the West, where they founded Talmudic centers in Holland, Germany, and Bohemia. Religious disillusionment spread and many Jews sought solace in a variety of ascetic or mystical movements. Hasidism, which was founded in Ukraine by Israel Ba’al Shem Tov, became the dominant religious trend in Western Ukraine. In the late 18th century the Haskalah or Enlightenment movement, inspired by Moses Mendelssohn, emerged. Adherents of this movement sought a synthesis of Jewish religious tradition with the demands of modern life. The Enlightenment movement later fostered the spread of Zionism, which had many adherents in Ukraine.

The rebirth of Hebrew and its application to modern life also originated with Jews from Ukraine. Ahad Ha-Am (18561927), who was born in the Kyiv region, is considered the founder of cultural or Spiritual Zionism. Also of Ukrainian origin are the famous Hebrew lyric poet Hayyim Nahman Bialik (18731934) and the poet Saul Tchernichowsky (18751943). The brilliant tradition of Yiddish culture in the 16th18th centuries was continued in Ukraine by Sholom Aleichem (Rabinovich, 18591916), who profoundly influenced an entire generation of Jewish writers. After 1920 Chernivtsi became an important center of Jewish culture.

The Jewish press developed rapidly from the mid-19th century. The first serials, published in Russian and Yiddish, appeared in Odesa; they included Rassvet (1860) and Zion (1861). In the early 20th century in Galicia, the Jewish daily Chwila and a number of other periodicals were established in Lviv.

In the Ukrainian SSR during the period 192334, Jews benefited from the granting of national rights and freedom for cultural development. Yiddish was recognized as an official language and used in administrative matters in Jewish soviets. Many Jewish periodicals were established; eg, Stern, the official organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and the All-Ukrainian Council of Trade Unions. All laws and government directives were also published in Yiddish. In the Ukrainian SSR in 1925 there were 393 trade and vocational schools in which the language of instruction was Yiddish, attended by 61,400 students or one-third of the total Jewish student population. There were four Jewish pedagogical institutes and separate departments in the Institute of People’s Education in Odesa. In 1928, 69,000 students attended 475 Jewish schools, and by 1931 there were 831 schools and 94,000 students. The closing of Jewish schools began in 19334, at the same time as the abolition of Ukrainization. By the start of the Second World War, the Jewish educational system had, for all practical purposes, been abolished.

The higher academic institutions devoted to the study of Jewish culture included the Hebraic Historical-Archeographic Commission and Chair of Jewish Culture of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, which became the Institute of Jewish Culture of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1929. The All-Ukrainian Mendele Mokher Seforim Museum of Jewish culture was established in Odesa, while the Central Jewish Library was located in Kyiv.

Jewish theaters, which had been prominent in the theatrical and artistic life of prerevolutionary Ukraine, continued to exist under Soviet rule. In 1922 permanent Jewish theaters were organized in Kyiv and Odesa, and a Jewish department of the Kyiv Institute of Theater Arts was established in 1934. Many Jewish poets and writers became active in the 1920s, publishing in Yiddish, including Leib Kvitko, I. Fefer, D. Feldman, Der Nister, Kh. Hildin, and A. Reizin. Their works were translated into Ukrainian by Pavlo Tychyna, Maksym Rylsky, and others. Jewish cultural activists were subjected to the same wave of repressions in the 1930s as were directed at Ukrainians and many Jewish institutions were closed by the authorities. After the Second World War all expressions of Jewish culture were stifled in Ukraine. From 1950 to 1952 a number of Jewish writers and cultural activists were murdered by the NKVD, among them D. Bergelson, D. Hofstein, Perets Markish, I. Fefer, L. Kvitko, P. Kaganovich (Der Nister), and A. Kushnirov.

Ukrainian themes are found in the works of Jewish writers active in Ukraine, such as M. Mokher Seforim (18361917), Sholom Aleichem, Sh. Frug, Sh. Asch, and B. Horowitz, and among those active in the diaspora, such as H.N. Bialik, Sh. Bikel, and R. Korn.

A number of Jewish writers became part of the general Ukrainian literary process: the poets Leonid Pervomaisky, Sava Holovanivsky, Ivan Kulyk, Abram Katsnelson; the prose writers Natan Rybak, Leonid Smiliansky; the dramatist L. Yukhvid; the literary historians and critics Yarema Aizenshtok, Aleksandr Leites, Samiilo Shchupak, Illia Stebun (Katsnelson), Oleksander Borshchahivsky, Yevhen Adelheim, and A. Hozenpud. Also active in Ukrainian circles were the historians Yosyf Hermaize and S. Borovoi and the linguist Olena Kurylo. Many of the above were repressed during the purges in the 1930s. In the 1970s and 1980s, the poets Leonid Kyselov (Kiselev) and Moisei Fishbein (the latter emigrated to the West in 1979) also wrote in Ukrainian.

Two of the more prominent translators of Ukrainian poetry were D. Hofstein, who published translations of Shevchenko’s poetry in 1937, and A. Klein, who published a collection of translations of Ukrainian folk works in Kolomyia, in 1936. An important role in the popularization of Ukrainian literature was played by Yakiv Orenshtain, the founder and owner of Ukrainska Nakladnia, a publishing house based in Kolomyia and Berlin. It was established in 1903 and in the next 30 years published hundreds of Ukrainian titles.

An interesting development was the attempt made by Jewish migrs to establish a Ukrainian theater in the United States. In Philadelphia, I. Ginzberg led a Jewish-Ukrainian acting company in 191012, I. Elgard (Izydor Elgardiv) led a touring theater group in 191617, and D. Medovy led his own Jewish-Ukrainian theatrical company in 191728. All of them staged Ukrainian plays and helped popularize them.

The unique nature of Jewish-Ukrainian relations is reflected in the Ukrainian oral tradition. The popular folk song of the traditional spring cycle de de Zelman hearkens back to the days when Jews held leases on Ukrainian churches. Motifs on Jewish privileges appeared frequently in the dumas. One of the so-called younger dumas is called Zhydivski utysky (Jewish Oppressions). In various vertep dramas and intermedes the sympathetic and comic figure of the Jew appears with the Zaporozhian cossack, the noble, and the Gypsy. Among the many Ukrainian authors who have portrayed Jews have been Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, Stepan Rudansky, Yakiv Shchoholiv, Tymotei Borduliak, Modest Levytsky, Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky, Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Oleksander Oles, Arkadii Liubchenko, Leonid Pervomaisky, Mykola Khvylovy, Borys Antonenko-Davydovych, Yaroslav Hrymailo, and Yurii Smolych.

Today the role of Jews in Ukraine has significantly decreased, although they remain the second largest minority after the Russians. (See also Anti-Semitism.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY Dubnow, S. History of the Jews in Russia and Poland from the Earliest Times until the Present Day, 3 vols (Philadelphia 191620) Mytsiuk, O. Agraryzatsiia zhydivstva Ukrany na tli zahalno ekonomiky (Prague 1933) Levitats, I. The Jewish Community in Russia, 17721844 (New York 1943) Greenberg, L. The Jews in Russia: The Struggle for Emancipation, 2 vols (New Haven 1944, 1951) Baron, S. A Social and Religious History of the Jews, 2nd rev edn, 17 vols (New York 195278) The Russian Jew under Tsars and Soviets (New York 1964) Ukrainians and Jews: A Symposium (New York 1966) Goldelman, S. Jewish National Autonomy in Ukraine 19171920 (Chicago 1968) Kochan, L. (ed). The Jews in Soviet Russia since 1917 (New York 1970) Gitelman, Z. Jewish Nationality and Soviet Politics: The Jewish Section of the CPSU (Princeton 1972) Weinryb, B.D. The Hebrew Chronicles on Bohdan Khmelnytskyi and the Cossack-Polish War, HUS, 1, no. 2 (June 1977) Frankel, J. Prophecy and Politics: Socialism, Nationalism, and the Russian Jews, 18621917 (New York 1981) Levitats, I. The Jewish Community in Russia, 18441917 (Jerusalem 1981) Redlich, S. Jews, in Guide to the Study of the Soviet Nationalities: Non-Russian Peoples of the USSR, ed by S. Horak (Littleton, Colo 1982) Mendelsohn, E. The Jews of East Central Europe between the World Wars (Bloomington, Ind 1983) Pinkus. B. The Soviet Government and the Jews, 19181967: A Documented Study (Cambridge 1984) Goldberg, J. Jewish Privileges in the Polish Commonwealth (London 1985) Aster, H.; Potichnyj, P. (eds). Jewish-Ukrainian Relations in Historical Perspective (TorontoEdmonton 2010)

Volodymyr Kubijovy, Vasyl Markus

[This article originally appeared in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 2 (1988). It will be updated.]

Original post:
Jews – Encyclopedia of Ukraine

Jews – Encyclopedia of Arkansas

Jews have always been a tiny minority of Arkansass population, yet their history in the state is long and deeply rooted. In the mid-nineteenth century, Jewish immigrants from Europe established communities and congregations throughout Arkansas. Despite their small numbers, Arkansas Jews have been committed to preserving their religious traditions even as they assimilated into the culture of their town and state. In the process, Jews became an active part of the states civic and economic life. As in many other Southern states and rural regions, the Jewish population has experienced significant decline over the past several decades, especially in small towns, though Jewish life and culture continues to flourish in Little Rock (Pulaski County) and the growing community of Bentonville (Benton County).

The first Jew to settle in Arkansas was Abraham Block, who opened a store in Washington (Hempstead County) by 1825, soon becoming one of the wealthiest men in the county. Block settled in Washington when Arkansas Territory had no Jewish congregations or institutions. He was a charter member of the regions first synagogue, Congregation Gates of Mercy in New Orleans, Louisiana, joining in 1828. Yet the lack of any organized Jewish life in Arkansas took a toll on his family, and few of his children remained in the faith. Blocks life in Arkansas highlights the challenges Jews have often faced in a state largely isolated from the centers of American Jewish life.

These difficulties eased a little as growing numbers of Jews from central Europe began to arrive in Arkansas before the Civil War. They were part of the German wave of Jewish immigration, settling primarily in the large cities of the Northeast and the Midwest. But a significant minority of Jews from Germany and from Alsace-Lorraine settled in the rural South, including Arkansas. At the time of the Civil War, they had established small but growing communities in Little Rock, Fort Smith (Sebastian County), Pine Bluff (Jefferson County), DeValls Bluff (Prairie County), Van Buren (Crawford County), Jonesboro (Craighead County), and Batesville (Independence County). Despite their relatively short time in the state, Jews felt closely tied to their new home. Of the approximately 300 Jews in Arkansas at the time of the war, over seventy fought for the Confederacy.

After the war, as Arkansas became increasingly tied to national trading markets, Jewish peddlers and merchants were drawn to the state. With close economic connections to Jewish wholesalers in Memphis, Tennessee; St. Louis, Missouri; Cincinnati, Ohio; and Louisville, Kentucky, these merchants fanned out across Arkansas, helping to develop isolated parts of the state. Fourteen towns in Arkansas were founded by Jews or named after early Jewish residents, including Altheimer (Jefferson County), Berger (Pulaski County), Bertig (Greene County), Felsenthal (Union County), and Goldman (Jefferson County).

Arkansas Jews began to form religious institutions soon after they began arriving in significant numbers. In 1839, the small but growing number of Jews in Little Rock began to worship together. It was not until 1866 that the states first Jewish congregation, Bnai Israel in Little Rock, was chartered. Soon after, a spate of congregations was formed in the state, reflecting how widely Jews had settled in Arkansas. In 1867, Congregation Anshe Emeth of Pine Bluff and Temple Beth El of Helena (Phillips County) were founded. Congregations were also founded in Camden (Ouachita County) in 1869, Hot Springs (Garland County) in 1875, Texarkana (Miller County) in 1884, Jonesboro in 1896, Newport (Jackson County) in 1901, Dermott (Chicot County) in 1905, Eudora (Chicot County) in 1912, Osceola (Mississippi County) in 1913, Forrest City (St. Francis County) in 1914, Wynne (Cross County) in 1915, Marianna (Lee County) in 1920, Blytheville (Mississippi County) in 1923, El Dorado (Union County) in 1926, McGehee (Desha County) in 1947, Fayetteville (Washington County) in 1981, and Bentonville in 2004.

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, a new wave of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe began to arrive in the United States. Pushed to leave Europe by anti-Semitic violence and legal restrictions, the new arrivals crowded into the urban ghettos of the Northeast and the Midwest. A few came to the South, often drawn by family ties and economic opportunity. Arkansass Jewish population swelled from this influx of immigrants. In 1878, 1,466 Jews lived in Arkansas, most from Germany or Alsace. By 1927, just after national immigration restriction ended the Eastern European immigration wave, 8,850 Jews lived in Arkansas. These newcomers followed the path cut by earlier Jewish immigrants, beginning as roving peddlers and working their way up to retail store ownership. In many small towns, these Eastern European Jews fit into the congregations and societies that the German Jews had founded. Where their numbers were great enough, Eastern European Jews formed congregations that were more orthodox in practice. Most of the states early congregations had become Reform by the end of the nineteenth century, incorporating English prayers, mixed-gender seating, and other elements of Protestant Christian worship. Eastern European Jews founded their own separate Orthodox congregations in Little Rock, El Dorado, Fort Smith, Hot Springs, Jonesboro, and Pine Bluff.

One of the most interesting, if short-lived, settlements was Am Olam, founded near Newport in 1883 as a Jewish agricultural colony. Jewish leaders in the United States and Europe had long feared that Jews were too concentrated in commercial trade and sought to encourage them to engage in manual labor and farming. The Am Olam movement, founded in Russia, was influenced by ideas of utopian socialism. In February 1883, 150 Jews from Russia arrived in Arkansas to form their commune. To support themselves, they decided to cut trees to provide staves to a lumber company. Heat, humidity, malaria, and yellow fever conspired to destroy the settlement as ninety percent of its residents became ill, and twenty died. After a miserable year, the remaining settlers decided to try their luck in other parts of the United States.

When the first rabbi settled in Arkansas in the 1870s, state law required that a minister be Christian to officiate at a wedding. After a lobbying effort by Arkansas Jews, the legislature amended the law to include rabbis. This established a tradition of welcoming Jews into the civic life of the state. While there were certainly examples of anti-Semitism in Arkansas, these were more the exception than the rule. The experience of Simon Bloom, who served as mayor of Pine Bluff reflects this. When he first ran for mayor in 1913, his opponent ran an anti-Semitic campaign, but Bloom was elected anyway. He served as mayor of Pine Bluff from 1913 to 1919.

Arkansas Jews have been very involved in civic affairs. They have served as mayors of Little Rock, Dumas (Desha County), Helena (Phillips County), El Dorado, Holly Grove (Monroe County), West Memphis (Crittenden County), and Pine Bluff. Jonas Levy was elected to the Little Rock City Council in 1857 and served as mayor throughout the Civil War. Several Jews were elected to local office and the legislature. Charles Jacobson, a close ally of populist governor and senator Jeff Davis, served two terms in the state Senate. Samuel Levine represented Pine Bluff in the state House and Senate for twenty years; he even ran for lieutenant governor. This high degree of political involvement was not unique to Arkansas, as Jews across the South won election to political office in areas where they were a tiny minority. Their prominent role in the Southern merchant class usually served as their entree into local politics.

Despite the fact that they were always less than half a percent of Arkansass population, Jews have played an important role in the states social and economic development. The Kempner, Blass, and Pfeifer families all owned leading department stores. Howard Eichenbaum was a celebrated architect who designed many significant buildings in Little Rock. Jacob Trieber of Helena was the first Jew in the United States appointed as a federal judge, serving the Eastern Arkansas district from 1900 to 1927. Julian Waterman was the first dean of the University of Arkansas Law School. Rabbi Ira Sanders, who served Little Rocks Congregation Bnai Israel from 1926 to 1963, became an outspoken supporter of racial equality during the civil rights era. Cyrus Adler, who was born in Van Buren, became one of the most prominent Jewish leaders in the country in the early twentieth century, serving as president of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, the American Jewish Committee, and the American Jewish Historical Society.

In 1937, the year of the most comprehensive study of the countrys Jewish population, 6,510 Jews lived in seventy-two Arkansas towns. Little Rock had the largest community, with 2,500 Jews, while thirty-seven towns had ten or fewer. In the second half of the twentieth century, the states Jewish population steadily decreased. By 2008, an estimated 1,725 Jews lived in the state. Congregations in Helena, Blytheville, and El Dorado had closed, while others struggled to survive. The Jewish population has become concentrated in a few communities such as Little Rock, Hot Springs, Fayetteville, Fort Smith and Bentonville. In 1937, thirteen cities in Arkansas had more than fifty Jews. In 2008, only ffive did. As of 2008, only congregations in Little Rock and Bentonville had full-time rabbis.

Bentonville has been an exception to the downward trend. In the twenty-first century, as Wal-Mart has encouraged major suppliers to open offices in its corporate hometown, Bentonville has seen its Jewish population skyrocket. In 2004, a dozen Jews founded Bentonvilles first Jewish congregation, Etz Chaim, which quickly became the states fastest-growing congregation, hiring its first full-time rabbi in 2006. Most of the founding members of Etz Chaim are not Arkansas natives. Unlike the peddlers and merchants who initially settled in Arkansas, these twenty-first-century migrants are executives at large corporations. They represent the generation of Jewish professionals who have largely replaced the Jewish merchant class in the Souths metropolitan areas.

With this tremendous growth in Bentonville, the states Jewish population likely will remain steady, though small Jewish congregations and communities will continue to decline. Many Jewish children raised in Arkansas do not return home after college; they seek greater economic opportunity elsewhere, the same impulse that brought Jews to Arkansas in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

For additional information:Arkansas Hadassah Collection. Butler Center for Arkansas Studies. Central Arkansas Library System, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Arsenault, Raymond. Charles Jacobson of Arkansas: A Jewish Politician in the Land of Razorbacks, 18911915. In Turn to the South: Essays on Southern Jewry, edited by Nathan Kaganoff and Melvin Urofsky. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1979.

Evans, Eli. The Provincials: A Personal History of Jews in the South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.

Ferris, Marcie Cohen, and Mark Greenberg, eds. Jewish Roots in Southern Soil. Lebanon, NH: University Press of New England, 2006.

Goldring/Woldenburg Institute of Southern Jewish Life.http://www.isjl.org(accessed July 22, 2014).

Hieke, Anton. Jewish Identity in the Reconstruction South: Ambivalence and Adaptation. New Perspectives on Jewish History No. 4. Boston: De Gruyter, 2013.

LeMaster, Carolyn Gray. A Corner of the Tapestry: A History of the Jewish Experience in Arkansas, 1820s1990s. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1994.

Markus, David Micah. Of the House of Israel in America: The Archeology of Judaism, Slavery, and Assimilation on the Arkansas Frontier. MA thesis, University of Arkansas, 2011.

Records of Temple Beth El (Helena, Arkansas), undated, 18752006. American Jewish Historical Society. Center for Jewish History, New York, New York.

Weissbach, Lee Shai. Jewish Life in Small-Town America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005.

Zilbergeld, Nancy, and Nancy Britton. The Jewish Community in Batesville, Arkansas, 18531977. Independence County Chronicle 21 (April 1980).

Stuart Rockoff Goldring/Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life

Read this article:
Jews – Encyclopedia of Arkansas

World’s 50 most influential Jews – Jewish World – Jpost.com

The story is told, in several cultural variations, of a Jewish man spotting a friend reading an Arabic newspaper. Moshe, have you lost your mind? he says.

Well, I used to read the Jewish papers, but what did I find? Moshe replies. Jews being persecuted, Israel being attacked, Jews disappearing through assimilation, Jews living in poverty. So I switched to an Arab newspaper. Now what do I find? Jews own the banks, Jews control the media, Jews are all rich and powerful, Jews rule the world. The news is so much better!

In what is planned as an annual media event, The Jerusalem Post has chosen the worlds leading 50 Jewish movers and shakers based on a range of criteria, including personal access to power, ability to exert influence and individual talent.

The Posts list of the 50 most influential Jews in the world was not designed to feed the anti-Semitic stereotype that Jews control the world. Nor should it be construed as a source of religious or national pride, because while those on the list all identify themselves as Jews, Judaism and Israel are not necessarily central to their careers.

The candidates were chosen from all walks of life for their ability to fashion the face of the future. Many hold positions of power or prestige, while others are prominent personalities who exert extraordinary influence in Israel, the Jewish world or on the wider world stage.

They include an impressive array of high-powered politicians and business executives, top bankers and hi-tech giants, revered rabbis and media moguls as well as thinkers, musicians, movie makers, artists, writers, trend-setters, sports people and comedians.

We sought a good mix of Israelis and non-Israelis, religious and secular, figures from across the political spectrum, men and women. We warmly congratulate those on the list, and thank those who responded to being chosen.

To those who were excluded, either deliberately or unwittingly, we apologize. We omitted New Zealands Prime Minister John Key, for example, because although his mother is Jewish, he identifies himself as agnostic and, with respect, how important is Wellington on the world map?

Our list is headed by Israels prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu. Netanyahu has become well known around the world for his political dexterity and eloquence in English. Heading a relatively stable coalition, his actions on the diplomatic track over the next year will inevitably have an enormous impact not only on the troubled Middle East but on the Jewish world at large.

In his response to being chosen by The Jerusalem Post and our Internet readership around the world on jpost.com as the most influential Jew in the world, Netanyahu told our reporter, Herb Keinon: The fact that the Prime Minister of the State of Israel is viewed as being the worlds most influential Jew is a historic vindication of the miracle of Zionism.

It may be no historic accident that the leader of the most powerful nation in the world, Barack Obama, recently approved a second term for Ben Bernanke as Federal Reserve chairman, and chose Jews to be his closest advisers: Rahm Emanuel, the tough White House chief of staff, David Axelrod, his savvy political adviser and Dan Shapiro, the top Middle East expert on the National Security Council.

He also happens to be friendly with several Jewish leaders, including Alan Solow and Lee Rosenberg, who are both on our list.

Second on the list is Bernanke, the man who holds the purse strings of the richest nation on the planet and is credited with steering the US out of a severe financial crisis. He is followed by Emanuel, who arguably has the most influence on the American president and certainly has his ear whenever he needs it.

It is on Shavuot that we read the Book of Ruth, perhaps the most famous convert in the Bible. Ruths acceptance of Judaism is based on her acceptance of the Torah, and King David is believed to be her great-grandson. Jewish tradition has it that David, one of the greatest figures in the Bible, was born and died on Shavuot.

Coincidentally, two of our top 50 personalities are named Ruth Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court, and Prof. Ruth Arnon, a renowned Israeli biochemist credited with developing a drug against multiple sclerosis.

Considering their small numbers, Jews have fared disproportionately well in lists of the worlds most powerful and richest people, as well as in Nobel Prizes.

The world Jewish population is estimated at being 02. percent of the total populace some 13.5 million, with just over 5.7 million in Israel, 5.6 million in the US, half a million in Russia and France, 280,000 in the UK and 200,000 in Germany.

Yet in Vanity Fairs latest list of the 100 most powerful people in the world, 51 are Jews. Ten of the 50 people on this years Forbes annual billionaires list are Jewish. Of the 802 Nobel prizes handed out to date, 162 have gone to Jews.

In Michael H. Harts book, The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, seven are Jews.

Jews have also featured prominently on Times annual list of the worlds 100 most influential people, and in 1999, the magazine named Albert Einstein person of the century.

IN A SHORT story by Philip Roth, a talent scout sends a letter to Einstein proposing that the renowned scientist host a weekly radio show to help reduce anti-Semitism.

I would like them to know that the genius of all time is a Jew, he writes. The world must know and soon… that when it comes to smart, we are the tops.

Four years ago, John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt shook the Jewish world by writing a paper, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, on what they perceived as the exaggerated influence of the Jewish lobby.

After being named by the pair as a key member of the media wing of the Israel lobby, Mortimer Zuckerman a former head of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations replied sardonically: I would just say this: The allegations of this disproportionate influence of the Jewish community remind me of the 92-year-old man sued in a paternity suit. He said he was so proud, he pleaded guilty.

Asked by reporter Greer Fay Cashman for his response on being chosen for our list, President Shimon Peres said that he tells both religious and non-religious Jews that the best example to follow is that of the Rambam (Maimonides), who was great in his Jewishness and great in medicine without one contradicting the other.

How much influence do Jews wield in the world, and how influential are those on our list? We leave you to judge.

1. Binyamin Netanyahu Prime Minister of Israel Serving his second year in his second term, Netanyahu, 60, is the first premier to have been born after the states creation. Netanyahu has arguably gone further than any of his predecessors in easing the plight of Palestinians in the West Bank and freezing settlement construction. In his seminal Bar-Ilan University speech last year, the Likud leader accepted the idea of a Palestinian state for the first time, and is currently overseeing proximity talks with the Palestinians that he hopes to galvanize toward a final settlement to the Middle East conflict.

Netanyahus ratings soared this month as Israel was accepted to be a member of the OECD.

Netanyahu responds: The fact that the Prime Minister of the State of Israel is viewed today as being the worlds most influential Jew demonstrates the historic change that Zionism has brought about in the condition of the Jewish people.

A scattered, powerless people has been able to reassert its national life in its own sovereign state, in its ancestral homeland. From being mere spectators on the international stage, today the Jews control their own destiny and have returned as a people to the family of nations. Free, democratic and able to defend itself against threats and adversity, Israel doesnt just survive, it flourishes. Today, within the State of Israel, the creativity and genius of the Jewish people are bursting forth in every area: in science; in technology; in entrepreneurship; in medicine; in the arts.

When Israel was established in 1948, only some 5% of the worlds Jewish population lived in the new state. Today, Israel contains the largest Jewish community in the world.

This honor awarded to the Prime Minister of the Jewish State is a testament to the profound transformation that has occurred in the reality of life for the Jewish People over the last 62 years. 2. Ben Bernanke The chairman of the US Federal Reserve.

In announcing his second term until 2014, President Obama said Bernankes background, temperament, courage and creativity helped prevent another Great Depression. Time named him person of the year last year. Bernanke, 56, wrote his doctoral thesis at MIT in 1979 on Long-term commitments, dynamic optimization, and the business cycle and his thesis adviser was none other than Stanley Fischer, the current governor of the Bank of Israel.

3. Rahm Emanuel White House chief of staff.

Emanuel is believed by some critics to be a key player in Barack Obamas more critical stance on Israel an adviser with the expertise to strongly influence the president. He is believed by others to be a crucial bulwark, limiting Washington-Jerusalem frictions.

His father, an Israeli doctor, caused a stir by telling Maariv after his appointment by President Obama: Obviously, hell influence the president to be pro-Israel. Why wouldnt he? What is he, an Arab? Known as a tough guy, Emanuel flew to Israel as a volunteer during the first Iraq war and is said to be the model for Josh Lyman on the popular TV series, The West Wing.

4. Sergey Brin Founder of Google

Together with Larry Page, whose maternal grandmother was Jewish, the Russian-born Brin founded Google, the worlds largest Internet company, and they are often referred to as the Google Guys. Brin, 36, and Page, 37, met at Stanford, where they suspended their doctoral studies to start up Google in a rented garage.

The Economist calls Brin an Enlightenment Man who believes that knowledge is always good, and certainly always better than ignorance and in the Google mantra, Dont be evil! (Board chairman Eric Schmidt famously quipped that Evil is whatever Sergey says is evil.) The duo have visited Israel several times, once for the 80th birthday of Shimon Peres.

5. Shai Agassi Founder of Better Place

Agassi, 42, has become a pioneer in alternative energy under the auspices of the company he founded in 2007.

After being endorsed by the Israeli government in 2008, Better Place has negotiated contracts on electric cars with more than two dozen countries. The Israeli entrepeneur was named by Time as the worlds most influential businessman in 2003 and one of its 100 most influential people last year.

6. Dominique Strauss-Kahn Head of the International Monetary Fund

Strauss-Kahn, 61, was professor of economics at the University of Paris, where he obtained his doctorate, and became a member of parliament for the Socialist Party in 1986. He was chosen as managing director of the International Monetary Fund in 2007 and is expected to run for president of France in 2012.

The IMF played a key role in the recent European decision to pass a trillion-dollar plan to aid Greece.

7. Shimon Peres President of Israel

Peres, who is 86, arguably wields more power and prestige than any of his predecessors. After a career marked by controversy and confrontation, in which he gained the reputation of being a serial loser, Peres has finally emerged as a consensus figure admired not only by the outside world but by the majority of Israelis too.

He maintains a more than correct relationship with the prime minister, who appreciates the international credibility and access offered by the Nobel peace laureate, even as he asserts a greater Palestinian willingness for compromise than Binyamin Netanyahu believes exists.

Peres responds: I would like to discover ways to enter the New Age while being Jewish and modern at the same time. Traveling is not such a big deal today, and I imagine that many of the Jewish people who do not live in Israel can develop a way of life which they can share in two places. I would like to see a Jewish lifestyle which on the one hand is as old as the Ten Commandments and on the other is as modern as nanotechnology.

8. David Axelrod Senior White House Adviser Barack Obamas top political adviser helps the president craft and communicate his policy, and calmed tempers during the latest spat between the US and Israel.

Before entering the White House, Axelrod, 55, was a political writer for the Chicago Tribune and founded AKP&D Message and Media. He managed Obamas presidential campaigns in 2004 and 2008.

In an Israel Independence Day address in Washington this year, Axelrod said: Lets not confuse the occasional dispute over policy with the fundamental relationship that has guided our two nations for so long and will continue to guide our two nations.

Axelrod responds: My father was a Jewish immigrant who fled the pogroms and came to America in search of freedom and opportunity. I carry the memory of my family’s miraculous journey with me every day. 9. Alan Dershowitz Law professor, Israel advocate

Dershowitz, 71, is an internationally respected jurist who has served as an attorney in several high-profile cases, including that of OJ Simpson. At 28, he became the youngest law professor in Harvards history. Married to a psychologist from Israel, Dershowitz has become famous for his eloquent advocacy for Israel and commentary on the Middle East conflict.

Dershowitz responds: My career has generally been reactive to where I think the great crises of human rights are, and the unfair attacks. So in the 60s I was very active in the civil rights movement. I went down south. I spent my time defending lots of African Americans and other discriminated-against groups. Then in the late 60s and 70s I was very active in the anti-war, ant-Vietnam movement, defending lots of people who were prosecuted for their views on Vietnam the Pentagon Papers case, the Chicago Seven case, those cases. In the mid-70s, I turned my attention to Soviet dissidents and Soviet Jews, because they were the ones who were mostly in need. And then when the world started to really turn against Israel, and particularly when the hard left started to turn so heavily against Israel, it was perfectly consistent with my career and my commitment to human rights to turn to Israel. The case against Israel has increased both in the court of public opinion and real courts. So I suspect I will be spending more and more time in Israel.

10. Elena Kagan US Supreme Court nominee

Kagan, 50, is the first woman to be solicitor general of the US, and has just been named as Barack Obamas nominee to the Supreme Court, where she would become the third woman and third Jew to sit on the court. Kagan, a liberal Democrat, was formerly the dean of the prestigious Harvard Law School and a professor at the University of Chicago, as well as serving as associate White House counsel under Bill Clinton.

A Democrat and supporter of Obama, she is capable of swinging the court to the left, while making key judicial decisions on the freedom of religion and choice.

11. Alan Solow Chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations

Solow, 55, is a charismatic Jewish leader, top Chicago lawyer and friend of President Barack Obama.

Tablet Magazine calls him the Go-Between the putative spokesman for American Jewry played a key role in resolving the recent crisis between the US and Israel.

Solow responds: This recognition by he Jerusalem Post in reality reflects the critical role played by the Conference, especially during a time period when we have seen transitions in the leadership of both the United States and Israel. Our goal as always, whether working publicly or in private (and we do both), is to promote the strongest possible relationship between two democratic allies. We have also been extremely active in raising public awareness and urging swift action to stop Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons capability. To the extent that my work has made a contribution to these efforts, I am delighted. In my capacity as Conference Chair, I often interact with senior American and Israeli officials, and I have had the opportunity to meet with President Obama and advocate directly to him. I am pleased to report that our access to government officials in the United States and Israel is excellent.

It is certainly humbling to be included in such outstanding company. Moving forward, we will work relentlessly to make certain that a clear Jewish voice is heard where policy is made and implemented.

12. Ehud Barak Defense Minister

Barak, 68, in his second term, has proved to be an adept diplomat and master strategist. He is involved not only in safeguarding Israel from its enemies, including Iran, but in the diplomatic process with the Palestinians and Arab states as well. He is arguably the most senior Israeli minister with whom the Obama administration is most comfortable, being perceived as relatively dovish, capable, worldly and calm.

13. Irwin Cotler Canadian MP, human rights activist

Cotler, 70, is a member of the Canadian Parliament for the Liberal Party and a former justice minister and attorney general. He was previously a professor of law at McGill University and the director of its Human Rights Program, becoming an expert in international and human rights law.

A staunch defender of Israel from a human rights vantage point, and a very frequent visitor here, he is widely credited with having influenced Canadas current supportive stance on the Jewish state.

14. Michael Bloomberg Mayor of New York

Bloomberg, 68, founder of the Bloomberg media company, successfully campaigned to change the law and win a third term as mayor last year. As mayor, he is currently having to deal with an apparent renewal of terrorism in the city. Listed by Forbes as the eighth richest person in the US, Bloomberg declines to receive a city salary, accepting remuneration of $1 annually for his services.

15. Bernard Kouchner Foreign Minister, France

Although he is currently serving in a right-wing government, the French foreign minister was previously considered a center-left politician. Kouchner, 70, was a co-founder of Mdecins Sans Frontires (Doctors Without Borders).

At the forefront of the international struggle against Irans nuclear program, he once stated that while France was committed to a diplomatic resolution and that no military action was planned, an Iranian nuclear weapon would pose a real danger for the whole world.

16. Gabi Ashkenazi IDF Chief of General Staff

The 56-year-old IDF chief is credited with restoring pride in the military and has a good relationship with his US counterpart, Michael Mullen, who awarded him the prestigious Legion of Merit.

He emphasized a quiet back-to-basics approach in the IDF that saw it fight far more effectively in Operation Cast Lead against Hamas in 2008-9 than it had in the Second Lebanon War against Hizbullah in 2006.

17. Stanley Fischer Bank of Israel Governor

The 66-year-old Bank of Israel governor, who began a second five-year term this year, is credited with stabilizing Israels economy during the international financial crisis. He has also maintained a relationship with his former protg, Palestinian Authority Prime Minister Salam Fayyad, that has helped enable Palestinian economic growth of some 10 percent in the West Bank over the past year.

18. Avigdor Lieberman Foreign Minister

The Soviet-born foreign minister, 51, is a key player in Middle East peace negotiations. As the founder and leader of the Israel Beiteinu Party, he believes that all Israeli citizens should have to sign a loyalty oath.

He is currently being investigated by police for alleged corruption, but has a huge political following, especially among FSU immigrants and on the Right.

19. Sheldon Adelson Entrepreneur and philanthropist

The wealthy American casino king, 76, is a big supporter of the Republican Party and Israel, and has been a key philanthropic funder behind Yad Vashem, Birthright and other causes. The owner of Israels biggest free daily, Yisrael Hayom, which, while derided by critics of the prime minister as a Bibiton a slavishly pro-Netanyahu publication has diversified and revolutionized the Hebrew tabloid market.

20. Dorit Beinisch Supreme Court President

Beinisch, 68, is the first woman to serve as president of the Supreme Court. In her judicial rulings, Beinisch has focused on combating government corruption and ensuring that state institutions and security services follow the law. In a landmark ruling ten years ago, she said corporal punishment by parents is forbidden, because it infringes on the childs rights and harms his dignity as a human being.

21. Natan Sharansky Jewish Agency Chairman

As chairman of the Jewish Agency, the 62-year-old former prisoner of Zion now heads the largest Jewish NGO in the world. After trying his hand in politics, forming the Israel Baaliya political party and serving as a cabinet minister, Sharansky is currently spearheading a campaign to reform the Jewish Agency and focus on Jewish identity. He is also introducing a plan to hand out Jewish Nobel prizes.

22. Ruth Bader Ginsburg US Supreme Court Justice

Bader Ginsburg, 67, is the first Jewish woman to be a jusice of the US Supreme Court, and the second woman. An associate justice, she is considered part of the liberal wing of the court. In her previous career as a law professor, she became an outspoken advocate for womens rights. In a 2009 New York Times interview, in which she said regarding abortion that the basic thing is that the government has no business making that choice for a woman.

23. Mark Zuckerberg Facebook Founder

The 36-year-old American entrepreneur who five years ago co-founded the massively popular social networking site, Facebook with three other Harvard students, one of whom, Dustin Moskovitz was also Jewish. Three years ago, Microsoft (whose CEO, Steve Ballmer, is also Jewish) bought a 1.6% stake to Microsoft Corp. for $240 million. A film about Facebook is due to be released this year.

24. Moshe Kantor EJC President

The president of the European Jewish Congress, Kantor this month opened the Kantor Center for the Study of Contemporary European Jewry at Tel Aviv University. The center will study existing legislation on anti-Semitism in Europe and draft an ideal law for combating the growing phenomenon.

Kantor responds: I am honored to be in a position where I can advocate for European Jewish interests and the State of Israel amongst senior political, religious and influential figures in Europe and beyond. This is a testament to the re-ascendancy of European Jewry on the Diaspora world stage. It is my firm belief that the influence and significance of European Jewry will only continue to rise, as will its role of support for the state, people and government of Israel in a continent where understanding of the challenges that Israel faces is sometimes lacking. Also, because of our history, I am convinced that Jews need to play a more prominent role in achieving greater tolerance in Europe. As the President of the European Jewish Congress and Chairman of the European Council on Tolerance and Reconciliation, an organization of elder European statesmen, I assist in preparing practical recommendations for governments and international organisations to improve interreligious and interethnic relations on the continent.

25. Michael Steinhardt Investor and philanthropist

The 59-year-old New York investor is a big political donor in the US, giving to both the Democrats and Republicans. Steinhardt, who owns a home in Jerusalem, is better known here for sponsoring the Birthright Israel program together with Charles Bronfman.

Steinhardt responds: I am honored, and I hope in the coming years I can merit this honor. I have devoted so much of my life, especially over the last 15 years, to the Jewish future and I think Im stuck with that preoccupation for the foreseeable future.

26. Mortimer Zuckerman Publisher

Zuckerman, 72, a former chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, is the owner of the New York Daily News and U.S. News & World Report and co-founder of Boston Properties. He is a strong supporter of Israel and Jewish causes.

27. Ronald Lauder WJC President

Read more:
World’s 50 most influential Jews – Jewish World – Jpost.com

Do Jews and Christians basically have the same religion …

The faith of most religious Jews is called Judaism. It is the oldest of the world’s three great monotheistic religions (that is, religions serving one God). Judaism is the parent of both Christianity and Islam. It proclaims that there is only one God, whose name is Yahweh, and He is the creator and ruler of the universe. He revealed His law, the Torah, to the Jewish people (who were known as Hebrews at that time) and He chose them to be a light for all humanity. The Torah contains some 613 commands which are summed up in the Ten Commandments.

A very important concept in Judaism is that of the Messiah. Originally the Jews believed that God would send a powerful messenger (the Messiah) who would deliver Israel from her oppressors and usher in a reign of peace and prosperity. Today many Jews no longer hold to a personal messiah, but hope for a messianic age of justice and truth. For the Jews the coming of the Messiah or the messianic age still lies in the future.

The sacred Scriptures of Judaism consist of three groups of documents: the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings (such as Psalms and Proverbs). These Scriptures also form the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Judaism does not accept the inspiration of the New Testament or its account of the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies.

There are many areas of agreement between the two faiths, for Christians also accept the Old Testament and all its teachings as inspired. Among the basic truths accepted by both faiths are the perfect creation of the world out of nothing by an infinite God, the entrance of sin into this world via the temptation of another transcendent being called Satan, the judgement of God on sin, and the necessity of atonement for sin. In Judaism this atonement is accomplished through sacrifices, prayer, righteous acts, and God’s mercy.

Judaism, however, does not accept the central Christian teaching that Jesus Christ is the Messiah foretold in the Old Testament. This watershed point is made throughout the New Testament and forcefully stated in Galatians 3:13-14, “But Christ has rescued us from the curse pronounced by the law. When he was hung on the cross, he took upon himself the curse for our wrongdoing. For it is written in the Scriptures, ‘Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.’ Through the work of Christ Jesus, God has blessed the Gentiles with the same blessing he promised to Abraham”(New Living Translation).

All the differences in ceremonies, Kosher food, dress, festivals and worship are not as basic as the messianic expectation and its fulfillment in Christ. Christianity has received from Judaism its basic understanding of God, his covenant relationship with His people, and assembling together for worship. There is a divine plan for history and it is moving toward a wonderful goal when Yahweh will be the King not only of the Jews but of all the earth. Separation from the corrupting influences of the pagan world is important, but Judaism is not a religion that focuses on a spiritual world somewhere down the road. Its focus is on this present world, where life is meant to be rich and full.

Some Jews who have become Christians refer to themselves as “completed Jews.” In fact, the Old Testament is filled with hope, and the fulfillment of this hope is wonderfully described in the New Testament. Text after text relates how Jesus Christ fulfills all that the prophets foretold. In Him the great promises of the Old Testament become the inheritance of all who accept His salvation. The stream of God’s favor broadens now to embrace believers from every tribe and nation.

We all owe a tremendous debt to the Jews. We have inherited so much from them, and from them came God’s own Son, the Messiah. Faith in Him, that is, in His once-for-all death and resurrection is the key to peace of heart now and hope for the future. We can now not only look back on a marvelous history, but forward to the day when His kingdom enfolds people from every land. Is this Messiah also your very own Savior for time and eternity?

Published Thursday, December 26, 2013

Visit link:
Do Jews and Christians basically have the same religion …

Jew Watch – Jewish Holocaust – Media Lies – Frauds – Hoaxes

The “Holocaust” of 6 million Jews during World War II

Is It Just a War Propaganda Hoax?

Considerations About the Holocaust Numbers…

What about the population of Jews? Per World Almanac figures, it INCREASED by 584,549 between 1941 and 1948. So, this being the case, where did the 6,000,000 dead go?

The Missing Holocaust

“I’ve checked out Churchill’s Second World War and the statement is quite correct not a single mention of Nazi ‘gas chambers,’ a ‘genocide’ of the Jews, or of ‘six million’ Jewish victims of the war. This is astonishing. How can it be explained? Eisenhower’s Crusade in Europe is a book of 559 pages; the six volumes of Churchill’s Second World War total 4,448 pages; and de Gaulle’s three-volume Mmoires de guerre is 2,054 pages. In this mass of writing, which altogether totals 7,061 pages (not including the introductory parts), published from 1948 to 1959, one will find no mention either of Nazi ‘gas chambers,’ a ‘genocide’ of the Jews, or of ‘six million’ Jewish victims of the war.”

Richard Lynn, Professor Emeritus, University of Ulster, December 5, 2005

NEWS FLASH!–FIVE MILLION JEWS DISAPPEAR

BETWEEN 1988 AND 2000, according to Jew sources, THE WORLDWIDE SUPPLY OF Jews PLUNGED FROM 18.1 TO 13.2. FINALLY, Jews HAVE PROOF OF A HOLOCAUST! But there was no war. The Nazis are long gone. In the midst of peacetime, the Jews LOST 4.9 million people, and still haven’t been able to locate them. Could it be that they need a war in Iraq to increase the Jewish population back to 18 million? On top of that, the 2000 figure for Jews in the world included 6.7 million in the US when in fact there may have been only 5.2 million. The Jews in the US, with all the modern techniques for counting populations and handling membership lists, a first class mail delivery system, no war or insurrection or gas ovens or mass graves, were unable to pin down their population to within 1.5 million Jews–an error of 29%!

“The study’s credibility became an issue last October after part of its findings on population was released and then withdrawn because some field data were not factored into the 5.2-million population estimate. At the same time, another study by a San Francisco-based group using a broader definition of who was Jewish placed the population at 6.7 million. But after reevaluating its methodology and findings, UJC said Wednesday that it stood by the 5.2-million figure.”

These folks, who didn’t have the brains to use modern techniques for estimating their own population to within an accuracy of 6.4 million Jews, during peacetime, are the very same folks who claimed that they knew precisely, for certain, without ANY doubt, with such certitude that they had hundreds or thousands of people EXECUTED for denying it, that 6 million Jews were missing during Nazi persecution, world war, massive Jew migration, and the death or disappearance of 264 million CHRISTIANS!

Impossible, says Amhadineajad, who claims the holocaust was a “myth”!

Old Almanacs Never Lie!

584,549 MORE Jews in 1949 than in 1940

Meyers Handlexicon, Germany 1921 — 11,600,000

World Almanac, 1925, pg. 752 — 15,630,000, “In 1925 a census of Palestine gave a total of 115,151 Jews”

World Almanac, 1929, pg. 727 — 15,630,000

National Council of Churches 1930 — 15,600 ,000

March 24, 1933, Jewish newspaper Daily Express — 14,000,000 Jews worldwide

World Almanac, 1933, pg. 419 — 15,316,359, [“The estimate for Jews in the above table is for 1933, and is by the American Jewish Committee”

World Almanac, 1936, pg. 748 — world Jewish population = 15,753,633

World Almanac, 1938, pg. 510 — world Jewish population = 15,748,091, with 240,000 in Germany

American Jewish Committee Bureau of the Synagogue Council, 1939 — 15,600,000

World Almanac, 1940, pg. 129: World Jewish Population — 15,319,359

World Almanac, 1941, pg. 510: World Jewish Population — 15,748,091

World Almanac, 1942, pg. 849: World Jewish Population — 15,192,089 (“Jews include Jews by race not necessarily by religion”)

World Almanac USA, 1947, pg. 748: World Jewish Population — 15,690,000

World Almanac, 1949, pg. 289: World Jewish Population — 15,713,638

Statistical Handbook of Council of Churches USA 1951 — 15,300,000

Encyclopedia Britannica’s 1955 Book of the Year — 11,627,450, “Jewish figures include all Jews whether members of a synagogue or not”

World Almanac, US News & World Report, 1983 population of Jews — 16,820,850

World Almanac, 1996, pg. 646: World Jewish Population — 14,117,000

World Almanac & Book of Facts, 1989: World Jewish Population –18,080,000

World Almanac & Book of Facts, 2001: World Jewish Population — 13,200,000

Nazis Evacuate Two Million Jews from German Held Territory

Total World Population of Jews 1938 & 1948

America Europe Asia Africa Oceania Total

1938 5,343,319 8,939,608 839,809 598,339 27,016 15,748,091

1948 5,198,219 9,372,666 572,930 542,869 26,954 15,763,638

Diff -145,100 +433,058 -266,879 -55,470 -9,938 +15,547

Down Sizing From EIGHT million to 30,000 dead Jews

Above left: This was the plaque on display at theAuschwitz camp until 1989: note the “4 million” victims. Above right: This is the plaque currently on display atAuschwitz (2002) – note the suddenly reduced number of victims to 1.5 million – a casual reduction in the number of deaths by 2.5 million which never appeared in the American “free press”

Jews complained about a holocaust in 1919! “Six million men and women are dying … eight hundred thousand children cry for bread. And this fate is upon them through no fault of their own, … but through the awful tyranny of war and a bigoted lust for Jewish blood. In this threatened holocaust of human life …” –The American Hebrew (New York, issue 582 of October 31, 1919) The Talmud also has atrocity claims which demonstrate the Jewish mentality: Gittin 57b claims that four billion Jews were killed by the Romans in the city of Bethar. Gittin 58a claims that 16 million Jewish children were wrapped in scrolls and burned alive by the Romans.

Actual Auschwitz records released by Russia reduce that figure to 30,000 Jews

Why did “Judea declare war on Germany” in 1933.

Why should “Holocaust denial” be a crime?

Why are so many holocaust stories being exposed as frauds?

Why was Ernst Zndel imprisoned for telling the TRUTH?

Dr. E. R. Fields analyzes the known facts.

Holocaust is a “death by fire”.

Torturing Rudolph Hoess to get at the “truth.”

The absurdity of the Zyklon-B claims.

How to start a holocaust.

A FACTUAL APPRAISAL BY THE RED CROSS

Why did the US government keep the Nazi Master Plan to destroy Christian churches classified for half a century

Why did the number of dead Jews mysteriously decrease from 8 million to 74,000 with no media fanfare?

Why did Jews worldwide not celebrate the sudden reappearance of 7,926,000 supposedly holocausted Jews?

Why would Simen Wiesenthal blacklist supporters of the Second Amendment as “hate sites”?

Why did Jew Dyland Klebold kill dozens of “fellow” Littleton High School students as revenge for the “holocaust” that never was, a gift that keeps on giving?

Why is “White only” a “venomous message” to a Jew?

The Changing Jewish Deaths The more you study these numbers, the less you will know… The fact is, no one knows the figures, except how rapidly they are declining…

WORLDWIDE ALMANACS DISPUTE JewISH LIES

The following data from the 1929, 1942, 1947, and 1963 editions of The World Almanac and Book of Facts published by the New York World Telegram, on pages 727, 849, 748, and 441, respectively, and from the 1996 edition published by Funk & Wagnalls, pg. 646, proves that six million Jews did not die in Nazi concentration camps.

While it’s true that the number of Jews in Europe decreased from 10 to 9.4 million between 1928 and 1941, the entire population of Jews in rest of the world also decreased, and much of that was before they could have been exterminated in camps.

All world almanacs show that during WWII the number of Jews in Europe remained flat, but Britannica Book of the Year reports that the number of Jews in the world increased by 600,000, or 4%.

How could 6 million Jews (40% of all Jews and 64% of those in Europe) have died in the Holocaust if their worldwide population increased by 4%?

DID CHRISTIANS BECOME Jews TO GET WAR REPARATIONS?

A possible explanation is that 584,549 Jews disappeared, and then reappeared AFTER the “holocaust” in order to qualify for “war reparations” against a nation neither Jews nor Israel ever took up arms against. In other words, Jews who didn’t admit to being Jews during the war suddenly did admit to being Jews when the money was being handed out.

Why don’t we STOP SUBSIDIZING THE HOLOCAUST INDUSTRY?

307 DEAD CHRISTIANS FOR EACH DEAD Jew

Why do reputable references like Encyclopedia Britannica report that there 447,274 MORE Jews in 1948, AFTER the war, than there were in 1933, BEFORE the war? why were there 264 million FEWER Christians in the world in 1948 than there would have been without WWII (an event which reduced Europe’s total population by more than 25%)? If the 1942 and 1949 World Almanacs are correct (that there were 15.2 million Jews in the world in 1941 and 15.75 million in 1948), and if the natural increase of Jews was an unprecedented [unprecedented particularly for Jews] rate of 1.5% per year for six years, then in 1947 there would have been 16.6 million Jews, 850,000 more than reported by these reputable, unbiased references.

Many Jews claim that WWII was all about “saving Jews from the Nazis”. If so, then we have the legitimate right to ask how many Christians must be sacrificed for each Jew saved, particularly when Jew Hitler’s fruits were 307 dead Christians for each dead Jew.

World Population of Jews in Millions Suggests No Holocaust of Jews Happened…

Year

North America

South America

Europe

Rest of World

World

Meyers Handlexicon, Germany

1925

4

0.1

10

1.53

15.63

World Almanac & Book of Facts, 1925

1928

4

0.2

10

1.4

15.6

World Almanac & Book of Facts, 1929

Continue reading here:
Jew Watch – Jewish Holocaust – Media Lies – Frauds – Hoaxes

Holokaus – Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Holocaust (dari bahasa Yunani holkaustos: hlos, “seluruh” dan kausts, “terbakar”),[1] dikenal pula sebagai Shoah (bahasa Ibrani: , HaShoah, “bencana”; bahasa Yiddi: , Churben atau Hurban,[2] dari bahasa Ibrani “penghancuran”), adalah genosida terhadap kira-kira enam juta penganut Yahudi Eropa selama Perang Dunia II, suatu program pembunuhan sistematis yang didukung oleh negara Jerman Nazi, dipimpin oleh Adolf Hitler, dan berlangsung di seluruh wilayah yang dikuasai oleh Nazi.[3] Dari sembilan juta Yahudi yang tinggal di Eropa sebelum Holocaust, sekitar dua pertiganya tewas.[4] Secara khusus, lebih dari satu juta anak Yahudi tewas dalam Holocaust, serta kira-kira dua juta wanita Yahudi dan tiga juta pria Yahudi.[5][6]

Beberapa pakar berpendapat bahwa definisi Holocaust harus meliputi pula genosida Nazi terhadap jutaan orang dalam kelompok lain selain Yahudi, di antaranya orang Rom, komunis, tawanan perang Soviet, warga Polandia dan Soviet, homoseksual, orang cacat, Saksi Yehuwa dan musuh politik dan keagamaan lainnya, yang menjadi korban terlepas apakah mereka berasal dari etnis Jerman atau bukan.[7] Ini adalah definisi yang paling umum digunakan sejak akhir Perang Dunia II hingga tahun 1960-an.[7] Jika menggunakan definisi ini, maka jumlah keseluruhan korban Holocaust adalah 11 hingga 17 juta jiwa.[8]

Penyiksaan dan genosida dilakukan dalam beberapa tahap. Sejumlah hukum untuk menghapuskan keberadaan orang Yahudi dari masyarakat sipil, yang paling terkenal adalah Hukum Nuremberg, diberlakukan di Jerman Nazi bertahun-tahun sebelum dimulainya Perang Dunia II. Kamp konsentrasi didirikan yang di dalamnya para tahanan diharuskan melakukan kerja paksa hingga mereka mati akibat kelelahan atau penyakit. Ketika Jerman menaklukan wilayah baru di Eropa Timur, satuan khusus yang disebut Einsatzgruppen membantai musuh-musuh politik melalui penembakan massal. Nazi memerintahkan orang Yahudi dan Rom untuk dikurung di ghetto sebelum dipindahkan dengan kereta barang ke kamp pemusnahan. Di sana, jika mereka selamat dalam perjalanan, sebagian besar dari mereka secara sistematis dibunuh di dalam kamar gas.

Setiap bagian dari birokrasi Jerman Nazi terlibat dalam logistik yang berujung pada genosida, mengubah Reich Ketiga menjadi apa yang oleh para pakar Holocaust disebut sebagai “negara genosida”.[9] Ada perbedaan pendapat mengenai berapa banyak yang diketahui oleh penduduk sipil Jerman mengenai konspirasi pemerintah terhadap orang Yahudi. Sebagian besar sejarawan mengklaim bahwa penduduk sipil tidak mengetahui kekejaman yang dilakukan pemerintah, khususnya yang terjadi di kamp konsentrasi, yang terletak di luar Jerman di Eropa yang diduduki Nazi. Akan tetapi, sejarawan Robert Gellately mengklaim bahwa pemerintah secara terbuka mengumumkan konspirasi melalui media, dan bahwa warga sipil mengetahui setiap aspeknya kecuali penggunaan kamar gas.[10] Bukti sejarah signifikan menunjukkan gagasan bahwa sebagian besar korban Holocaust, sebelum dikirim ke kamp konsentrasi, tidak mengetahui nasib yang menanti mereka, atau tidak mempercayainya. Mereka meyakini bahwa mereka akan diberikan tempat tinggal baru.[11]

Istilah Holocaust berasal dari kata Yunani; holkauston, yang berarti binatang kurban (olos) yang dipersembahkan kepada tuhan dengan cara dibakar (kaustos).[12] Selama ratusan tahun, kata “holocaust” digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris untuk merujuk kepada suatu peristiwa “pembantaian besar”, namun sejak tahun 1960-an, istilah ini mulai digunakan oleh para pakar dan penulis populer untuk menggambarkan genosida terhadap umat Yahudi. Pada tahun 1978, sebuah mini seri berjudul Holocaust mulai mempopulerkan penggunaan istilah ini dalam bahasa sehari-hari.[14]

Dalam Alkitab, kata Shoah () (juga dieja Sho’ah atau Shoa), bermakna “bencana”. Kata ini menjadi istilah standar dalam bahasa Ibrani yang digunakan untuk menyebut Holocaust pada awal 1940-an, terutama di Eropa dan Israel.[15] Penggunaan istilah Shoah ini lebih disukai oleh banyak umat Yahudi karena berbagai alasan, termasuk sifat teologis dari kata “holocaust”, yang mereka anggap sebagai Referensi pada kebiasaan pagan bangsa Yunani.[16]

Nazi menggunakan frasa eufemisme untuk menggambarkan peristiwa ini, yaitu “Solusi Akhir atas Permasalahan Yahudi” (bahasa Jerman: Endlsung der Judenfrage). Frasa “Solusi Akhir” ini banyak digunakan sebagai istilah untuk merujuk kepada genosida umat Yahudi di kemudian harinya. Nazi juga menggunakan istilah “lebensunwertes leben” (kehidupan bagi yang layak hidup) dalam upaya untuk membenarkan tindakan pembunuhan mereka.

Sejarawan Michael Berenbaum mengungkapkan bahwa Jerman telah menjadi sebuah “negara genosida”: “Setiap birokrasi di negara ini terlibat dalam proses pembunuhan selama terjadinya Holocaust. Gereja-gereja paroki dan Kementerian Dalam Negeri menyediakan catatan kelahiran untuk mengidentifikasi penganut Yahudi, Kantor Pos menyampaikan perintah deportasi dan denaturalisasi, Departemen Keuangan menyita properti umat Yahudi, dan perusahaan-perusahaan Jerman memecat para pegawai Yahudi”. Universitas-universitas juga menolak untuk menerima mahasiswa Yahudi, tidak mengakui gelar akademik mereka yang sudah lulus, dan menembak mati para akademisi Yahudi. Sedangkan badan transportasi pemerintah Jerman bertugas mengatur transportasi kereta untuk mengangkut umat Yahudi ke kamp-kamp, perusahaan farmasi Jerman menguji coba-kan obat-obatan pada para tahanan di kamp, perusahaan-perusahaan ditawarkan kontrak untuk membangun krematorium, dan daftar rinci para korban dibuat dengan menggunakan mesin cetak yang diproduksi oleh perusahan IBM Jerman, Dehomag. Saat para tahanan memasuki kamp-kamp kematian, mereka diharuskan untuk menyerahkan semua barang pribadi mereka. Barang-barang ini selanjutnya di katalog-kan dan dikirim ke Jerman untuk digunakan kembali atau di daur ulang. Berenbaum juga mengungkapkan bahwa bagi para pelaku, peristiwa ini merupakan prestasi terbesar Jerman. Melalui sebuah rekening terselubung, bank nasional Jerman membantu “mencuci” barang-barang berharga yang dicuri dari para korban.

Saul Friedlnder menyatakan bahwa: “Tidak satupun kelompok sosial, kelompok keagamaan, lembaga pendidikan, ataupun asosiasi profesional di Jerman dan di seluruh Eropa yang menyatakan solidaritasnya terhadap orang-orang Yahudi.” Friedlnder juga mengungkapkan bahwa beberapa gereja Kristen menyatakan bahwa umat Yahudi yang pindah agama harus dianggap sebagai bagian dari “kawanan”, namun itupun hanya pada titik tertentu. Friedlnder berpendapat bahwa hal tersebut menjadikan peristiwa Holocaust ini “khas” karena mampu terungkap tanpa adanya campur tangan dari kekuatan-kekuatan yang biasanya ditemukan dalam masyarakat maju, seperti industri, usaha kecil, gereja-gereja, dan kelompok masyarakat lainnya.

Dalam kasus-kasus genosida lainnya, pertimbangan pragmatis seperti untuk menguasai wilayah dan sumber daya merupakan faktor-faktor utama yang melahirkan kebijakan genosida. Namun, menurut sejarawan Yehuda Bauer, “motivasi dasar [dari Holocaust] adalah murni kepentingan ideologis, yang berakar dari dunia ilusi imajinasi Nazi yang mengkhawatirkan bahwa adanya sebuah konspirasi Yahudi internasional yang akan mengendalikan dunia dan menentang superioritas bangsa Arya.”

Menanggapi pernyataan filsuf Jerman Ernst Nolte, yang mengklaim bahwa peristiwa Holocaust ini tidak “unik”, sejarawan Jerman Eberhard Jckel menulis pada tahun 1986, ia menyatakan bahwa Holocaust “unik” karena belum pernah ada sebelumnya sebuah negara dengan pemimpin yang sepenuhnya bertanggung jawab untuk memutuskan dan mengumumkan pembunuhan terhadap sekelompok manusia tertentu, termasuk wanita, anak-anak, dan bayi.

Pembantaian dilakukan secara sistematis di hampir semua negara yang diduduki oleh Nazi di wilayah yang saat ini menjadi 35 negara Eropa yang terpisah.[22] Pembantaian paling parah terjadi di kawasan Eropa Tengah dan Timur, yang memiliki lebih dari tujuh juta penganut Yahudi pada tahun 1939. Sekitar lima juta umat Yahudi dibunuh di sana, termasuk tiga juta di Polandia dan lebih dari satu juta di Uni Soviet. Ratusan ribu umat Yahudi juga tewas di Belanda, Perancis, Belgia, Yugoslavia dan Yunani. Selain itu, Protokol Wannsee menegaskan bahwa Jerman bermaksud untuk memperluas agenda “solusi akhir dari permasalahan Yahudi” mereka ke Britania Raya dan negara-negara netral lainnya di Eropa seperti Irlandia, Swiss, Turki, Swedia, Portugal dan Spanyol.

Siapapun yang memiliki tiga atau empat garis leluhur Yahudi harus dimusnahkan tanpa terkecuali. Dalam peristiwa genosida lainnya, para korban dapat menghindari kematian dengan cara pindah ke agama lain atau berasimilasi. Namun pilihan ini tidak tersedia bagi umat Yahudi di negara-negara Eropa yang diduduki oleh Nazi,[24] kecuali bahwa kakek-nenek mereka telah pindah agama sebelum tanggal 18 Januari 1871. Selain itu, semua orang yang baru-baru ini memiliki keturunan Yahudi juga dibinasakan oleh Nazi di wilayah-wilayah yang dikuasainya.

Kamp-kamp pemusnahan dilengkapi dengan kamar gas untuk tujuan pemusnahan massal secara sistematis. Metode ini merupakan fitur unik dari Holocaust dan belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya dalam sejarah. Tidak pernah tercatat sebelumnya dalam sejarah di mana telah disediakan tempat dengan tujuan untuk membunuh orang secara massal. Kamp-kamp ini didirikan di Auschwitz, Belzec, Chemno, Jasenovac, Majdanek, Maly Trostenets, Sobibor, dan Treblinka.

Ciri khas lainnya dari Holocaust adalah penggunaan subyek manusia dalam eksperimen medis. “Para dokter Jerman lebih bersifat “Nazi” dibandingkan dengan para profesional lain dalam hal keanggotaan partai,” dan mereka melakukan berbagai eksperimen medis di kamp konsentrasi Auschwitz, Dachau, Buchenwald, Ravensbrck, Sachsenhausen, dan Natzweiler.

Dokter Nazi yang paling terkenal adalah Dr. Josef Mengele, yang melakukan eksperimennya di Auschwitz. Eksperimennya ini termasuk menempatkan subyek dalam ruang bertekanan, pengujian obat-obatan pada subyek, membekukan subyek, berusaha untuk mengubah warna mata dengan cara menyuntikkan bahan kimia ke dalam mata anak-anak dan berbagai eksperimen amputasi serta operasi brutal lainnya. Hasil akhir dari eksperimennya ini tidak pernah diketahui karena catatan eksperimennya yang dikirimkan pada Dr. Otmar von Verschuer di Kaiser Wilhelm Institute dihancurkan oleh von Verschuer. Sebagian besar subyek yang berhasil selamat dari eksperimen Mengele selalu berakhir dengan dibunuh, atau dibedah setelah eksperimen.

Mengele biasanya sangat tertarik untuk bereksperimen dengan anak-anak Romani. Dia akan membawakan mereka permen atau mainan, dan kemudian secara pribadi membawa mereka ke kamar gas. Mereka memanggil Mengele dengan sebutan “Onkel Mengele”. Vera Alexander, salah seorang tahanan Yahudi di Auschwitz yang menyaksikan hasil eksperimen kembar Romani Mengele mengungkapkan:

Saya ingat sepasang anak kembar: Guido dan Ina, berusia sekitar empat tahunan. Suatu hari, Mengele membawa mereka pergi. Ketika mereka kembali, keadaan mereka sangat mengerikan: mereka berdua dijahit menyatu, saling membelakangi, seperti kembar siam. Luka-luka mereka terinfeksi dan bernanah. Mereka berteriak siang dan malam. Kemudian orang tua mereka saya ingat nama sang ibu adalah Stella berhasil mendapatkan morfin, dan ia membunuh anak-anaknya untuk mengakhiri penderitaan mereka.

Sejarawan Yehuda Bauer, Raul Hilberg dan Lucy Dawidowicz menyatakan bahwa sejak Abad Pertengahan dan seterusnya, masyarakat dan budaya di Jerman diliputi oleh antisemitisme, dan bahwa ada pengaruh langsung dari pogrom pada abad pertengahan ke kamp-kamp kematian Nazi.

Pada paruh kedua abad ke-19, di Jerman dan Austria-Hongaria muncul sebuah gerakan bernama gerakan Vlkisch, yang dikembangkan oleh para pemikir seperti Houston Stewart Chamberlain dan Paul de Lagarde. Gerakan ini menyatakan bahwa Jerman harus memandang orang-orang Yahudi sebagai “ras” tandingan dalam pertarungan hidup-mati dengan ras “Arya” untuk menguasai dunia. Antisemit Vlkisch ini, berbeda dengan antisemit Kristen. Yahudi dipandang lebih sebagai “ras” ketimbang sebagai agama. Dalam pidatonya sebelum Reichstag pada tahun 1895, salah satu pemimpin vlkisch bernama Hermann Ahlwardt menyebut orang-orang Yahudi sebagai “predator” dan “basil kolera” yang harus “dimusnahkan” demi kebaikan rakyat Jerman. Dalam buku laris tahun 1912 berjudul Wenn ich der Kaiser wr (Jika Aku Seorang Kaiser), Heinrich Class, salah satu pemimpin vlkisch, menyarankan agar semua Yahudi di Jerman harus dihapuskan status kewarganegaraan Jermannya dan ditetapkan sebagai Fremdenrecht (status alien). Class juga mendesak agar semua Yahudi ditiadakan dari semua aspek kehidupan Jerman, dilarang memiliki tanah sendiri, memegang jabatan publik, atau berpartisipasi dalam jurnalisme, perbankan, dan profesi liberal lainnya. Class mendefenisikan seseorang dianggap sebagai Yahudi jika menganut agama Yahudi sejak Kekaisaran Jerman diproklamirkan pada tahun 1871, atau siapapun yang setidaknya memiliki satu garis leluhur Yahudi. Selama masa Kekaisaran Jerman, gagasan vlkisch ini dan rasisme “ilmiah” yang berkaitan dengan Yahudi telah menjadi hal yang umum dan diterima secara luas di Jerman.Partai Buruh Jerman Sosialis Nasional didirikan pada tahun 1919 sebagai cabang dari gerakan vlkisch, dan partai ini juga mengadopsi faham antisemit mereka.

Perubahan IPTEK yang luar biasa di Jerman pada akhir abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 serta diringi dengan pertumbuhan negara kesejahteraan, menciptakan harapan luas bahwa “utopia” sudah dekat dan semua permasalahan sosial akan terselesaikan. Pada saat yang sama, didukung oleh prestise ilmu pengetahuan, di kalangan elit Jerman berkembang anggapan yang menyatakan bahwa beberapa ras secara biologis lebih “berharga” dibandingkan dengan ras lainnya. Dalam esainya pada tahun 1989, sejarawan Detlev Peukert menyatakan bahwa Holocaust tidak semata-mata berawal dari antisemitisme, namun merupakan produk dari “radikalisme kumulatif” yang kemudian menghasilkan genosida. Setelah Perang Dunia I, didukung oleh sedang berlangsungnya Depresi Besar, permasalahan sosial yang terjadi di Jerman jauh lebih besar daripada yang diperkirakan oleh birokrat sebelumnya. Permasalahan ini semakin memperkuat anggapan bahwa beberapa kaum yang “tidak layak” harus disingkirkan untuk mencapai kesejahteraan. Kalangan medis di Jerman mengusulkan upaya pemusnahan orang-orang dengan cacat fisik dan mental untuk menghemat anggaran kesehatan negara. Pada saat Hitler merebut kekuasaan pada tahun 1933, usulan untuk menyelamatkan ras yang “berharga” dengan cara membersihkan ras “yang tidak layak” ini semakin mengemuka.

Penganiayaan dan eksodus dari 525.000 umat Yahudi Jerman dimulai setelah Nazi berkuasa pada tanggal 30 Januari 1933. Dalam Mein Kampf, Hitler secara terbuka telah mengungkapkan kebenciannya terhadap Yahudi, dan menyatakan niatnya untuk mengusir mereka dari kehidupan politik, intelektual, dan budaya Jerman. Hitler memang tidak menulis kalau ia akan berusaha memusnahkan Yahudi, namun dilaporkan bahwa ia telah mengungkapkannya secara pribadi. Pada awal tahun 1922, Hitler mengatakan kepada wartawan Mayor Joseph Hell:

Setelah saya berkuasa, tugas saya yang pertama dan terutama sekali adalah memusnahkan orang Yahudi. Saya akan membangun tiang gantungan di Munich, kemudian orang-orang Yahudi akan digantung tanpa pandang bulu, dan mereka akan tetap digantung sampai mereka membusuk, dan lalu kota-kota lain akan menyusul, sampai keseluruhan Jerman telah benar-benar bersih dari orang-orang Yahudi.

Pada awal Reich Ketiga, pemimpin Nazi telah memproklamirkan keberadaan Volksgemeinschaft (Komunitas Rakyat). Kebijakan ini membagi penduduk menjadi dua kategori, yaitu Volksgenossen (“Kamerad Nasional”), kategori yang tergolong ke dalam Volksgemeinschaft, dan Gemeinschaftsfremde (“Komunitas Alien”), kategori yang tidak tergolong ke dalam Komunitas Rakyat. Kebijakan Nazi tentang represi membagi musuh menjadi tiga jenis, yakni musuh “rasial” seperti Yahudi dan Gipsi yang dipandang sebagai musuh karena “darah” mereka, musuh politik seperti Marxis, liberal, Kristen dan “reaksioner”, dan musuh moral seperti homoseksual, para penjahat dan pelacur. Dua yang terakhir dipandang sebagai musuh karena ketidakpatuhan mereka pada Volksgenossen. Dua kelompok tersebut akan dikirim ke kamp konsentrasi untuk “dididik ulang”, namun beberapa musuh moral harus disterilkan karena dianggap “bergenetik rendah”. Musuh “rasial” seperti Yahudi, tidak diperkenankan untuk menjadi anggota Volksgemeinschaft, oleh sebab itu mereka harus dibinasakan secara total dari kehidupan masyarakat. Sejarawan Jerman Detlev Peukert mengungkapkan bahwa “tujuan Sosialis Nasional adalah sebuah utopia Volksgemeinschaft, semuanya benar-benar di bawah pengawasan polisi, setiap orang yang berniat ataupun berperilaku nonkonformis, akan dikunjungi oleh teror.” Peukert juga mengutip dokumen kebijakan tentang “Perlakuan Komunitas Alien”, yang menyatakan bahwa: “orang-orang yang … tidak mampu memenuhi persyaratan untuk menjadi Volksgenossen, akan ditempatkan di bawah pengawasan polisi, dan jika tidak memenuhi juga, akan dikirim ke kamp konsentrasi”.

Menjelang pemilu Reichstag pada bulan Maret 1933, Nazi mengintensifkan kampanye kekerasan mereka terhadap oposisi. Dengan kerjasama dari pemerintah setempat, mereka mendirikan kamp-kamp konsentrasi untuk penahanan di luar hukum bagi musuh-musuh mereka. Salah satu kamp yang dibangun pertama kali adalah kamp konsentrasi Dachau, yang dibuka pada tanggal 9 Maret 1933. Selama bulan-bulan pertama operasinya, Dachau dipenuhi oleh para pendukung Komunis dan Demokratik Sosial. Pada awalnya, pengelolaan kamp-kamp ini dijalankan oleh organisasi paramiliter SA dan SS, namun pada pertengahan 1934, pengelolaannya secara eksklusif dijalankan oleh SS. Tujuan utama dari kamp-kamp konsentrasi ini adalah untuk menjebloskan dan meneror orang-orang Jerman yang tidak memenuhi syarat atau tidak bersedia bergabung dengan Volksgemeinschaft. Mereka dikirim ke kamp-kamp konsentrasi dan kemudian dibagi menjadi kelompok yang “bisa dididik” (ada kemungkinan untuk dimasukkan ke dalam Volksgemeinschaft) dan kelompok “biologis kotor” (harus disterilkan atau disiksa dengan disuruh bekerja paksa sampai mati).

Sepanjang tahun 1930-an, hak-hak hukum, ekonomi dan sosial orang-orang Yahudi terus dibatasi. Jika secara hukum seseorang diidentifikasi sebagai Yahudi, maka Nazi akan menganggap keturunannya juga Yahudi. Bahkan keturunannya yang sudah berpindah agama dari Yahudi setelah tanggal 18 Januari 1871 (pendirian Kekaisaran Jerman) juga dianggap sebagai Yahudi. Sejarawan Israel Saul Friedlnder menyatakan bahwa “Nazi mengakui ke-Jerman-an orang-orang berdasarkan kemurnian darah dan dari keasliannya di tanah Jerman yang suci.” Pada tanggal 1 April 1933, terjadi pemboikotan terhadap bisnis warga Yahudi, yang menjadi kampanye antisemitisme Nazi pertama. Aksi ini pada awalnya direncanakan akan berlangsung selama seminggu, namun kemudian dibatalkan setelah satu hari karena kurangnya dukungan rakyat. Pada tahun 1933, serangkaian undang-undang disahkan. Undang-undang ini antara lain berisikan “paragraf Arya”, yang mengecualikan orang-orang Yahudi dari sektor-sektor penting negara. Hukum ini selanjutnya dikenal dengan Hukum untuk Pemulihan Layanan Sipil Profesional, yang merupakan hukum antisemit pertama yang disahkan dalam masa Reich Ketiga. Hukum-hukum selanjutnya mulai bermunculan satu persatu; Hukum Dokter; dan Hukum pertanian, yang melarang orang Yahudi untuk memiliki peternakan atau ikut serta dalam sektor pertanian. Pengacara-pengacara Yahudi dipecat. Di Dresden, pengacara Yahudi diseret keluar dari kantornya dan dipukuli. Atas desakan dari Presiden Hindenburg, Hitler menambahkan pengecualian yang mengizinkan para Pegawai Negeri Sipil veteran Perang Dunia I, atau yang ayah dan putranya pernah melayani Jerman dalam perang, untuk tetap menempati jabatannya. Namun Hitler mencabut pengecualian ini pada tahun 1937. Orang-orang Yahudi dikeluarkan dari sekolah-sekolah dan universitas (Undang-Undang untuk Mencegah Kesesakan di Sekolah), dari Asosiasi Jurnalis, dan dari jabatan pemilik atau editor surat kabar.

Pada bulan Juli 1933, Undang-Undang untuk Pencegahan Penyakit yang mewajibkan penderitanya untuk disterilisasi disahkan. Akibatnya, lebih dari 400.000 penderita cacat mental dan fisik dikirim ke kamp-kamp konsentrasi untuk “dibersihkan”. Pada tahun 1935, Hitler memperkenalkan Hukum Nuremberg, yang menyatakan bahwa: Yahudi dilarang menikah atau berhubungan seks dengan “bangsa Arya” (Hukum untuk Melindungi Darah dan Kehormatan Jerman). Yahudi Jerman dilucuti kewarganegaraannya dan semua hak-hak sipil mereka dicabut. Hitler menggunakan istilah “Hukum Darah” untuk menggambarkan “upaya hukum guna memecahkan masalah Yahudi, dan jika masih mengalami kegagalan, maka akan ditransfer pada solusi akhir dari Bagian Sosialis Nasional.” Hitler mengatakan bahwa jika “masalah Yahudi” ini tidak dapat terselesaikan dengan undang-undang, maka “selanjutnya harus diserahkan secara hukum kepada Partai Sosialis Nasional untuk dilakukan solusi akhir.”Solusi akhir atau “Endlsung” ini menjadi standar eufemisme Nazi untuk menyebut tindakan pemusnahan orang-orang Yahudi. Pada bulan Januari 1939, Hitler mengatakan dalam sebuah pidato publik: “Jika Yahudi yang berada di dalam ataupun di luar Eropa sekali lagi berhasil menjerumuskan negara ke dalam perang dunia, maka konsekuensinya para Yahudi harus dimusnahkan dari Eropa.” Kutipan dari pidato ini digunakan untuk menyimpulkan film propaganda Nazi tahun 1940 berjudul The Eternal Jew (Der ewige Jude), yang bertujuan untuk memberikan alasan dan pembenaran untuk memusnahkan orang-orang Yahudi dari Eropa.

Intelektual Yahudi adalah orang pertama yang meninggalkan Jerman. Filsuf Walter Benjamin berangkat ke Paris pada tanggal 18 Maret 1933. Novelis Leon Feuchtwanger pergi ke Swiss. Konduktor Bruno Walter melarikan diri setelah diberitahu bahwa gedung Berlin Philharmonic akan dibakar jika ia melakukan konser di sana. Frankfurter Zeitung menjelaskan pada tanggal 6 April bahwa Walter dan rekan konduktornya, Otto Klemperer, terpaksa mengungsi karena pemerintah tidak mampu untuk melindungi mereka dari suasana hati publik Jerman yang telah diprovokasi oleh “likuidator artistik Yahudi.”Albert Einstein berangkat ke Amerika Serikat pada tanggal 30 Januari 1933. Setelah itu dia kembali ke Ostende di Belgia dan tidak pernah menginjakkan kaki lagi di Jerman. Einstein menyebut peristiwa itu sebagai “kegilaan psikis massa”. Ia dikeluarkan dari Kaiser Wilhelm Society dan kewarganegaraan Jermannya dicabut. Saat Nazi menaklukkan Austria pada tahun 1938, Sigmund Freud dan keluarganya melarikan diri dari Wina ke Inggris. Saul Friedlnder mengungkapkan bahwa ketika Max Liebermann, presiden kehormatan di Akademi Seni Prusia, mundur dari jabatannya, tidak satupun dari koleganya yang mengungkapkan kata-kata simpati, dan dia masih dikucilkan pada saat kematiannya dua tahun kemudian. Ketika polisi tiba pada tahun 1943 untuk menangkap istri Liebermann yang berusia 85 tahun, ia memilih untuk bunuh diri dengan cara overdosis daripada harus dibawa ke kamp.

Pada tanggal 7 November 1938, seorang Yahudi minor bernama Herschel Grnspan membunuh diplomat Jerman Nazi Ernst vom Rath di Paris. Insiden ini digunakan oleh Nazi sebagai alasan untuk melakukan kekerasan dalam skala besar terhadap Yahudi Jerman. Apa yang oleh Nazi disebut sebagai “kemarahan publik” sebenarnya merupakan gelombang pogrom yang dihasut oleh partai Nazi, dan dilaksanakan oleh personel SA dan afiliasinya di seluruh Jerman Nazi, termasuk Austria dan Sudetenland. Progrom ini dikenal dengan sebutan Reichskristallnacht (“Malam Kaca Pecah”, harfiah: “Malam Kristal), atau pogrom November. Orang-orang Yahudi diserang dan properti mereka dirusak, lebih dari 7.000 toko Yahudi dan 1.668 sinagog (hampir semua sinagog di Jerman) rusak atau hancur. Korban tewas dianggap jauh lebih tinggi daripada jumlah resmi yang menyatakan bahwa 91 orang tewas. 30.000 Yahudi dikirim ke kamp-kamp konsentrasi seperti Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, dan Oranienburg, Di kamp-kamp ini, mereka dikurung selama beberapa minggu, dan dilepaskan setelah mereka bisa membuktikan bahwa mereka akan pindah ke luar negeri dalam waktu dekat, atau menyerahkan kepemilikan properti mereka kepada Nazi. Menanggapi Kristallnacht, pada tanggal 11 November 1938, Nazi mengesahkan “Peraturan Terhadap Kepemilikan Yahudi atas Senjata”, yang menyatakan bahwa adalah ilegal bagi orang-orang Yahudi untuk memiliki senjata api ataupun senjata lainnya. Selain itu, Yahudi Jerman secara kolektif bertanggung jawab atas ganti rugi kerusakan material yang ditimbulkan oleh pogrom, yaitu sebesar ratusan ribu Reichsmark, dan selanjutnya harus membayar “pajak perdamaian” lebih dari satu miliar Reichsmark.

Setelah pogrom, emigrasi Yahudi dari Jerman semakin meningkat, sedangkan kehidupan publik Yahudi di Jerman sudah tidak terlihat lagi keberadaannya.

Sebelum perang, Nazi memutuskan untuk mendeportasi secara besar-besaran Yahudi Jerman dari Eropa.[65] Rencana untuk merebut kembali bekas koloni Jerman seperti Tanganyika dan Afrika Barat Daya untuk dijadikan pemukiman Yahudi dihentikan oleh Hitler. Ia berpendapat bahwa “tidak satupun tempat pertumpahan darah heroik Jerman yang pantas sebagai tempat tinggal bagi musuh terburuk Jerman”. Berbagai upaya diplomatik juga dilakukan untuk meyakinkan kekuatan kolonial lainnya seperti Britania Raya dan Perancis agar bersedia untuk menampung para Yahudi di koloni-koloni mereka. Wilayah-wilayah yang dipertimbangkan untuk merelokasi orang-orang Yahudi antara lain Palestina (jajahan Britania Raya),Abyssinia (jajahan Italia), Rhodesia Britania,Madagaskar Perancis, dan Australia.

Dari daerah-daerah tersebut, Madagaskar adalah yang paling serius dipertimbangkan. Heydrich menyebutnya sebagai “Rencana Madagaskar; solusi akhir teritorial”. Pulau ini dipertimbangkan karena merupakan daerah terpencil, dan kondisi yang tidak menguntungkan di pulau itu akan mempercepat kematian para Yahudi. Rencana ini disetujui oleh Hitler pada tahun 1938, dan pengelolaannya diserahkan kepada Eichmann’s, namun rencana ini ditinggalkan setelah terjadinya pembunuhan massal terhadap orang-orang Yahudi pada tahun 1941. Meskipun sia-sia, rencana ini secara tidak langsung telah menjadi langkah psikologis yang berperan penting dalam perjalanan menuju Holocaust. Akhir dari Rencana Madagaskar diumumkan pada tanggal 10 Februari 1942. Departemen Luar Negeri Jerman memberikan penjelasan resmi bahwa sehubungan dengan adanya perang dengan Uni Soviet, maka orang-orang Yahudi akan “dikirim ke timur”.[73]

Para birokrat Nazi juga mengembangkan rencana untuk mendeportasi orang-orang Yahudi Eropa ke Siberia.[74]Palestina adalah satu-satunya lokasi yang sukses membuahkan hasil yang signifikan terkait dengan rencana relokasi Nazi. Rencana untuk merelokasi Yahudi Jerman ke Palestina disepakati oleh Federasi Zionis Jerman (die Zionistische Vereinigung fr Deutschland) dengan pemerintah Nazi melalui Perjanjian Haavara pada tahun 1933. Perjanjian ini mengakibatkan berpindahnya sekitar 60.000 Yahudi dari Jerman ke Palestina sebelum meletusnya Perang Dunia II.

Permasalahan mengenai perlakuan terhadap orang-orang Yahudi menjadi salah satu urusan yang mendesak bagi Nazi setelah mereka menyerbu bagian barat Polandia pada bulan September 1939, yang merupakan kediaman bagi sekitar dua juta orang Yahudi. Republik Polandia Kedua dibagi antara Jerman Nazi dan Uni Soviet melalui Pakta Molotov-Ribbentrop. Jerman menganeksasi Polandia bagian tenggara, sedangkan bagian timur laut dikuasai oleh Pemerintahan Umum yang dikelola oleh Hans Frank. Invasi ini menyebabkan Inggris, Australia, Selandia Baru, Kanada, Afrika Selatan, dan Perancis menyatakan perang terhadap Jerman yang kemudian memicu meletusnya Perang Dunia II.

Tangan kanan Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich, menganjurkan untuk mengumpulkan semua orang Yahudi Polandia di ghetto-ghetto yang dibangun di kota-kota besar. Di tempat ini, mereka akan dipekerjakan untuk kepentingan industri perang Jerman. Ghetto ini dibangun di kota-kota yang terletak di persimpangan kereta api untuk memberikan “kemungkinan kontrol yang lebih baik dan kemudahan deportasi di kemudian hari.” Saat diinterogasi pada tahun 1961, Adolf Eichmann mengungkapkan bahwa kalimat “deportasi di kemudian hari” itu merujuk kepada “pemusnahan fisik”.

Saya tidak meminta apa-apa, kecuali bahwa semua Yahudi harus lenyap.

Hans Frank, gubernur Nazi di Polandia.

Pada bulan September, Himmler mengangkat Heydrich menjadi kepala Kantor Keamanan Utama Reich (Reichssicherheitshauptamt atau RSHA). Badan ini bertugas untuk mengawasi pekerjaan SS, Polisi Keamanan (SD), dan Gestapo di Polandia yang diduduki Jerman, dan melaksanakan kebijakan terhadap orang-orang Yahudi yang dijelaskan dalam laporan Heydrich. Pembunuhan terorganisir pertama Yahudi oleh pasukan Jerman terjadi selama Operasi Tannenberg. Kemudian, orang-orang Yahudi digiring ke ghetto, terutama yang berada di daerah Pemerintah Umum di Polandia tengah. Di sana, mereka dipaksa untuk bekerja di bawah pengawasan dari Kantor Tenaga Kerja Reich yang dipimpin oleh Fritz Sauckel. Di ghetto tersebut, ribuan Yahudi meninggal akibat penganiayaan, kelaparan, penyakit, dan kelelahan, meskipun saat itu masih belum ada kebijakan mengenai program pembunuhan massal sistematis. Bagaimanapun juga, Nazi menganggap bahwa kerja paksa merupakan salah satu bentuk pemusnahan massal. Istilah Vernichtung durch Arbeit (“memusnahkan melalui kerja paksa”) sering digunakan untuk menggambarkan peristiwa ini.

Meskipun tekad SS untuk memulai kebijakan pembunuhan terhadap semua orang Yahudi di bawah kendali Jerman sudah jelas, masih ada penentangan terhadap kebijakan ini dalam rezim Nazi, meskipun motifnya adalah ekonomi, bukan kemanusiaan. Hermann Gring, orang yang memiliki kontrol keseluruhan terhadap industri perang dan Departemen Ekonomi tentara Jerman, berpendapat bahwa angkatan kerja Yahudi yang tersedia begitu banyak (lebih dari satu juta tenaga kerja berbadan sehat) adalah aset yang terlalu berharga untuk dimusnahkan disaat Jerman sedang bersiap untuk menyerang Uni Soviet.

Ketika Jerman menduduki Norwegia, Belanda, Luksemburg, Belgia, dan Perancis pada tahun 1940, serta Yugoslavia dan Yunani pada tahun 1941, kebijakan antisemitisme juga diperkenalkan ke negara-negara ini, meskipun tingkat respon dan penerimaannya bervariasi antar negara, sesuai dengan keadaan politik lokal. Yahudi telah dihapus dari kehidupan ekonomi dan budaya dan tunduk pada batas-batas hukum tertentu, tapi deportasi fisik tidak terjadi di sebagian besar negara yang ditaklukkan oleh Jerman sebelum tahun 1942. Rezim Vichy yang ditaklukkan di Perancis ikut berkolaborasi dalam menganiaya orang-orang Yahudi Perancis. Sekutu Jerman; Italia, Hungaria, Rumania, Bulgaria, dan Finlandia dipaksa untuk menerapkan kebijakan antisemitisme, namun sebagian besarnya tidak mau, sehingga Jerman memaksa mereka untuk menerapkannya. Selama perang, Yahudi dan orang Roma dijebloskan ke kamp konsentrasi Banjica di Belgrade, terutama sekali para komunis Serbia, royalis dan patriot lainnya yang menolak penjajahan Jerman. Rezim boneka Jerman di Kroasia mulai aktif dalam menganiaya orang-orang Yahudi atas inisiatif sendiri, sehingga Keputusan Hukum untuk Nasionalisasi Properti dan Perusahaan Yahudi di deklarasikan pada tanggal 10 Oktober 1941 di Negara Independen Kroasia.

Pada tanggal 28 September 1939, Jerman berhasil memperoleh kontrol atas wilayah Lublin melalui kesepakatan Jerman-Soviet dengan menukarnya dengan Lithuania. Berdasarkan ketentuan Rencana Nisko, Jerman diizinkan untuk mendirikan reservasi Lublin-Lipowa di wilayah tersebut. Pembangunan reservasi ini dikepalai oleh Adolf Eichmann, yang diberi tugas untuk memusnahkan orang Yahudi dari seluruh Jerman, Austria, dan Protektorat Bohemia dan Moravia.[81] Nazi mengirimkan Yahudi pertama kali ke Lublin pada tanggal 18 Oktober 1939. Kereta pertama yang mengangkut Yahudi terdiri dari orang-orang Yahudi yang berasal dari Austria dan Protektorat Bohemia dan Moravia. Pada tanggal 30 Januari 1940, sebanyak 78.000 Yahudi dari Jerman, Austria dan Cekoslovakia telah dideportasi ke Lublin. Selanjutnya, tanggal 12 dan 13 Februari 1940, orang-orang Yahudi dari Pomerania menyusul di deportasi ke Lublin. Pomerania adalah wilayah pertama yang mendeklarasikan dirinya sebagai “judenrein” (“bebas Yahudi”).[84] Pada tanggal 24 Maret 1940, Hermann Gring menyatakan bahwa Rencana Nisko akan diakhiri sepenuhnya pada bulan April. Pada saat Rencana Nisko dihentikan, jumlah orang Yahudi yang telah diangkut ke Nisko mencapai 95.000 orang, banyak di antaranya yang tewas karena kelaparan.[86] Pada bulan Juli 1940, karena kesulitan untuk menggalakkan pertambahan populasi di Pemerintahan Umum, Hitler memutuskan bahwa deportasi Yahudi dihentikan untuk sementara waktu.[87]

Pada bulan Oktober 1940, Gauleiter Josef Brckel dan Robert Heinrich Wagner ditugaskan untuk mengawasi Operasi Brckel, yaitu pengusiran orang-orang Yahudi ke wilayah Perancis yang tidak ditaklukkan Jerman. Hanya orang-orang Yahudi yang berasal dari pernikahan campuran yang tidak diusir. Sekitar 6.500 orang Yahudi yang menjadi target Operasi Brckel diberikan peringatan untuk meninggalkan Jerman selama dua jam pada malam tanggal 22-23 Oktober 1940, lebih dari itu, mereka akan ditangkap. Sembilan kereta yang digunakan untuk mengangkut orang-orang Yahudi memasuki Perancis “tanpa memberikan peringatan kepada pihak yang berwenang Perancis”, sehingga mereka tidak senang menerima para pendatang Yahudi. Perancis tidak mengizinkan para pendatang Yahudi membawa barang-barang mereka, sehingga barang-barang tersebut akhirnya disita oleh pemerintah Jerman. Menteri Luar Negeri Jerman, Joachim von Ribbentrop, mengeluhkan lambatnya kinerja pemerintah Vichy dalam menangani para Yahudi buangan. Sebagai hasilnya, orang-orang Yahudi yang terusir ditahan oleh otoritas Vichy di kamp-kamp di Gurs, Rivesaltes dan Les Milles sambil menunggu kesempatan untuk mengembalikan mereka ke Jerman.

Sepanjang tahun 1940 dan 1941, sejumlah besar pembunuhan terhadap orang-orang Yahudi di wilayah Polandia yang diduduki Jerman terus berlangsung, dan pendeportasian Yahudi ke wilayah Pemerintahan Umum juga terus dilakukan. Deportasi Yahudi dari Jerman, terutama Berlin, belum selesai sampai tahun 1943 (banyak Yahudi di Berlin yang mampu bertahan hidup dalam persembunyian). Pada bulan Desember 1939, sekitar 3,5 juta orang Yahudi sudah dideportasi ke wilayah-wilayah di Pemerintahan Umum.

Dari awal pendirian kamp konsentrasi pada masa Reich Ketiga, sebenarnya kamp-kamp tersebut dimaksudkan sebagai tempat penahanan. Meskipun angka kematian di kamp-kamp konsentrasi itu juga tinggi, dengan angka kematian mencapai 50%, namun kamp-kamp tersebut tidak dirancang sebagai pusat pembunuhan massal. Pada tahun 1942, enam kamp pemusnahan besar telah didirikan di wilayah Polandia yang diduduki Nazi, yang dibangun semata-mata untuk tujuan pembunuhan massal. Setelah tahun 1939, kamp-kamp ini semakin dipusatkan menjadi tempat di mana orang-orang Yahudi dan tawanan perang (POW) dibunuh atau dipekerjakan sebagai buruh budak, dan pada akhirnya banyak yang kekurangan gizi dan disiksa. Diperkirakan bahwa Jerman membangun 15.000 kamp dan sub-kamp di negara-negara yang mereka taklukkan, sebagian besar di Eropa Timur.[90][91] Kamp-kamp baru didirikan di wilayah-wilayah yang memiliki banyak penganut Yahudi, intelektual Polandia, komunis, atau populasi Roma dan Sinti, termasuk di Jerman. Transportasi tahanan sering dilakukan dalam kondisi yang mengerikan dengan menggunakan kereta barang, di mana banyak yang meninggal sebelum mencapai tujuan mereka.

Pemusnahan melalui kerja paksa adalah salah satu kebijakan genosida sistematis yang diterapkan oleh Jerman, di mana penghuni kamp akan dipekerjakan sampai mati, atau bekerja sampai kelelahan, dan kemudian dijebloskan ke dalam kamar gas atau ditembak mati. Pekerja budak digunakan untuk memproduksi logistik perang, seperti roket V-2 di Mittelbau-Dora, dan berbagai produksi senjata di sekitar kompleks kamp konsentrasi Mauthausen-Gusen. Setelah para tahanan memasuki kamp, beberapa kamp akan mentato para tahanan dengan sebuah ID tahanan. Para tahanan dipekerjakan selama 12 sampai 14 jam perhari, dengan makanan yang tidak memadai, sehingga banyak di antara mereka yang sekarat atau meninggal saat bekerja.[93]

Setelah menginvasi Polandia, Nazi mendirikan ghetto sebagai tempat bagi orang-orang Yahudi dan Romani “dipenjarakan” sebelum mereka dikirim ke kamp-kamp pemusnahan. Proses pertama yang diketahui dalam pendirian ghetto-ghetto ini berasal dari surat bertanggal 29 September 1939 dari Heydrich kepada kepala Einsatzgruppen. Masing-masing ghetto dijalankan oleh Judenrat (dewan Yahudi) Jerman sebagai pemimpin komunitas Yahudi, yang bertanggung jawab untuk mengelola aktivitas di ghetto sehari-hari, termasuk distribusi makanan, air, pemanas, obat-obatan, dan tempat tinggal. Strategi dasar yang dianut oleh dewan Yahudi dalam mengelola ghetto salah satunya adalah dengan mencoba untuk meminimalkan kerugian, terutama dengan bekerja sama dengan pihak berwenang Nazi (atau penggantinya), meskipun fasilitas yang diberikan sangat mengerikan.

Judenrat juga ditugaskan untuk mengatur proses deportasi ke kamp-kamp pemusnahan, termasuk memberikan nama-nama kelompok yang akan di deportasi. Para anggota Judenrat ini mengupayakan berbagai cara untuk menyelamatkan komunitasnya, seperti dengan memperlambat, penyuapan, menghalang-halangi, memohon, dan berargumentasi, namun pada akhirnya keputusan tetap harus dibuat. Beberapa pihak, seperti Chaim Rumkowski, berpendapat bahwa tanggung jawab mereka adalah untuk menyelamatkan orang-orang Yahudi yang bisa diselamatkan, dan oleh karena itu orang lain harus dikorbankan. Pemimpin Judenrat seperti Dr. Joseph Parnas menolak untuk menyerahkan daftar, alhasil, ia ditembak mati. Pada tanggal 14 Oktober 1942, para Judenrat di Byaroza memilih untuk bunuh diri daripada harus bekerja sama dengan Nazi.

Ghetto Warsawa adalah ghetto yang terbesar, dengan 380.000 penghuni, diikuti oleh Ghetto d (160.000). Michael Berenbaum menyatakan bahwa ghetto-ghetto ini pada dasarnya adalah sebuah penjara yang sangat sesak, dan digunakan sebagai alat “pembunuhan secara lambat dan pasif.” Meskipun Ghetto Warsawa ditempati oleh hampir 400.000 orang (30% dari penduduk Warsawa pada saat itu), lokasinya hanya menempati 2,4% dari luas kota, atau rata-rata 9,2 orang per kamar.[99]

Dari tahun 1940 sampai 1942, kelaparan dan penyakit, terutama tifus, telah menewaskan ratusan ribu nyawa di ghetto. Lebih dari 43.000 penduduk ghetto Warsawa meninggal di sana pada tahun 1941,[99] dan lebih dari setengah penduduk di ghetto Theresienstadt meninggal pada tahun 1942.

Orang Jerman datang, polisi, dan mereka mulai memukul-mukul rumah: “Raus, raus, raus, Juden raus.” … Seorang bayi mulai menangis … Bayi lainnya mulai menangis. Jadi ibu memberi bayinya minum untuk tetap tenang … [Ketika polisi pergi], saya mengatakan kepada ibu untuk keluar. Dan satu bayi sudah tewas … karena takut, sang ibu [telah] membekap bayinya sendiri.

Himmler memerintahkan dimulainya deportasi pada tanggal 19 Juli 1942, dan tiga hari kemudian, deportasi dari Ghetto Warsawa dimulai. Selama 52 hari berikutnya, hingga tanggal 12 September, sekitar 300.000 orang dari Warsawa telah diangkut dengan kereta barang ke kamp pemusnahan Treblinka. Banyak ghetto lainnya yang dikosongkan setelahnya.

Pemberontakan ghetto pertama terjadi pada bulan September 1942 di kota kecil achwa di sebelah tenggara Polandia. Upaya perlawanan bersenjata di ghetto-ghetto yang lebih besar terjadi pada tahun 1943, seperti Pemberontakan Ghetto Warsawa dan Pemberontakan Ghetto Biaystok, namun upaya itu gagal dalam melawan kekuatan militer besar Nazi, dan orang-orang Yahudi yang tersisa entah dibunuh atau dideportasi ke kamp kematian.

Invasi Jerman ke Uni Soviet pada bulan Juni 1941 membuka fase baru dalam perkembangan Holocaust. Holocaust diintensifkan setelah Nazi menduduki Lithuania, yang memiliki hampir 80% penduduk Yahudi dan hampir semuanya dibasmi sebelum akhir tahun. Wilayah Soviet yang diduduki pada awal tahun 1942 juga mencakup Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraina, dan Moldova dan wilayah Rusia paling barat di garis Leningrad-Moscow-Rostov. Di wilayah-wilayah ini terdapat sekitar tiga juta orang Yahudi, termasuk ratusan ribu yang melarikan diri dari Polandia pada tahun 1939.

Penduduk lokal di beberapa wilayah Soviet yang diduduki Jerman juga ikut berpartisipasi aktif dalam pembunuhan orang Yahudi dan yang lainnya. Di Lithuania, Latvia dan Ukraina barat, penduduk setempat sangat terlibat dalam pembunuhan orang-orang Yahudi dari awal pendudukan Jerman.Arajs Kommando Latvia adalah contoh unit militer setempat yang berpartisipasi aktif dalam pembunuhan ini. Di selatan, penduduk Ukraina membantai sekitar 24.000 orang Yahudi. Selain itu, unit-unit militer di Latvia dan Lithuania meninggalkan negara mereka sendiri dan berpartisipasi dalam pembunuhan Yahudi di Belarus, dan militer Ukraina menjabat sebagai penjaga kamp-kamp konsentrasi dan kematian di Polandia. Milisi Ustae di Kroasia juga melakukan tindakan penganiayaan dan pembunuhan. Pada kenyataannya, Jerman-lah yang mengorganisir dan menyalurkan para “partisipan lokal” ini untuk terlibat dalam Holocaust.

Banyak dari pembunuhan massal tersebut dilakukan di depan umum, suatu perubahan dari praktek sebelumnya. Saksi Jerman untuk pembunuhan ini menekankan adanya partisipasi dari penduduk setempat. Pembantaian yang dilakukan oleh tentara Jerman biasanya dibenarkan dengan alasan untuk menegakkan operasi anti-partisan atau anti-bandit, namun sejarawan Jerman Andreas Hillgruber menyatakan bahwa ini hanyalah alasan untuk memperkecil keterlibatan Tentara Jerman dalam Holocaust di Rusia dan istilah “kejahatan perang” dan “kejahatan kemanusiaan” adalah istilah yang tepat untuk menggambarkan apa yang mereka lakukan.[105] Hillgruber menegaskan bahwa pembantaian terhadap sekitar 2,2 juta pria, wanita, dan anak-anak yang tak berdaya karena alasan ideologi rasisme tidak mungkin bisa dibenarkan dengan alasan apapun, dan pernyataan jenderal-jenderal Jerman yang mengklaim bahwa Einsatzgruppen diperlukan untuk merespon anti-partisan adalah kebohongan.[106]

Kerjasama militer dengan SS dalam operasi anti-partisan dan anti-Yahudi berlangsung dengan sangat intensif. Pada musim panas 1941, Brigadir Kavaleri SS diperintahkan oleh Hermann Fegelein dalam operasi anti-partisan di Pripyat Marshes yang menewaskan 699 pasukan Tentara Merah, 1.100 partisan dan 14.178 orang Yahudi. Sejarawan Jerman Jrgen Forster, seorang pakar terkemuka yang mengkaji tentang kejahatan perang Wehrmacht berpendapat bahwa Wehrmacht memainkan peran kunci dalam Holocaust, dan adalah hal yang salah jika mengatakan bahwa Holocaust ini semata-mata merupakan “hasil karya” SS. Raul Hilberg mengungkapkan bahwa komandan Einsatzgruppen Jerman adalah warga biasa, sebagian besar berasal dari kalangan profesional, sebagian besar lagi intelektual, dan mereka dilatih untuk menjadi pembunuh yang efisien.

Skala besar pembunuhan orang Yahudi di wilayah-wilayah Soviet yang diduduki Jerman dilaksanakan oleh Einsatzgruppen (regu pembunuh keliling) di bawah komando Heydrich. Hal ini telah dioperasikan dalam skala terbatas di Polandia pada tahun 1939, namun kemudian dioperasikan dalam skala yang lebih besar. Einsatzgruppe A ditugaskan ke wilayah Baltik, Einsatzgruppe B ke Belarus, Einsatzgruppe C ke Ukraina utara dan tengah, dan Einsatzgruppe D ke Moldova, Ukraina selatan, Krimea, dan Kaukasus utara.

Menurut Otto Ohlendorf di persidangannya, “Einsatzgruppen memiliki misi untuk melindungi garis belakang pasukan dengan membunuh orang-orang Yahudi, Gipsi, fungsionaris komunis, komunis aktif, dan semua orang yang akan membahayakan keamanan.” Dalam prakteknya, korban-korban mereka hampir semuanya merupakan warga sipil Yahudi (tidak satupun anggota Einsatzgruppe yang tewas selama operasi). Pada bulan Desember 1941, empat Einsatzgruppe yang tercantum di atas telah membunuh masing-masing: 125.000, 45.000, 75.000, dan 55.000 orang, dan total 300.000 orang, terutama dengan cara penembakan atau dengan granat tangan di berbagai lokasi pembunuhan massal di luar kota-kota besar.

Museum Memorial Holocaust Amerika Serikat mengisahkan tentang salah satu korban selamat dari pembantaian Einsatzgruppen di Piryatin, Ukraina, ketika mereka membunuh 1.600 orang Yahudi pada tanggal 6 April 1942, hari kedua Paskah:

Saya melihat mereka melakukan pembunuhan. Pada pukul 5:00 pagi mereka memberi perintah, “Isi lubangnya”. Jeritan dan erangan terdengar dari dalam lubang. Tiba-tiba saya melihat tetangga saya Ruderman merangkak dari bawah tanah … Matanya berdarah dan ia berteriak: ” Bunuh saya!” … Seorang wanita yang telah dibunuh berbaring di kaki saya. Seorang anak lima tahun merangkak keluar dari bawah tubuhnya dan mulai menjerit putus asa. “Mommy!” Hanya itu yang saya lihat, karena kemudian saya jatuh pingsan.

Pembantaian yang paling terkenal dari orang-orang Yahudi di Uni Soviet berlangsung di sebuah jurang yang disebut Babi Yar di luar Kiev, di mana 33.771 orang Yahudi tewas dalam satu operasi pada tanggal 29-30 September 1941. Pembunuhan orang-orang Yahudi di Kiev diputuskan oleh gubernur militer (Mayor-Jenderal Friedrich Eberhardt), Komandan Polisi untuk Tentara Kelompok Selatan (SS-Obergruppenfhrer Friedrich Jeckeln) dan Komandan Einsatzgruppe C Otto Rasch. Pembunuhan dilakukan oleh gabungan pasukan SS, SD dan Polisi Keamanan, serta dibantu oleh polisi Ukraina. Pasukan dari Angkatan Darat ke-6 Wehrmacht memang tidak berpartisipasi dalam pembunuhan, namun mereka memainkan peran kunci dalam mengumpulkan orang-orang Yahudi di Kiev dan mengangkut mereka untuk ditembak mati di Babi Yar.

Pada hari Senin, orang-orang Yahudi dari Kiev dikumpulkan di sebuah pemakaman, berharap akan dinaikkan atau diangkut dengan kereta. Kerumunan tersebut cukup besar, sebagian besar laki-laki, perempuan, dan anak-anak tidak mampu mencari tahu apa yang terjadi hingga terlambat; pada saat mereka mendengar tembakan senapan mesin, tidak ada kesempatan untuk melarikan diri. Semuanya berlarian menyusuri barisan tentara, dan kemudian ditembak. Seorang sopir truk menggambarkan adegan tersebut:

Satu demi satu, mereka harus menanggalkan pakaian mereka; mantel, sepatu, dan juga pakaian dalam … Setelah telanjang, mereka dipersilakan memasuki jurang yang panjangnya sekitar 150 meter, lebar 30 meter, dan dalam 15 meter … Ketika mereka sampai di dasar jurang mereka disergap oleh anggota Schutzpolizei dan dipaksa untuk berbaring di atas orang-orang Yahudi yang sudah ditembak … Seorang polisi datang dan menembak seorang Yahudi di leher dengan senapan mesin ringan … Saya melihat polisi tersebut berdiri di atas lapisan mayat dan menembak satu demi satu … Polisi itu berjalan dari mayat orang-orang Yahudi yang telah dieksekusi ke Yahudi berikutnya yang sedang berbaring, dan menembaknya.

Pada bulan Agustus 1941 Himmler melakukan kunjungan ke Minsk. Di sana, ia secara pribadi menyaksikan 100 orang Yahudi yang ditembak di sebuah selokan di luar kota. Peristiwa ini dijelaskan oleh Karl Wolff dalam buku hariannya: “Wajah Himmler menghijau. Dia mengeluarkan sapu tangan dan mengusap pipinya yang terkena cipratan sepotong otak. Kemudian ia muntah.” Setelah tenang, dia mengajari anggota SS untuk mematuhi “hukum moral tertinggi Partai” dalam melaksanakan tugas mereka.

Mulai bulan Desember 1939, Nazi memperkenalkan metode baru pembunuhan massal dengan menggunakan gas. Nazi melengkapi van gas eksperimental dengan tabung gas dan sebuah kompartemen bagasi tertutup, yang digunakan untuk membunuh pasien perawatan mental sanatorium di Pomerania, Prusia Timur, dan wilayah Polandia yang diduduki Jerman sebagai bagian dari operasi yang disebut dengan Aksi T4. Di kamp konsentrasi Sachsenhausen, sebuah van besar yang mampu memuat hingga 100 orang digunakan dari bulan November 1941. Van ini juga diperkenalkan di kamp pemusnahan Chemno pada bulan Desember 1941, dan 15 van lainnya dioperasikan oleh Einsatzgruppen di wilayah Soviet yang diduduki Jerman. Van-van ini dioperasikan di bawah pengawasan dari Kantor Keamanan Utama Reich dan digunakan untuk membunuh sekitar 500.000 nyawa, terutama orang-orang Yahudi, orang Rom, dan lain-lain. Penggunaan van-van ini dipantau secara berhati-hati, dan setelah satu bulan pengamatan, sebuah laporan menyatakan bahwa “sembilan puluh tujuh ribu nyawa telah dihabisi dengan menggunakan van tanpa menimbulkan kerusakan pada mesin”.

Kebutuhan akan teknik pembunuhan massal baru ini juga diungkapkan oleh Hans Frank, Gubernur Pemerintah Umum, yang menyatakan bahwa kebanyakan orang tidak bisa dengan hanya ditembak. “Kita harus mengambil langkah-langkah, merancang beberapa cara untuk memusnahkan mereka.” Masalah tersebut menyebabkan SS melakukan eksperimen pembunuhan dalam skala besar dengan menggunakan gas beracun. Pada akhirnya, Christian Wirth mengungkapkan penemuannya tentang kamar gas.

Konferensi Wannsee diselenggarakan oleh Reinhard Heydrich pada tanggal 20 Januari 1942 di Wannsee, sebuah wilayah di pinggiran kota Berlin, bersama dengan sekitar 15 pemimpin Nazi lainnya serta sejumlah sekretaris negara, pejabat senior, pemimpin partai, perwira SS dan para pemimpin lainnya dari departemen pemerintah yang bertanggung jawab atas kebijakan yang terkait dengan isu-isu Yahudi. Tujuan awal dari pertemuan ini adalah untuk membahas rencana mengenai solusi komprehensif yang berkaitan dengan “permasalahan Yahudi di Eropa”. Heydrich menyarankan untuk “melakukan pembunuhan massal di wilayah-wilayah yang diduduki Jerman … sebagai bagian dari solusi atas permasalahan Yahudi Eropa yang diperintahkan oleh Hitler, dan untuk memastikan bahwa mereka, terutama birokrasi di kementerian, akan berbagi pengetahuan dan tanggung jawab terkait dengan kebijakan ini.”

Salinan dari hasil pertemuan yang disusun oleh Eichmann berhasil diselamatkan, namun atas petunjuk dari Heydrich, salinan tersebut ditulis dalam “bahasa eufimistis.” Dengan demikian, kata-kata yang tepatnya digunakan dalam pertemuan tersebut tidak diketahui. Bagaimanapun juga, dalam pertemuan tersebut Heydrich mengemukakan idenya mengenai kebijakan emigrasi yang akan digantikan oleh kebijakan mengevakuasi Yahudi ke timur. Hal ini dipandang hanya merupakan solusi sementara yang mengarah pada solusi akhir untuk membinasakan sekitar 11 juta orang Yahudi yang tinggal tidak hanya di wilayah yang diduduki oleh Jerman, namun juga di negara-negara besar di seluruh dunia, termasuk Britania Raya dan Amerika Serikat. Heydrich juga menjelaskan bahwa makna dari Solusi Akhir adalah “orang-orang Yahudi harus dimusnahkan dengan cara mengkombinasikan kerja paksa dan pembunuhan massal.”

Para petinggi Nazi diberitahu bahwa terdapat sekitar 2,3 juta orang Yahudi di dalam Pemerintahan Umum, 850.000 di Hungaria, 1,1 juta di negara-negara lainnya yang diduduki Jerman, dan lebih dari 5 juta di Uni Soviet, meskipun 2 juta-nya berada di wilayah yang masih di kuasai oleh Soviet, atau jika ditotalkan, umat Yahudi di Soviet berjumlah sekitar 6,5 juta. Orang-orang Yahudi ini akan diangkut dengan kereta api ke kamp-kamp pemusnahan (Vernichtungslager) di Polandia, dan sebagian besar dari mereka akan digas sekaligus. Di beberapa kamp, sepertidi Auschwitz, mereka yang cocok untuk dipekerjakan akan tetap hidup untuk sementara waktu, tetapi pada akhirnya semuanya tetap akan dibunuh. Perwakilan perusahaan Gring, Dr. Erich Neumann, mendapatkan hak terbatas untuk menggunakan beberapa tahanan sebagai pekerja industri.

Dalam buku karangannya tahun 1983 yang berjudul Popular Opinion and Political Dissent in the Third Reich, Ian Kershaw meneliti mengenai Alltagsgeschichte (sejarah kehidupan sehari-hari) di Bavaria (Bayern) selama periode Nazi. Kershaw berpendapat bahwa sudut pandang publik Bavaria yang paling umum adalah ketidakpedulian terhadap apa yang terjadi pada orang-orang Yahudi. Kershaw menyatakan bahwa sebagian besar orang-orang Bavaria tahu mengenai Holocaust, namun pada kenyataaannya mereka jauh lebih peduli terhadap peperangan daripada peduli terhadap “Solusi Akhir untuk Permasalahan Yahudi” Nazi. Kershaw menggambarkan kengerian Holocaust dengan menganalogikan bahwa “jalan menuju Auschwitz dibangun oleh kebencian, dan diaspali dengan ketidakpedulian”.

Pendapat Kershaw mengenai reaksi kebanyakan orang-orang Bavaria yang dikatakan bersikap “acuh tak acuh” dikecam oleh sejarawan Israel Otto Dov Kulka, seorang ahli opini publik Jerman Nazi, dan sejarawan Kanada Michael Kater. Kater berpendapat bahwa Kershaw meremehkan tingkat antisemitisme yang populer di Jerman, dan meskipun ia mengakui bahwa sebagian besar tindakan antisemit “spontan” Jerman Nazi dilakukan secara bertahap, namun tindakan ini tetap saja melibatkan sebagian besar warga Jerman, dan adalah hal yang salah jika menganggap bahwa sikap antisemit ekstrim Nazi hanya semata-mata berasal dari atas. Kulka berpendapat bahwa kebanyakan orang Jerman lebih bersikap antisemit dibandingkan dengan yang Kershaw gambarkan dalam Popular Opinion and Political Dissent, dan bahwa ketimbang menyebutnya sebagai “ketidakpedulian”, istilah “keterlibatan pasif” adalah istilah yang lebih tepat untuk menggambarkan reaksi dari rakyat Jerman.

Dalam sebuah penelitian yang khusus mengkaji tentang pandangan Yahudi Jerman dalam menentang rezim Nazi, sejarawan Jerman Christof Dipper dalam esainya tahun 1983 yang berjudul “Der Deutsche Widerstand und die Juden (“Perlawanan Jerman dan orang-orang Yahudi”) menyatakan bahwa mayoritas anti-Nazi (nasional-konservatif) adalah antisemit. Dipper menyatakan bahwa bagi sebagian besar penentang Nazi seperti nasional-konservatif, “birokrasi dan hukum perampasan harta orang-orang Yahudi yang dipraktekkan sampai tahun 1938 masih diterima”. Meskipun Dipper mencatat bahwa tak seorang pun pengikut nasional-konservatif yang mendukung Holocaust, ia juga berkomentar bahwa nasional-konservatif tidak berniat untuk mengembalikan hak-hak sipil orang-orang Yahudi setelah merencanakan penggulingan Hitler. Dipper juga berpendapat bahwa “sama halnya dengan pandangan yang dianut oleh para penentang Nazi, sebagian besar rakyat Jerman juga percaya bahwa “Permasalahan Yahudi” ini ada dan harus diselesaikan.”

Robert Gellately berpendapat bahwa sebagian besar penduduk sipil Jerman mengetahui apa yang terjadi. Menurut Gellately, pemerintah secara terbuka mengumumkan konspirasi melalui media, dan bahwa warga sipil mengetahui setiap aspeknya kecuali penggunaan kamar gas.[130] Bukti sejarah signifikan menunjukkan gagasan bahwa sebagian besar korban Holocaust, sebelum dikirim ke kamp konsentrasi, tidak mengetahui nasib yang menanti mereka, atau tidak mempercayainya. Mereka meyakini bahwa mereka akan direlokasi dan diberikan tempat tinggal baru.

Dalam esainya tahun 1965 yang berjudul “Command and Compliance”, sejarawan Jerman Hans Buchheim menyatakan bahwa tidak ada paksaan untuk membunuh orang Yahudi atau yang lainnya, namun setiap orang diberikan kebebasan untuk melakukan hal tersebut. Namun, Buchheim juga mengungkapkan bahwa ia menemukan bukti yang menunnukkan bahwa anggota SS yang menolak untuk melaksanakan perintah kriminal akan dikirim ke kamp konsentrasi atau dieksekusi. Selain itu, orang-orang non-kriminal yang melakukan kejahatan terlebih karena alasan mereka ingin menyesuaikan diri dengan nilai-nilai kelompok mereka atau takut jika dicap “lemah” oleh rekan-rekan mereka jika mereka menolak.

Christopher Browning telah meneliti tentang Batalyon 101 Ordnungspolizei Jerman yang ditugaskan untuk membantai dan mengumpulkan orang-orang Yahudi untuk dideportasi ke kamp-kamp kematian Nazi. Sebagian besar pasukan batalion itu terdiri dari pria paruh baya kelas pekerja yang berasal dari Hamburg, mereka tidak layak untuk diserahi tugas militer dan tidak diberi pelatihan khusus untuk melakukan genosida. Komandan dari unit ini tetap memberikan anak buahnya pilihan untuk keluar dari pasukan jika mereka merasa pekerjaan tersebut tidak menyenangkan, namun mayoritas pasukan memilih untuk tidak mengambil pilihan itu, hanya 15 dari 500 anggota batalion yang melakukannya. Dipengaruhi oleh karya Stanley Milgram, Browning berpendapat bahwa pasukan batalion bersedia bergabung dan melakukan pembantaian lebih karena ketaatan mereka kepada otoritas dan tekanan dari teman sebaya, bukan karena nafsu keji atau kebencian. Implikasi umum dari buku ini adalah bahwa ketika ditempatkan dalam grup kohesif, kebanyakan orang akan mematuhi perintah yang diberikan oleh yang berwenang, meskipun mereka sadar bahwa perintah tersebut bertentangan dengan moral.

Sejarawan Rusia Sergei Kudryashov meneliti tentang para penjaga di kamp konsentrasi Trawniki. Beberapa penjaga di Trawniki adalah Tentara Merah tawanan perang yang mengajukan diri untuk bergabung dengan SS agar bisa keluar dari kamp-kamp POW. Mayoritas penjaga pria di Trawniki adalah tentara komunis Ukraina atau Volksdeutche, meskipun ada juga tentara Rusia, Polandia, Latvia, Lithuania, Tartar , Georgia, Armenia, dan Azerbaijan. Sebagian besar penjaga-penjaga ini mematuhi perintah SS untuk menganiaya orang-orang Yahudi. penganiayaan orang-orang Yahudi oleh penjaga Trawniki “seringkali dilakukan secara sistematis dan tanpa penyebab tertentu.” Banyak dari penjaga-penjaga ini, meskipun tidak semuanya, yang telah mengeksekusi orang-orang Yahudi. Hampir setiap orang yang bekerja sebagai penjaga di kamp-kamp Operasi Reinhard secara pribadi telah membunuh puluhan orang Yahudi. Sependapat dengan Christopher Browning, Kudryashov juga menyatakan bahwa penjaga-penjaga Trawniki ini adalah contoh dari orang-orang biasa yang bersedia menjadi pembunuh karena tekanan dari rekan seperjuangan dan ketaatan pada otoritas yang lebih tinggi.

Sepanjang tahun 1942, enam kamp telah didirikan sebagai kamp-kamp pemusnahan (Vernichtungslager) untuk mendukung pelaksanaan rencana Reinhard.[161] Meskipun Chemno secara teknis bukanlah bagian dari Operasi Reinhard, kamp ini mulai difungsikan sebagai kamp pemusnahan pada bulan Desember 1941.[162] Sebelumnya, dua di antara kamp-kamp ini; Chemno (juga dikenal dengan Kulmhof) dan Majdanek, sudah difungsikan sebagai kamp kerja paksa, dan kemudian fasilitas-fasilitas pemusnahan juga mulai ditambahkan ke kamp-kamp ini. Tiga kamp baru dibangun dengan tujuan tunggal untuk membunuh sejumlah besar orang Yahudi secepat mungkin, yaitu di Belzec, Sobibor dan Treblinka. Kamp ketujuh yang kemudian dibangun di Maly Trostinets, Belarus, juga digunakan untuk tujuan ini. Jasenovac adalah sebuah kamp pemusnahan di mana sebagian besar etnis Serbia tewas.

Kamp-kamp pemusnahan seringkali disamakan dengan kamp konsentrasi seperti Dachau dan Belsen. Sebagian besar kamp konsentrasi berada di Jerman dan dimaksudkan semata-mata sebagai tempat penahanan dan kerja paksa untuk berbagai musuh rezim Nazi (seperti Komunis dan homoseksual). Kamp konsentrasi juga berbeda dengan kamp kerja paksa, yang didirikan di semua negara yang diduduki Jerman untuk mengeksploitasi tenaga kerja tahanan dari berbagai etnis, termasuk tawanan perang. Dalam semua kamp-kamp Nazi memang tercatat angka kematian yang sangat tinggi karena kelaparan, penyakit dan kelelahan, namun hanya kamp-kamp pemusnahan yang dirancang khusus sebagai tempat untuk pembunuhan massal. Kamp-kamp pemusnahan ini dijalankan oleh petugas SS, namun sebagian besar penjaganya adalah tentara-tentara Ukraina atau Baltik.

Di kamp-kamp pemusnahan yang memiliki kamar gas, semua tahanan akan diangkut dengan menggunakan kereta api barang atau ternak. Terkadang kereta-kereta tersebut dikirim langsung ke kamar-kamar gas, namun biasanya dokter kamp akan menyeleksi sebagian kecil individu-individu yang dianggap cocok untuk bekerja di kamp-kamp kerja paksa, dan selebihnya akan dikirim langsung dari peron ke ruang tunggu. Di tempat ini, semua pakaian mereka dan harta benda lainnya akan disita oleh Nazi yang kemudian digunakan untuk membantu mendanai perang. Para korban kemudian digiring telanjang ke dalam kamar gas. Untuk menghindari kepanikan, biasanya mereka diberitahu kalau ruangan tersebut adalah kamar mandi atau ruang delousing, dan ada tanda di dinding yang bertuliskan “kamar mandi” dan “sauna.” Untuk semakin mempertegas kesan mandi tersebut, beberapa pancuran ditempatkan di dalam kamar dan mereka kadang-kadang diberi sepotong kecil sabun dan handuk, serta diberitahu untuk mengingat di mana mereka telah menempatkan barang-barang mereka untuk alasan yang sama. Ketika para korban meminta segelas air karena kehausan setelah perjalanan panjang di kereta ternak, mereka diberitahu supaya buru-buru mandi, karena segelas kopi hangat yang semakin dingin sedang menunggu mereka di kamp.

Menurut Rudolf H, komandan Auschwitz, bungker 1 mampu menampung 800 orang, dan bungker 2 1.200 orang. Setelah ruangan penuh, pintu ditutup rapat dan zat beracun Zyklon-B, HCN, atau hidrogen sianida dialirkan ke dalam kamar melalui ventilasi di dinding samping. Semua yang ada di dalam kamar tewas dalam waktu 20 menit, kecepatan kematian tergantung pada seberapa dekat jarak para korban dari ventilasi gas. Menurut H, diperkirakan bahwa sekitar sepertiga dari para korban meninggal dengan cepat. Joann Kremer, seorang dokter SS yang mengawasi penggunaan gas, menyatakan bahwa: “Teriakan dan jeritan para korban terdengar dari awal, dan sudah jelas bahwa mereka sedang berjuang untuk kehidupan mereka.” Saat mayat-mayat disingkirkan, beberapa korban ditemukan tewas dengan setengah berjongkok akibat penuhnya ruangan, kulit mereka berwarna merah muda dengan bintik-bintik merah dan hijau, mulut berbusa atau pendarahan dari telinga.

Setelah dieksekusi, gas beracun kemudian dipompa keluar, dan mayat-mayat disingkirkan (yang akan memakan waktu hingga empat jam), emas tambalan di gigi para korban akan diekstraksi dengan tang oleh para dokter gigi, dan rambut para wanita dipotong.[167] Selanjutnya, lantai dan dinding kamar gas dibersihkan. Tugas ini dilakukan oleh petugas Sonderkommando, yang khusus ditugaskan untuk menangani unit Yahudi. Di krematorium 1 dan 2, petugas Sonderkommando ini tinggal di loteng di atas krematorium, sedangkan di krematorium 3 dan 4, mereka tinggal di dalam kamar-kamar gas.[168] Setelah petugas Sonderkommando selesai mengurus mayat-mayat korban, petugas SS akan memeriksa untuk memastikan bahwa semua emas telah dicabut dari mulut korban. Jika hasil pemeriksaan itu menemukan masih ada emas yang terpasang di gigi korban, maka sebagai hukumannya, petugas Sonderkommando akan dilempar hidup-hidup ke tungku pemanggangan.

Pada awalnya, mayat-mayat korban dikubur di sebuah lubang dalam yang ditutupi dengan kapur, namun antara bulan September dan November 1942, atas perintah Himmler lubang-lubang tersebut digali dan bangkai-bangkai para korban kemudian dibakar. Pada musim semi tahun 1943, kamar gas dan krematorium baru dibangun untuk mengantisipasi jumlah tahanan yang semakin meningkat.

Perbaikan lain yang kami lakukan di Treblinka adalah dengan membangun kamar gas untuk mengakomodasi 2.000 orang sekaligus, karena Treblinka hanya memiliki 10 kamar gas dan masing-masingnya hanya bisa menampung 200 orang. Cara kami memilih korban adalah sebagai berikut: kami memiliki dua dokter SS di Auschwitz yang bertugas untuk memeriksa kereta-kereta para tahanan yang masuk. Para tahanan akan dibariskan oleh salah satu dokter yang akan membuat keputusan kemana mereka akan dikirim. Tahanan yang cocok untuk dipekerjakan akan dikirim ke kamp. Yang lainnya akan segera dikirim ke taman pemusnahan. Anak-anak usia muda adalah yang selalu dimusnahkan dengan alasan bahwa mereka masih muda dan tidak mampu bekerja. Di Treblinka, para korban hampir selalu tahu bahwa mereka akan dibinasakan, sedangkan di Auschwitz kami berusaha untuk menipu para korban dengan mengatakan bahwa mereka akan memasuki kamar mandi. Tentu saja, seringkali mereka menyadari niat kami dan kadang-kadang terjadi kerusuhan. Para perempuan seringkali menyembunyikan anak-anak mereka di bawah pakaian, tapi tentu saja saat kami menemukannya, anak-anak tersebut akan dikirim untuk dimusnahkan. Kami diminta untuk melaksanakan pemusnahan secara rahasia, namun bau busuk yang memuakkan dari pembakaran mayat terus menerus meresap ke seluruh wilayah, dan masyarakat sekitar tahu bahwa pemusnahan sedang terjadi di Auschwitz.

Dalam studinya mengenai Holocaust, sejarawan Peter Longerich mengungkapkan bahwa: “Yahudi pada prakteknya sama sekali tidak melakukan perlawanan”. Hilberg juga mencatat bahwa peristiwa ini telah membangkitkan kembali sejarah penyiksaan orang-orang Yahudi yang juga pernah terjadi berabad-abad yang lalu. Di Warsawa, Timothy Snyder menyatakan bahwa sebuah pemberontakan terjadi tiga bulan setelah deportasi besar-besaran pada bulan Juli-September 1942. Pada saat Pemberontakan Ghetto Warsawa berhasil ditumpas Jerman Nazi pada musim semi 1943, hanya sebagian kecil dari Yahudi Polandia yang masih hidup.

Perlawanan Yahudi di Ghetto Warsawa berlangsung pada bulan Januari 1943, ribuan pejuang Yahudi bersenjata seadanya menyerang pasukan SS di teluk selama empat minggu sebelum dihancurkan oleh pasukan SS yang sangat unggul. Menurut laporan Yahudi, ratusan tentara Jerman tewas, sedangkan Jerman mengklaim hanya kehilangan 17 anggotanya dan 93 lainnya terluka. Menurut data Jerman, 13.000 orang Yahudi tewas selama pemberontakan, dan 57.885 selebihnya dideportasi dan digas di kamp kematian. Pemberontakan ini diikuti oleh pemberontakan di kamp pemusnahan Treblinka pada bulan Mei 1943, di mana sekitar 200 tahanan melarikan diri dari kamp setelah melumpuhkan para penjaga. Mereka membunuh sejumlah penjaga Jerman dan membakar kamp untuk menghilangkan jejak, namun 900 tahanan juga tewas, dan dari 600 orang yang berhasil melarikan diri, hanya 40 orang yang selamat dari perang. Dua minggu kemudian, juga terjadi pemberontakan di Ghetto Biaystok. Pada bulan September, ada pemberontakan singkat di Ghetto Vilna. Sebulan kemudian, 600 tahanan Yahudi, termasuk Yahudi Soviet tahanan perang, mencoba melarikan diri dari kamp pemusnahan Sobibor. Para tahanan berhasil membunuh 11 perwira SS Jerman dan sejumlah penjaga kamp. Namun, mereka tertangkap, dan tahanan kemudian dipanggang hidup-hidup, sedangkan 300 tahanan lainnya tewas dalam pelarian. Sebagian besar korban tewas di ladang ranjau yang dipasang mengelilingi kamp atau tertangkap kembali dan kemudian dieksekusi. Sekitar 60 tahanan yang selamat bergabung dengan partisan Soviet. Pada tanggal 7 Oktober 1944, 250 Sonderkommando Yahudi di Auschwitz menyerang penjaga kamp dan meledakkan Krematorium IV dengan bahan peledak yang telah diselundupkan oleh tahanan perempuan dari sebuah pabrik di dekatnya. Tiga penjaga Jerman tewas selama pemberontakan, salah satunya dimasukkan ke oven. Para Sonderkommando mengupayakan usaha pelarian besar-besaran, namun ke-250 tahanan yang kabur tersebut terbunuh tidak lama kemudian.

Diperkirakan sekitar 20.000 sampai 30.000 partisan Yahudi aktif dalam melawan Nazi dan kolaborator mereka di Eropa Timur.[175] Mereka terlibat dalam perang gerilya dan sabotase terhadap Nazi, menghasut pemberontakan Ghetto, dan membebaskan para tahanan. Di Lithuania, mereka membunuh sekitar 3.000 tentara Jerman. Sebanyak 1,4 juta tentara Yahudi juga bertempur untuk tentara Sekutu.[176] Dari jumlah tersebut, Sekitar 40% bertugas di Tentara Merah.[176] Sekitar 200.000 tentara Yahudi yang bertugas di Tentara Merah meninggal dalam perang.Brigadir Yahudi, sebuah unit yang terdiri dari 5.000 sukarelawan Yahudi yang berasal dari Mandat Britania atas Palestina berjuang di pasukan Angkatan Darat Britania Raya. Sukarelawan Yahudi yang berbahasa Jerman dari Kelompok Interogasi Khusus melakukan aksi komando dan operasi sabotase terhadap Nazi di belakang garis depan dalam Kampanye Gurun Barat.

Di wilayah Polandia dan Soviet yang diduduki Jerman Nazi, ribuan orang Yahudi melarikan diri ke dalam rawa-rawa atau hutan dan bergabung dengan partisan, meskipun gerakan partisan tersebut tidak selalu menyambut mereka. Di Lithuania dan Belarus, kelompok partisan Yahudi menyelamatkan ribuan warga sipil Yahudi dari pemusnahan. Di Amsterdam dan wilayah lainnya di Belanda, banyak orang Yahudi yang aktif dalam melawan Nazi.Timothy Snyder menyatakan bahwa “pejuang dalam Pemberontakan Warsawa adalah veteran dari pemberontakan ghetto pada tahun 1943. Sebagian besar orang Yahudi bergabung dengan Armia Krajowa, dan lebih banyak orang Yahudi yang berperang dalam Pemberontakan Warsawa pada bulan Agustus 1944 dibandingkan dengan Pemberontakan Ghetto Warsawa pada bulan April 1943.” Bergabung dengan kelompok partisan adalah satu-satunya pilihan yang tersedia bagi kaum muda dan sehat yang bersedia meninggalkan keluarga mereka. Banyak keluarga Yahudi yang lebih suka untuk mati bersama-sama daripada harus dipisahkan.

Yahudi Perancis juga sangat aktif dalam menentang Nazi, mereka melakukan kampanye gerilya melawan Nazi dan otoritas Vichy, membantu Sekutu dalam menghalau mereka dari Perancis, dan mendukung Sekutu dalam operasi pembebasan kota-kota di Perancis yang diduduki Jerman. Meskipun orang-orang Yahudi hanya satu persen dari penduduk Perancis, mereka berkontribusi dalam lima belas sampai dua puluh persen dari perlawanan Perancis dalam menentang Nazi. Gerakan pemuda Yahudi EEIF, yang awalnya menunjukkan dukungan pada rezim Vichy, dibubarkan pada tahun 1943, dan banyak dari anggotanya yang lebih tua kemudian membentuk unit perlawanan bersenjata. Zionis Yahudi juga membentuk Armee Juive (Tentara Yahudi) yang berpartisipasi dalam perlawanan bersenjata di bawah bendera Zionis dan menyelundupkan para Yahudi ke luar negeri. Kedua organisasi di atas bergabung pada tahun 1944, dan selanjutnya berpartisipasi dalam pembebasan Paris, Lyon, Toulouse,Grenoble, dan Nice.

Heydrich terbunuh di Praha pada bulan Juni 1942. Ia digantikan sebagai kepala RSHA oleh Ernst Kaltenbrunner. Kaltenbrunner dan Eichmann, di bawah pengawasan yang ketat dari Himmler, mengawasi klimaks dari Solusi Akhir. Selama tahun 1943 dan 1944, kamp-kamp pemusnahan dioperasikan pada tingkat terganas untuk membunuh ratusan ribu orang yang dikirim kesana dengan kereta api dari hampir setiap negara yang diduduki oleh Jerman. Pada musim semi tahun 1944, lebih dari 8.000 orang digas setiap hari di Auschwitz.[181]

Meskipun produksi tertinggi dari industri perang Jerman berbasis di ghetto-ghetto Yahudi di Pemerintahan Umum, selama tahun 1943 ghetto-ghetto ini dilikuidasi, dan populasinya dikirim ke kamp-kamp untuk dimusnahkan. Yang terbesar dari operasi ini yaitu deportasi sekitar 100.000 Yahudi dari Ghetto Warsawa pada awal tahun 1943. Sekitar 42.000 orang Yahudi ditembak selama Operasi Festival Panen pada tanggal 3-4 November 1943.[182] Pada saat yang sama, pengiriman kereta api ke kamp-kamp Nazi tiba secara teratur dari barat dan selatan Eropa. Beberapa Yahudi juga dikirimkan dari wilayah-wilayah Soviet yang diduduki Jerman ke kamp, pembunuhan orang Yahudi yang tersisa di zona ini dituntaskan oleh SS, dibantu oleh tentara-tentara lokal yang direkrut. Dalam berbagai peristiwa, pada akhir tahun 1943 Jerman akhirnya terusir dari sebagian besar wilayah Soviet.

Pengiriman Yahudi ke kamp-kamp terus dilakukan oleh Jerman, dan terus berlanjut bahkan saat menghadapi situasi militer yang semakin darurat setelah Pertempuran Stalingrad pada akhir tahun 1942. Serangan udara Sekutu terhadap fasilitas industri dan transportasi Jerman juga semakin meningkat. Para pemimpin militer dan ekonomi Jerman mulai mengeluhkan mengenai pembunuhan pekerja Yahudi yang terampil. Pada tahun 1944, sudah jelas bagi kebanyakan orang Jerman yang tidak dibutakan oleh fanatisme Nazi bahwa Jerman sudah kalah perang. Banyak pejabat senior yang mulai ketakutan terhadap nasib yang mungkin menunggu mereka dan Jerman terkait dengan kejahatan yang dilakukan atas nama mereka.

Pada bulan Oktober 1943, Himmler memberikan pidato kepada pejabat senior Partai Nazi yang berkumpul di Posen (sekarang Pozna, Polandia Barat). Dalam pidato ini, Himmler secara eksplisit menyatakan bahwa ia bermaksud untuk membasmi orang Yahudi dari Eropa:

Saya disini dalam pertemuan ini untuk berpidato mengenai permasalahan yang kita, kawan-kawan partai saya, hadapi, permasalahan tersulit dalam hidup saya, permasalahan Yahudi … Kita menghadapi permasalahan: bagaimana dengan para wanita dan anak-anak? Saya telah memecahkan persoalan ini bahkan dengan solusi yang benar-benar jelas. Saya tidak menganggap tindakan saya untuk memusnahkan para pria bisa dibenarkan, namun membiarkan para penuntut balas dalam sosok anak-anak untuk tumbuh dewasa adalah hal yang salah … Jadi keputusan sulit harus diambil, orang-orang ini harus dilenyapkan dari muka bumi.

Hadirin yang mendengarkan pidato ini termasuk Laksamana Karl Dnitz dan Menteri Albert Speer. Dnitz kemudian mengungkapkan dalam pengadilan Nuremberg bahwa ia tidak mengetahui tentang “Solusi Akhir”. Sedangkan Speer menyatakan di persidangan dan dalam sebuah wawancara berikutnya bahwa “Jika saya tidak mengetahuinya, maka itu karena saya tidak ingin mengetahuinya.” Teks pidato di atas belum terungkap pada saat persidangan mereka.

Skala pemusnahan massal agak menurun pada awal 1944 setelah ghetto di Polandia yang diduduki Jerman dikosongkan, namun pada tanggal 19 Maret 1944, Hitler memerintahkan pendudukan militer Hungaria, dan Eichmann dikirim ke Budapest untuk mengawasi deportasi sekitar 800.000 Yahudi Hungaria. Lebih dari setengah Yahudi Hungaria telah dikirim ke Auschwitz pada tahun itu. Komandan Rudolf H, mengatakan di persidangannya bahwa ia telah membunuh 400.000 orang Yahudi Hungaria dalam waktu tiga bulan.

Operasi untuk membunuh orang-orang Yahudi Hungaria menghadapi pertentangan yang kuat dalam hirarki Nazi. Ada beberapa pendapat yang menyarankan bahwa Hitler harus menawarkan tentara Sekutu kesepakatan untuk menukar ratusan ribu Yahudi Hungaria dengan perlengkapan perang. Ada negosiasi tidak resmi di Istanbul antara agen Himmler, agen Inggris, dan perwakilan dari organisasi-organisasi Yahudi, yang berakhir dengan pertukaran satu juta Yahudi Hungaria dengan 10.000 truk, yang kemudian dikenal dengan proposal “darah untuk barang” (“blood for goods”).

Pelarian para tahanan dari kamp hanya sedikit, dan sebagian besarnya tidak diketahui. Pada tahun 1940, komandan Auschwitz melaporkan bahwa “penduduk lokal adalah orang Polandia yang sangat fanatik dan … siap untuk mengambil tindakan apapun terhadap personil kamp SS. Setiap tahanan yang berhasil melarikan diri dapat mengandalkan bantuan penduduk lokal saat ia mencapai dinding perumahan yang pertama.” Menurut Ruth Linn, bagaimanapun juga pelarian tahanan, terutama tahanan Yahudi, tidak sepenuhnya bisa mengandalkan bantuan dari penduduk lokal ataupun gerakan “bawah tanah” Polandia.

Pada bulan Februari 1942, seorang tahanan bernama Jacob Grojanowski melarikan diri dari kamp pemusnahan Chemno dan berhasil mencapai mencapai Ghetto Warsawa. Di sana ia memberikan informasi rinci tentang kamp Chemno pada kelompok Shabbat Oneg. Laporannya, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Laporan Grojanowski, diselundupkan keluar dari ghetto melalui saluran-saluran “bawah tanah” Polandia kepada Delegatura, dan tiba di London pada bulan Juni 1942. Tidak diketahui apa yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah Inggris untuk menyikapi laporan tersebut pada saat itu.[149][188][189] Sementara itu, pada tanggal 1 Februari, Kantor Informasi Perang Amerika Serikat memutuskan untuk tidak merilis informasi tentang pemusnahan orang-orang Yahudi karena merasa bahwa hal itu akan menyesatkan publik dengan berpikir bahwa perang hanyalah masalah Yahudi.[191]

Pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1942, radio Inggris menyiarkan berita mengenai peng-gas-an orang-orang Yahudi ke Belanda. Bulan Desember 1942, Sekutu merilis Deklarasi Bersama Anggota Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa, yang menggambarkan bagaimana “Hitler berulang kali berniat untuk memusnahkan orang-orang Yahudi di Eropa” dan menyatakan bahwa mereka “mengutuk sekuat mungkin kebijakan binatang dari pemusnahan berdarah dingin Nazi”.

Pada tahun 1942, Jan Karski melaporkan kepada pemerintah Polandia, Inggris dan AS mengenai situasi di Polandia, terutama kehancuran Ghetto Warsawa dan genosida orang-orang Yahudi. Dia bertemu dengan politisi Polandia di pengasingan, termasuk perdana menteri, serta anggota partai politik seperti Partai Sosialis, Partai Nasional, Partai Buruh, Partai Rakyat, Jewish Bund dan Poalei Sion. Dia juga berbicara kepada sekretaris luar negeri Inggris Anthony Eden, dan menjelaskan secara rinci tentang apa yang telah dilihatnya di Warsawa dan Beec. Pada tahun 1943, di London ia bertemu dengan wartawan Arthur Koestler. Karski juga melakukan perjalanan ke Amerika Serikat dan melaporkannya kepada Presiden Franklin D. Roosevelt. Laporannya merupakan sumber utama dalam menginformasikan Holocaust kepada dunia Barat.

Read this article:
Holokaus – Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Jews leave France in record numbers – CNN.com

“I was not good, really not good,” Krief says of how he felt at the time. “I talked to my mom, and I said, ‘We must go to Israel. We need to go to Israel.’”

Krief, a French Jew who had just finished high school, moved to Israel with his family six months later, as part of the largest migration of Jews from Western Europe to Israel since the modern state of Israel was created.

Nearly 8,000 French Jews moved to Israel in the year following the Charlie Hebdo attack, according to the Jewish Agency, which handles Jewish immigration, or aliyah, to Israel.

The number of French Jews moving to Israel has doubled — and doubled again — in the past five years.

In 2013, less than 3,300 French Jews moved to Israel. Only two years earlier, that number stood at 1,900.

Britain has the second-highest Jewish emigration from Western Europe, but the scale is much smaller. According to the Jewish Agency, 774 British Jews moved to Israel in 2015, less than one-tenth the number of French Jews.

Many French Jews settle in Ashdod, a city in southern Israel known for its large French population.

You are as likely to hear French on the streets as you are Hebrew, especially in one of the city’s many French cafs.

“It’s great for me here, much better than France,” says Charly Dahan, a musician who moved to Israel from Paris two years ago.

Dahan sits in Caf Lyon, a popular meeting spot for French Jews.

“This is the first time in my life that I am relaxed. In France, I also felt good, but the situation and the current problems… it’s very difficult to live as a Jew in France,” he adds.

The Jewish Agency says violence is part — but not all — of the reason for French immigration.

“While high-profile attacks such as those at the Jewish school in Toulouse in 2012, the Jewish museum in Brussels in 2014, and the kosher supermarket in Paris and the synagogue in Copenhagen last year have certainly been the most vivid instances of violence targeting French and European Jews, the French Jewish community has been living with a deep sense of insecurity for quite some time,” says Avi Mayer, spokesman for the Jewish Agency.

Israel’s Jewish leaders have always proclaimed that the country will always offer a home to Jews from anywhere in the world.

But what of the places these newcomers have left behind?

French Prime Minister Manuel Valls recently expressed the fear that an exodus of Jews would change the country for the worse.

“Without the Jews, France is no longer France. It’s the oldest community. They have been French citizens since the French revolution,” he told CNN’s Christiane Amanpour.

But when the European Union studied the prevalence of anti-Semitism in 2013, it found that 74% of Jews in France avoid openly identifying themselves as Jewish at least some of the time, and more than a quarter of French Jews always do.

Dov Cohen, a French Jew who left Marseille for Ashdod last summer, says he never wore his religious skullcap, or kippa, in public.

“You have to watch out,” Cohen says about his life in France. “You have to protect the children because of fights in the metro and on the buses. This pushed us to decide to make aliyah,” he says.

“Here there is a feeling of security that no longer exists in France. Twenty years ago, maybe yes. But since the year 2000, there no longer is that feeling of security in France.”

2015: Jewish leaders rebuff Netanyahu’s call for mass migration

Read more from the original source:
Jews leave France in record numbers – CNN.com

Synagogues – What is a Synagogue – About Archaeology

By K. Kris Hirst

Definition:

A synagogue is, of course, a religious structure that can be identified with the Jewish faith. The earliest synagogues probably developed during the period of Babylonian exile perhaps as early as 6th century BC. Synagogues were mentioned in Egyptian papyri (as proseuchai) by the 3rd century BC, and probably served as prayer houses and hostels for pilgrims.

The earliest possible known synagogue foundation was found on the island of Delos, dated to the first century BC; it has an associated inscription which mentions Zeus Hypsistos, some believe is a name for the Jewish God.

Indisputable archaeological evidence for a synagogue is from the synagogue of Theodotos in Jerusalem, dated to the 1st century AD. Excavated synagogues include ones at Masada and Herodium, dated to the time of the first Jewish revolt against the Romans (66-74 AD). Beth Alpha synagogue in what is now Israel and Na’aran in Palestine/Israel dates to the 6th century AD.

This glossary entry is part of the Dictionary of Archaeology.

Read the original post:
Synagogues – What is a Synagogue – About Archaeology

SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT – JewishEncyclopedia.com

Included the Last Prophets.

The members of the Great Synagogue, or the Great Assembly, are designated in the Mishnah (Ab. i. 1) as those representatives of the Law who occupied a place in the chain of tradition between the Prophets and the earliest scholars known by name. “The Prophets transmitted the Torah to the men of the Great Synagogue. . . . Simon the Just was one of those who survived the Great Synagogue, and Antigonus of Soko received the Torah from him” (Ab. i. 1 et seq.). The first part of this statement is paraphrased as follows in Ab. R. N. i.; “Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi received from the Prophets; and the men of the Great Synagogue received from Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.” This is the reading of the first version; the second version (ed. Schechter, p. 2) reads: “The Prophets to Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi; and these to the men of the Great Synagogue.” In this paraphrase the three post-exilic prophets are separated from the other prophets, for it was the task of the former to transmit the Law to the members of the Great Synagogue. It must even be assumed that these three prophets were themselves included in those members, for it is evident from the statements referring to the institution of the prayers and benedictions that the Great Synagogue included prophets.

According to R. Johanan, who wrote in the third century, “the men of the Great Synagogue instituted for Israel the benedictions and the prayers, as well as the benedictions for iddush and habdalah” (Ber. 33a). This agrees with the sentence of R. Jeremiah (4th cent.), who states (Yer. Ber. 4d), in reference to the “Shemoneh ‘Esreh,” that “onehundred and twenty elders, including about eighty prophets, have instituted these prayers.” These one hundred and twenty elders are undoubtedly identical with the men of the Great Synagogue. The number given of the prophets must, however, be corrected according to Meg. 17b, where the source of R. Jeremiah’s statement is found: “R. Johanan said that, according to some, a baraita taught that one hundred and twenty elders, including some prophets, instituted the ‘Shemoneh ‘Esreh.’” Hence the prophets were in a minority in the Great Synagogue. Another statement regarding the activity of this institution alludes to the establishment of the Feast of Purim according to Esth. ix. 27 et seq., while the Babylonian Talmud (Meg. 2a) states, as a matter requiring no discussion, that the celebration of the Feast of Purim on the days mentioned in Meg. i. 1 was instituted by the men of the Great Synagogue. But in the Palestinian Talmud R. Johanan (Meg. 70d; Ruth R. ii. 4) speaks of “eighty-five elders, among them about thirty prophets.”

These divergent statements may easily be reconciled (see Krochmal, “Moreh Nebuke ha-Zeman,” p. 97) by reading, in the one passage, “beside them” () instead of “among them” (); and in the other passage, “thirty” instead of “eighty.” The number eighty-five is taken from Neh. x. 2-29; but the origin of the entire number (120) is not known. It was undoubtedly assumed that the company of those mentioned in Neh. x. was increased to one hundred and twenty by the prophets who took part in the sealing of the covenant, this view, which is confirmed by Neh. vi. 7, 14, being based on the hypothesis that other prophets besides Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were then preaching in Israel. These passages indicate that this assembly was believed to be the one described in Neh. ix.-x., and other statements regarding it prove that the Amoraim accepted this identification as a matter of course. According to Abba b. Kahana, the well-known haggadist of the latter half of the third century (Shem-ob on Ps. xxxvi., end), “Two generations used the ‘Shem ha-Meforesh,’ the men of the Great Synagogue and the generation of the ‘shemad’” (the persecution of Hadrian and the Bar Kokba war). This reference is explained in a statement by Giddel, a pupil of Rab (Yer. Meg. iii., end; Yoma 69b): “The word in Neh. viii. 6 indicates that Ezra uttered the great Tetragram in his praise of God.”

The combination of these two passages, which evidently have the same basis, offers another instance of the general assumption that all the members of this body were regarded as belonging to one generation, which included Ezra, while Joshua b. Levi, one of the earliest amoraim, even derived the term “Great Synagogue” from Neh. ix. 32. The authors of the prayers restored the triad of the divine attributes introduced by Moses (Deut. x. 17), although Jeremiah (xxxii. 18) and Daniel (x. 17, Hebr.) had each omitted one of the three attributes from their prayers. “The Great Assembly was so called because it gave the divine attributes their ancient ‘greatness’ and dignity” (Yoma 69b [with other authorities]; Yer. Ber. 11c and Meg. 74c; Shem-ob on Ps. xix.; see also Ber. 33b); although this is merely a haggadic explanation of the old term, it indicates that the Amoraim did not think the Great Synagogue could be any other assembly or council than the one mentioned as the source of the prayers in Neh. ix.; and there are other examples in traditional literature evidencing this view. In Yer. Ber. 3a (Gen. R. xlvi., lxxviii.) this objection is raised in regard to a thesis of R. Levi based on Gen. xvii. 5 and referring to Neh. ix. 7: “Did not the men of the Great Synagogue call Abraham by his former name, Abram?” In the name of the men of the Great Synagogue, R. Abbahu (Gen. R. vi.) quotes the words “The heaven of heavens, with all their host” (Neh. ix. 6) as an explanation of Gen. i. 17; and the same authority is invoked in a haggadic passage by Abin (Tan., Shemot, i.) in reference to Neh. ix. 5 (ib. 2, anonymous), as well as in one by Samuel b. Naman (Ex. R. xli., beginning; Tan., Ki Tissa, 14) alluding to Neh. ix. 18.

R. Johanan connected the following story with Neh. x. 1-2 (Ruth R. ii. 4): “The men of the Great Synagogue wrote a document in which they voluntarily agreed to pay heave-offerings and tithes. This document they displayed in the hall of the Temple; the following morning they found the divine confirmation inscribed upon it.” Since Nehemiah himself was a member, Samuel b. Marta, a pupil of Rab, quoted a phrase used by Nehemiah in his prayer (i. 7) as originating with his colleagues (Ex. R. li.; Tan., Peude, beginning). Ezra was, of course, one of the members, and, according to Neh. viii., he was even regarded as the leader. In one of the two versions of the interpretation of Cant. vii. 14 (Lev. R. ii. 11), therefore, Ezra and his companions (“‘Ezra wa-aburato”) are mentioned, while the other version (Cant. R. ad loc.) speaks merely of the “men of the Great Synagogue” (compare the statements made above regarding the pronunciation of the Tetragram). In the targum to Cant. vii. 3, in addition to “Ezra the priest” the men mentioned in Ezra ii. 2 as the leaders of the people returning from the ExileZerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Mordecai, and Bilshanare designated as “men of the Great Synagogue.” In the same targum (to vi. 4) the leaders of the exiles are called the “sages of the Great Synagogue.”

It appears from all these passages in traditional literature that the idea of the Great Assembly was based on the narrative in Neh. viii.-x., and that, furthermore, its members were regarded as the leaders of Israel who had returned from exile and laid the foundations of the new polity connected with the Second Temple. All these men were regarded in the tannaitic chronology as belonging to one generation; for this reason the “generation of the men of the Great Synagogue” is mentioned in one of the passages already cited, this denoting, according to the chronological canon of Jose b. alafta (Seder ‘Olam Rabbah xxx. [ed. Ratner, p. 141); ‘Ab. Zarah 86), the generation of thirty-four years during which the Persian rule lasted, at the beginning of the period of the Second Temple. As the last prophets were still preaching during this time, they also were included. That prophecy began only at the end ofthis period, when the reign of Alexander the Great commenced, was likewise a thesis of the tannaitic chronology, which, like the canon of the thirty-four years, was adopted by the later Jewish chronologists (Seder ‘Olam Rabbah l.c.; comp. Sanh. 11a), although the view occurs as early as Josephus (“Contra Ap.” i., 8).

In view of these facts, it was natural that the Great Synagogue should be regarded as the connecting-link in the chain of tradition between the Prophets and the scholars. It may easily be seen, therefore, why Simon the Just should be termed a survivor of this body, for, according to the tradition current in the circle of Palestinian scholars, it was this high priest, and not his grandfather Jaddua, who met Alexander the Great, and received from him much honor (see Yoma 69a; Meg. Ta’an. for the 21st of Kislew; comp. Alexander the Great).

It is thus evident that, according to the only authority extant in regard to the subject, the tradition of the Tannaim and the Amoraim, the activity of this assembly was confined to the period of the Persian rule, and thus to the first thirty-four years of the Second Temple, and that afterward, when Simon the Just was its only survivor, there was no other fixed institution which could be regarded as a precursor of the academies. This statement does not imply, however, that such a body did not exist in the first centuries of the Second Temple, for it must be assumed that some governing council existed in those centuries as well, although the statements regarding the Great Synagogue refer exclusively to the first period. The term primarily denoted the assembly described in Neh. ix.-x., which convened principally for religious purposesfasting, reading of the Torah, confession of sins, and prayer (Neh. ix. 1 et seq.). Since every gathering convened for religious purposes was called “keneset” (hence “bet ha-keneset” = “the synagogue”; comp. the verb “kenos,” Esth. iv. 16), this term was applied also to the assembly in question; but as it was an assembly of special importance it was designated more specifically as the “great assembly” (comp. Neh. v. 7, “ehillah gedolah”).

In addition to fixing the ritual observances for the first two quarters of the day (Neh. ix. 3), the Great Synagogue engaged in legislative proceedings, making laws as summarized in Neh. x. 30 et seq. Tradition therefore ascribed to it the character of a chief magistracy, and its members, or rather its leaders, including the prophets of that time, were regarded as the authors of other obligatory rules. These leaders of post-exilic Israel in the Persian period were called the “men of the Great Synagogue” because it was generally assumed that all those who then acted as leaders had been members of the memorable gathering held on the 24th of Tishri, 444 B.C. Although the assembly itself convened only on a single day, its leaders were designated in tradition as regular members of the Great Synagogue. This explains the fact that the references speak almost exclusively of the members of the Great Synagogue, the allusions to the body itself being very rare, and based in part on error, as, for example, the quotation from Ab. i. 2 which occurs in Eccl. R. xii. 11.

As certain institutions supposed to have been established in the first period of the Second Temple were ascribed to Ezra, so others of them were ascribed to the men of the Great Synagogue. There is, in fact, no difference between the two classes of institutions so far as origin is concerned. In some cases Ezra, the great scribe and the leader of the Great Synagogue, is mentioned as the author, in others the entire body is so mentioned; in all cases the body with Ezra at its head must be thought of as the real authors. In traditional literature, however, a distinction was generally drawn between the institutions of Ezra and those of the men of the Great Synagogue, so that they figured separately; but it is not surprising, after what has been said above, that in Tan., Beshalla, 16, on Ex. xv. 7, the “Tiune Soferim,” called also (“Okhla we-Okhla,” No. 168) “Tiune ‘Ezra” (emendations of the text of the Bible by the Soferim, or by Ezra; and according to the tannaitic source [see Bacher, "Ag. Tan." ii. 205], originally textual euphemisms), should be ascribed to the men of the Great Synagogue, since the author of the passage in question identified the Soferim (i.e., Ezra and his successors) with them.

The following rulings were ascribed to the men of the Great Synagogue:

The list of Biblical personages who have no part in the future world (Sanh. x. 1) was made, according to Rab, by the men of the Great Synagogue (Sanh. 104b), and a haggadic ruling on Biblical stories beginning with the phrase “Wa-yehi bayamim” (And it came to pass in those days) is designated by Johanan, or his pupil Levi, as a “tradition of the men of the Great Synagogue” (Meg. 10b). This is merely another way of saying, as is stated elsewhere (Lev. R. xi.) in reference to the same ruling, that it had been brought as a tradition from the Babylonian exile. There are references also to other haggadic traditions of this kind (see Bacher, “Ag. Tan.” 2d ed., i. 192; idem, “Die Aelteste Terminologie,” p. 107). Joshua b. Levi ascribes in an original way to the men of the Great Synagogue the merit of having provided for all time for the making of copies of the Bible, tefillin, and mezuzot, stating that they instituted twenty-four fasts to insure that wealth would not be acquired by copyists, who would cease to copy if they became rich (Pes. 50b). A haggadic passage by Jose b. anina refers to the names of the returning exiles mentioned in Ezra ii. 51 et seq. (Gen. R. lxxi. et passim), one version reading “the men of the Great Synagogue” instead of “sons of the Exile,” or “those that returned from the Exile” (“‘ole goleh”). This shows that the men of the Great Synagogue included the first generation of the Second Temple. In Esth. R. iii. 7 the congregation of the tribes mentioned in Judges xx. 1 is apparently termed “men of the Great Synagogue.” This is due, however, to a corruption of the text, for, according to Luria’s skilful emendation, this phrase must be read with the preceding words “Ezra and the men of the Great Synagogue”; so that the phrase corresponds to the “bene ha-golah” of Ezra x. 16.

There is, finally, a passage of three clauses, which the Mishnah (Ab. i. 12) ascribes to the men of the Great Synagogue as stated above, and which reads as follows: “Be heedful in pronouncing sentence; have many pupils; put a fence about the Torah.” This aphorism, ascribed to an entire body of men, can only be interpreted as expressing their spirit and tendency, yet it must have been formulated by some individual, probably one of their number. At all events, it may be regarded as a historical and authentic statement of the dominating thought of those early leaders of post-exilic Israel who were designated in the tradition of the Palestinian schools as the men of the Great Synagogue. It must also be noted that this passage, like the majority of those given in the first chapter of Abot, is addressed to the teachers and spiritual leaders rather than to the people. These three clauses indicate the program of the scholars of the Persian period, who were regarded as one generation, and evidence their harmony with the spirit of Ezra’s teaching. Their program was carried out by the Pharisees: caution in pronouncing legal sentences; watchfulness over the schools and the training of pupils; assurance of the observance of the Law by the enforcement of protective measures and rulings.

An attempt has thus been made to assign correct positions to the texts in which the men of the Great Synagogue are mentioned, and to present the views on which they are based, although no discussions can be broached regarding the views of the chroniclers and historians, or the different hypotheses and conclusions drawn from these texts concerning the history of the period of the Second Temple. For this a reference to the articles cited in the bibliography must suffice. Kuenen especially presents a good summary of the more recent theories, while L. Lw (who is not mentioned by Kuenen) expresses views totally divergent from those generally held with regard to the Great Synagogue; this body he takes to be the assembly described in I Macc. xiv. 25-26, which made Simeon the Hasmonean a hereditary prince (18th of Elul, 140 B.C.).

Read the original post:
SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT – JewishEncyclopedia.com

The History of the Talmud – What is the Talmud? What is …

At various times during the Hadrian persecutions, the sages were forced into hiding, though they managed to reconvene at Usha in 122 CE, and then in a time of quiet managed to re-establish again at Yavneh in 158 CE.

With so much persecution and unrest, with the Jewish people fleeing the land of Israel, the rabbis knew that they would not be able to keep a central seat of rabbinic power alive for long.

Yet, during these great periods of chaos, some of the finest rabbinic minds made their mark. Among them:

Now, another man was to emerge and make his markthe son of Rabbi Shimon Ben Gamliel IIRabbi Yehudah HaNasi (in English Judah, the Prince).

In a time of chaos, the rabbis decide that they must do the unprecedentedwrite down the Oral Law.

He is one personality who is absolutely fundamental to understanding this period of time, and one of the greatest personalities of Jewish history.

So great was he that he is now affectionately referred to in Jewish scholarship as only Rebbe.

He had a unique combination of attributesbeing both a great Torah scholar and a strong leaderthat gave him the power to lead the Jewish people at this chaotic time. He was also a man of tremendous personal wealth, which put him in a position to wheel and deal and do what needed to get done, not just with the Jews in the Land of Israel but with the Roman authorities as well.

Hadrian dies in 139 C.E and with his death came an improvement in the treatment of the Jewish community in Israel. During a period of relative quiet, Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi managed to befriend the Roman emperors who succeeded Hadrian, particularly Marcus Aurelius (161-180 C.E.). Writes historian Rabbi Berel Wein in his Echoes of Glory (p. 224):

Providentially, in the course of the Parthian war, Marcus Aurelius met Rabbi [Yehudah HaNasi], and they became friends and eventually confidants . Marcus Aurelius consulted with his friend in Judah on matters of state policy as well as on personal questions.(1)

The years of Marcus Aurelius reign, ending in his death in 180, was the high-water mark in the intercourse between Rome and the Jews. The Jews, under the leadership of Rabbi [Yehudah HaNasi], would use this period of blissful respite to prepare themselves for the struggle of darker days surely lurking around the corner.

At this timecirca 170-200 CEthe Mishna was born.

What is the Mishna?

In past installments we discussed the fact that at Mount Sinai the Jewish people received the Written Torah and the Oral Torah. The Oral Torah was the oral explanation of how the written laws should be executed and followed.

The Oral Torah passed from generation to generation and was never written down(2). Why? Because the Oral Torah was meant to be fluid. The principles stayed the same, but the application of those principles was meant to be adapted to all types of new circumstances.

This worked exceptionally well as long as the central authoritythe Sanhedrinremained intact, and the chain of transmission was not interrupted. (That is, teachers were able to freely pass on their wisdom to the next generation of students.) But in the days since the destruction of the Temple, the Sanhedrin had been repeatedly uprooted and teachers had to go into hiding.

Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi realized that things would not get better any time soon. He saw that the Temple would not be rebuilt in his generation and possibly in many generations to come. He saw the Jews fleeing the land as a result of the constant persecutions and impossible living conditions. He saw that the central authority was weaker than ever and might cease altogether To make sure that the chain of transmission would never be broken, he decided that the time had come to write down the Oral Torah.(3)

This was a mammoth undertaking. Although much of the work may have already been done by previous generations of rabbis, the monumental task of editing, explaining and organizing this vast amount of material was left to Rabbi Yehudah. The end result of this massive undertaking was a definitive, yet cryptic (the basic principles were all there yet a teacher was still required to elucidate the material) version of the entire Oral Law called the Mishna. (Incidentally, the word Mishna means repetition because it was studied by repeating; mishna then, by extension, means learning.) Maimonides, in his introduction to his Mishneh Torah, explains it as follows:

He gathered together all the traditions, enactments, and interpretations and expositions of every position of the Torah, that either come down from Moses, out teacher, or had been deduced by the courts in successive generations. All this material he redacted in the Mishna, which was diligently taught in public, and thus became universally known among the Jewish people. Copies of it were made and widely disseminated, so that the Oral Law might not be forgotten in Israel

SIX CATEGORIES OF JEWISH LAW The Mishna, which is written in Hebrew, is divided into six basic segments or orders and further subdivided into 63 tractates with a total of 525 chapters. These 6 segments dealing with six basic areas of Jewish law:

Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi finished the Mishna in ca. 190 CE in the town of Tzipori in the Galilee. You can visit the site today which is very interesting from an archeological perspective. At a site called Beit Shearim (where the Sanhedrin had previously been located prior to its move to Tzipori), there is a vast number of burial caves carved into the side of a mountain. Based on evidence found at the site, archaeologists believe that one of these caves contains the grave of Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi, along with many other great scholars of that time.

Not long after the death of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi the period know as the era of the Tannaim came to a close. The term Tanna, is derived from the Aramaic word to teach and covered a period of 200 years from ca.10 B.C.E. to 200 C.E. beginning with Rabbi Shimon the son of Hillel the Elder and ending with Rabbi Yossi ben Yehuda.

During the centuries following the completion of the Mishna, the chain of transmission of the Oral law was further weakened by a number of factors: Economic hardship and increased persecution of the Jewish community in Israel caused many Jews, including many rabbis, to flee the country. Many of these rabbis emigrated to Babylon in the Persian Empire. The role of the rabbis of Israel as the sole central authority of the Jewish people was coming to an end. This decentralization of Torah authority and lack of consensus among the rabbis led to further weakening of the transmission process. It became clear to the sages of this period that the Mishna alone was no longer clear enough to fully explain the Oral Law. It was written in shorthand fashion and in places was cryptic. This is because it was very concise, written on the assumption that the person reading it was already well-acquainted with the subject matter.

So they began to have discussions about it and to write down the substance of these discussions.

Since at this time a significant portion of the Jewish population was living in Babylon, which was outside the bounds of the Roman Empire, the rabbis there put together their discussions, the end product of which was called Talmud Bavli or the Babylonian Talmud. Even before this process had begun in Babylon, in the land of Israel, another set of discussions took place and the end result was Talmud Yerushalmi or the Jerusalem Talmud. (Incidentally, the Jerusalem Talmud was not written in Jerusalem; it was written in Tiberias, the last place where the Sanhedrin sat, but was called the Jerusalem Talmud in deference to the Sanhedrins rightful home.)

Due to persecution of the Jewish community in Israel the Jerusalem Talmud, completed in the mid 4th century C.E., was never completed or fully edited. The Jerusalem Talmud is much shorter (it contains only four of the six sections of the Mishna(4)) and is more cryptic and harder to understand than the Babylonian Talmud. The situation of the Jews in Babylon was much more stable and the rabbis in Babylon had considerably more time to edit and explain the subject matter.

Although there are two Talmuds, they are not really separate. The Rabbis of Babylon had access to the Jerusalem Talmud while they were working on their text. But if there is dispute between the two Talmuds, the Babylonian Talmud is followed.(5) Both because Babylonian Talmud is considered more authoritative and the Jerusalem Talmud is more difficult to study, Jewish students pouring over the Talmud in yeshiva are using chiefly the Babylonian Talmud. The Talmud is more than just an application of the details of the Jewish law as expounded in the Mishnah. Its the encyclopedia of all Jewish existence.

The Talmud also contains a lot of agadata these are stories that are meant to illustrate important points in the Jewish worldview. These stories contain a wealth of information on a huge range of topics. you name it, its in there.

This information was vital to the Jewish people because Jewish law was never applied by reading a sentence in the Torah and executing it to the letter. Take for example, eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth. It was never Jewish law that if someone blinded you, that you should go and blind him. What is the good of having two blind people? It was always understood on two levels: 1) that justice must be proportional (its not a life for an eye) and 2) that it means the value of an eye for the value of the eye, referring to monetary damages. Thus, the Talmud presented the written and oral tradition together.

To read the Talmud is to read a lot of arguments. On every page it seems that the rabbis are arguing. This kind of argumentthe purpose of which was to arrive at the kernel of truthis called pilpul. This word has a negative connotation outside the yeshiva world, as people read these arguments and it seems to the uneducated eye that the rabbis are merely splitting hairs, and that some of the arguments have absolutely no basis in everyday life. But this is not so.

The reason why the rabbis argued about things that may not have any application to everyday life was to try to get to truth in an abstract way – to understand the logic and to extract the principle. These rabbis were interested in knowing what reality is and in doing the right thing. Reality is what Judaism is all aboutthe ultimate reality being God.

Another important point is that much of the discussion and dispute is focused on relatively minor points while the larger issues are generally not disputed. You dont see a single argument as to whether or not you eat pork, or whether or not you can light a fire on the Sabbath. These things were a given, they were totally agreed upon. Only small points were subject to discussion. And these rabbis were wise enough to know that a day would come when the principles established by getting to the core kernel of truth would have far reaching implications.

When you look at the page of the Babylonian Talmud today, you will find the Hebrew text of the Mishna is featured in the middle of the page. Interspersed between the Hebrew of the Mishna are explanations in both Hebrew and Aramaic which are called the Gemara.

The Aramaic word Gemara means tradition. In Hebrew, the word Gemara means completion. Indeed, the Gemara is a compilation of the various rabbinic discussions on the Mishna, and as such completes the understanding of the Mishna.

The texts of the Mishna and Gemara are then surrounded by other layers of text and commentaries from a later period.

The text of the Mishna is quoting rabbis who lived from about 100 BCE to 200 CE. These rabbi are called the Tanaim, teachers. In this group are included such greats as Rabbi Yochanan Ben Zakkai, Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai, Rabbi Akiva, and of course Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi. (In the Gemara, they usually have the title Rebbe before their first name although there are many exceptions such as the names: Hillel, Shamai, Ben Azai and Ben Zoma.)

The text of the Gemara is quoting the rabbis who lived from about 200 CE to about 500 CE. These rabbis are called, Amoraim, explainers or interpreters. In this group are included Rav Ashi, Reb Yochanan, etc. (Names of the Babylonian Amoraim usually are preceeded by the title Rav as opposed to the Amoraim of Israel who continued to use the title Rabbi/Rebbe. This is because the authentic institution of smicha – rabbinic ordinationwas only done in the Land of Israel.)

The surrounding text of todays Talmud also quotes Rishonim, literally the first ones, rabbinic authorities (from c. 1,000 C.E. until 1,500 C.E.) who predated Rabbi Joseph Caro, the 16th century author of the code of Jewish law known as the Shulchan Aruch. Among the most prominent Rishonim are Rashi, his students and descendants who were the chief authors of the Tosaphos, Maimonidies and Nachmanides. We will discuss the contributions of these rabbis in future installments.

Just how important was the work of Rabbi Yehudah Hanasi and those that followed him would become very clear in the next hundred years when the Jewish people face another threat to their religion. This is when the Roman Empire decides to convert its entire population to Christianity.

1)See: Talmud-Avodah Zara 10a-b; Breishit Rabbah 67:6; 75:5 2)See: Midrash, Tanchumah-Ki Tisa 34; Talmud, Gittin 60a; 3) For a detailed explanation of actions of Rebbi Yehuda HaNasi see Miamonides, Introduction to the Mishnah Torah. See also: Iggerot of R abbi Sheriram Gaon 1:1. 4) The Baylonian Talmud covers tractates: Moed, Nashim, Nezikin and Kodshim while the Jerusalem Talmud covers tractates : Moed, Nashim, Nezikin and Zeraim. 5)See: Rif on Talmud, Eruvin 35b

Read this article:
The History of the Talmud – What is the Talmud? What is …

Palestine – Wikipedia

Palestine; Arabic: Filasn, Falasn, Filisn) is a conventional name uised, amang others, tae describe a geographic region atween the Mediterranean Sea an the Jordan River, an various adjoinin lands.[1]

The name “Palestine” is the cognate o an ancient wird meanin “Philistines” or “Land o the Philistines”.[2][3][4] In keepin wi the Greek cultur o the day, it haes an aa been suggestit that it mey an aa be a play on the wird Palaistes (Greek for wrestler) an a reference tae Jacob, later cawed Israel, the foonder o the ancient Israeli naition.[5]

The earliest kent mention is thought tae be in Ancient Egyptian texts o the temple at Medinet Habu which record a fowk cawed the P-r-s-t (conventionally Peleset) amang the Sea Peoples who invadit Egypt in Ramesses III’s reign.[6] The Ebreu name Peleshet ( Plshseth)- uisually translatit as Philistia in Inglis, is uised in the Bible tae denote the soothren coastal region that wis inhabitit bi the Philistines tae the wast o the ancient Kinrick o Judah.[7]

See the original post:
Palestine – Wikipedia

Antisemitism – RationalWiki

If my theory of relativity is proven successful, Germany will claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of the world. Should my theory prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew. Albert Einstein

While the term antisemitism would seem on the face of it to mean prejudice against the so-called Semitic peoples the Arabs, Assyrians, Samaritans and Jews of the Levant, as well as the Ethiopians; it is almost universally understood nowadays to refer exclusively to anti-Jewish attitudes and actions, which have taken a number of forms along a spectrum that ranges from discourses that paint Jews as embodying particular stereotypical characteristics to genocide. Less commonly, it can also mean prejudice against speakers of Semitic languages or adherents of Abrahamic religions.[1] The most specific and literal definition would be any bias against the biblical character of Shem specifically. The term is also sometimes used as a snarl word to dismiss valid criticisms of Zionism and of Israeli foreign policy.

Most such beliefs feed off of ignorance and prejudice that arises from historical interpretations of Christianity and its teachings, and have traditionally been fanned with accusations of heresy and obvious cultural differences, as well as Biblical associations of Jewish leaders (often referred to simply as “the Jews,” or that perennial sign of Nazi beliefs, “the Jew,” by the dumb and those who tend to misspeak), with the death of Jesus. Antisemitism also pops up occasionally among Muslim communities, often combined with banking conspiracies and 9/11 conspiracy theories.

Anti-Semites frequently claim that Jews secretly control banks/governments/the media/the Treaty of Versailles. Tragically, on occasion some Jews fail to respond appropriately to such accusations, confirming conspiracy theorists’ baseless concerns in their minds.[2] It is similar to racism in that it frequently applies a stereotype or stereotypes to all members of a diverse group. Nazism took antisemitism to horrific extremes, resulting in the Holocaust. Modern antisemitism frequently takes the form of Holocaust denial or mass media/governmental conspiracy theories such as the “Zionist Occupational Government” (ZOG) beloved of white supremacists, but classic anti-Semitic tracts including the infamous 19th century Russian forgery The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion have become increasingly popular in the Middle East. Some lunatic anti-Semite may think almost every person he/she doesn’t like (or is rich) is Jewish, even when they aren’t.

Both the left and right are guilty of antisemitism. Ruth Fischer, a Communist leader of Weimar-era (1919-1933) Germany, called for “Jewish capitalists” to be hanged from lampposts; ironically her contemporary Hitler, considered Communism to be a Jewish plot – but he also liked the stereotype of the Jewish banker.

While most racists believe that the victims of their hatred are inferior to them (e.g. no white supremacist thinks that black people secretly control the world), antisemitism ascribes some traits of “superiority” to its victims. In the mind of the antisemite “the Jews” own or control “the money”, “the media” and are behind Capitalism, Communism or both. Also characteristic for antisemitism (though this may be found with some racists as well) is that Jews can do what they want, they are always “evil” for it. If Jewish men have sex, they are the “evil perverters of the youth” if they don’t they are “not normal” or in some “diabolical pact” that prohibits them from having sex. If Jews are poor they are – in the eyes of the anti-Semite – “useless moochers” if they are wealthy they “control the banks” and are “usurers”. While many anti-Semites grant that Jews are (supposedly) more intelligent than average people, they are again accused of using that intelligence for their nefarious schemes.

Antisemitism does not necessitate the presence of Jews. In Japan for example, there is virulent antisemitism in the right wing but there are hardly any Jews to be found. The same is true for most of the Arab world. And even more surprisingly, antisemitism may indeed work while never uttering the word “Jew”. Some simply replace “Jews” for “Zionists” (see below), while others use the evil bankster trope without ever saying or implying that the “banksters” are Jews. (Hint: If your opponent starts quoting the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion (s)he might just be a tad anti-Semitic.) This kind of antisemitism has also infected mainstream political culture in Malaysia to a small extent. And it can be found to some degree or other around the world.

Anti-Zionism is not necessarily antisemitic, however, many antisemites use anti-Zionism as a kind of cover and entry-level recruiting tool. In addition, most antisemites see Zionism not as a modern movement to establish a Jewish state in Palestine, but as some kind of ancient, all-encompassing world conspiracy in their language, the term “Zionism” means more or less the same as The Jews. It’s embarrassing for advocates of the Palestinian cause (which, considering the broad belief – at least in principle – for a two-state solution in Israel, means a lot of Jews).

On the flip side, Israel’s staunchest gentile defenders in the United States tend to be extreme evangelical Protestants, who eagerly look forward to the “ingathering” of Jews in Israel followed by their massacre and/or forced conversion to Christianity. No, seriously: John Hagee, one of these tireless soldiers for Christ and Israel, got into a little trouble after opining that the Nazi Holocaust was all part of God’s plan to punish European Jews for being too irreligious, or something. Strange bedfellows.

Some anti-Semites attempt to discredit Israel and the ethnicity of many Jews as a whole by claiming that the Ashkenazi Jews (i.e., those descended from a German bloodline) are not actually Jews, but descended from the Turkic Khazar Empire. This myth has no evidence behind it while the Khazar ruling class did adopt Judaism and Jews settled in the Empire, they had already inhabited Europe long before it came about and the historical and genetic evidence doesn’t fit this pseudohistorical “theory” either.[3] This is often used as a way to justify the elimination of Israel and/or to explain why the British/Aryan/insert race here are the chosen people of the Bible, and not the Jews.

A similar myth espoused by some people, such as Louis Farrakhan,[4] is that they are not antisemites, as the Jewish people who come from Europe are not the original Semitic peoples,[wp] and that as many Arab Muslims are more closely related to the original Semites than Jews, if they hate Jews and like Muslims they’re not antisemitic, you are.

Not that this would matter anyhow, as “the term ["antisemitism"] was popularized in Germany in 1873 as a scientific-sounding term for Judenhass (“Jew-hatred”), although it had been used for at least two decades prior, and that has been its normal use since then”.[5]

Excerpt from:
Antisemitism – RationalWiki

Anti-Semitism – Conservapedia

Anti-Semitism (or antisemitism) is discrimination against, hatred against, or criticism of Jews, Jewish culture, or the state of Israel. As a word it is first recorded in the English language in 1882[1], but as an idea and argument of hatred examples exist from much earlier times. It was Wilhelm Marr (1819 1904), a German agitator who coined the term “anti-semitism” in 1879 .

The first Christians were Jews, including Jesus Christ. The story of Jesus was remembered and retold in the synagogues. Splits appeared very soon after the death of Jesus between the Pharisees and the Revisionist Jews. The Gospel of John was written quite soon after he and other revisionist Jews were barred from the synagogue by the Orthodox party. The references to Jews in the Gospel according to St John does not refer to Jews as a whole, but to the Pharisees. However, this was not well understood by later readers, and once the early generations of Jews had died out John’s gospel was often used to justify acts of anti-Semitism.

One of the oldest instances of anti-Semitic claims was made in the first century AD by Apion who claimed Jews sacrificed Greeks in their temple in a type of accusation known as a “blood libel”.

The “Blood libel” myth reappeared in England in 1144, after William of Norwich was found murdered. William was called a martyr and created a second wave of anti-semitism, this time in Europe. It was mostly popularized with the story of Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln, and was even present in the Canterbury Tales. This continued on for many centuries until modern times. This “blood libel” accusation has survived the centuries and is today seen in Muslim anti-Semitic propaganda.

In the Middle Ages, Catholics blamed Jews for the death of Jesus Christ. This fueled Christian antipathy against Jews in most of Europe. This also led to rumors that Jews “desecrated the host” (tortured communion bread as per the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation), and that they “poisoned the wells”, leading to the Black Death. It didn’t help that Christians expelled practitioners of Judaism from various places. Professing Jews were expelled from England in 1290, from France in 1306, and from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1496. (Those who converted to Christianity could remain.) Many went to Holland and Poland. Napoleon removed most of the restrictions that kept Jews in ghettoes in Germany.

Secular nationalism became a trend in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. As a result, anti-semitism was transformed in the 19th century from a matter of religion to a matter of language and culture. Each “nation” rediscovered its historic language and culture and tried to establish a national homeland. However, this did not remove old biases against Jews in Europe. In most cases Jews were excluded or distrusted, and were not treated as part of the cultural center but as part of the periphery. Anti-Semitic references were common in the popular literature of both the 19th and early 20th centuries. It became more “scientific”, and often connected with psuedo-scientific racial theories. The most notable example being the theory of evolution

In Germany, leading 19th-century anti-Semites include composer Richard Wagner and his son-in-law writer Houston Stewart Chamberlain.

Historians have long debated whether or not the Anti-Semitism of imperial Germany directly prepared the ideological climate for Nazism. One way of testing the thesis of direct continuity is to examine how Judeophobes proposed to solve the “Jewish problem” in the Second Reich, 1870-1914. At that time, most anti-Semites stopped short of calling for the exclusion of Jews from German society, and in fact many advocated full integration. A handful of exclusionists, believing in the preordained struggle with the Jews and being pessimistic about getting them to leave Germany, did, however, plant the seeds of genocide.[2]

Leftist scholars examining the connection between socialism and anti-Semitism before 1914 generally have assumed that capitalist exploitation of the workers was responsible for the “Jewish question,” and that the labor movement was largely immune to anti-Semitism. At a deeper level, factors such as retarded economic development in Central and Eastern Europe, Christian cultural traditions, the fragility of political liberalism outside Western Europe, the intensity of national conflicts, and the quality of leadership and class consciousness among the proletariat led to anti-Semitism in Germany, Russia, France, and Britain before 1914.

The national government of the Austro-Hungarian Empire deliberately protected Jews from violent Anti-Semitism. However, popular antipathy toward Jews was more deeply rooted and stubborn in Austria than in most European countries. Reasons included slow development of a secular, pluralist society based on individual rights and open career opportunities; survival of corporatist ideas of economic organization; replacement of the multinational ideal of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by political division and ethnic antagonism; and the conspicuous role of individual Jews in finance capitalism, mass media, arts, and radical politics.

Karl Lueger, the popular mayor of Vienna (1897-1910) and routinely used high powered Anti-Semitic rhetoric. It caught the attention of one young resident, Adolf Hitler, who had come from Linz. But there was no action takes against Jews, who played a major role in Viennas cultural and business life. Lueger operated within a strong national government that tolerated Jews. The Habsburg dynasty did not allow significant anti-Jewish actions in its domains. The inviolate character of the Rechtsstaat and of a political culture based on law still existed. Mass violence within this political system was rare, and economic life was not yet caught up in the disastrous economic cycles of the post-1918 era. All these structural factors were serious barriers to the translation of anti-Semitic rhetoric in Vienna from words into deeds during the Habsburg era. In the 1930s, however, as Austria became culturally and politically dominated by its northern neighbor, Vienna became increasingly hostile, and many Jews fled even before the Nazis marched in and took over in 1938.

Anti-Semitism was an integral part of the political platform of the Austrian Socialist Left before 1914. Given the depths of anti-Jewish feelings among the Austrian masses, the Socialists endeavored to woo the working class from right-wing political parties through employing the latter’s anti-Semitic arguments concerning Jewish control of the Austrian economy. This approach was even utilized by such Socialists of Jewish background as Victor Adler. Once Lueger’s anti-Semitic party gained control of the Vienna municipal government in 1897, the Socialist press attacked him and his associates for their alleged lack of fidelity to their anti-Semitic principles through covert dealings with the Jewish upper class.

Alone among the major European nations, Russia in the 19th century did not emancipate its Jewish subjects. Popular anti-Semitism (which had an anticapitalist bias) proceeded from, and flourished with the support of, anti-Jewish laws and official policies that tried either to forcibly integrate Jews into or to segregate them from the rest of Russian society – especially rural society. Pogroms systematic slaughters of thousands of Jews in certain areas–happened in clusters, as in 1881-82 and 1905-06, and were related to severe political crises involving the issue of Jewish emancipation. Anti-Semitism increased during World War I with the need for scapegoats, but after the February Revolution of 1917 was no longer sustained by discriminatory legislation.

Anti-Semitism played a far smaller role in Italy than in other European countries. One possible explanation is the high degree of assimilation achieved by the Italian Jewish community. However, assimilation elsewhere in Europe was not a bar to anti-Semitism. A more plausible reason is the lateness of industrialization, which meant that the lower middle classes did not fall victim to the economic and social anxieties experienced by the petite bourgeoisie of Germany and France. Other factors are the extremely small numbers of Italian Jews, the ethnically homogeneous nature of the Italian population, which meant that the Italians did not suffer from the paranoid insecurity of Germans who were confronted by large minorities within their borders, and Italy’s long history of not succumbing to xenophobia and its weak race consciousness.

Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) was a Jewish officer in the French Army falsely accused of spying in the 1890s. The Dreyfuss Affair became a central issue in French politics, with critics like mile Zola –who creed “J’accuse”–insisting it was a miscarriage of justice brought by a conspiracy of Catholic army officers. Dreyfuss was proven innocent and released in 1899.

Anti-Semitism was the core belief of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis (National Socialists), helping them gain power in Germany in 1933 and leading to their murder of 6 million Jews during the Holocaust of World War II.

In the 1920s Henry Ford’s newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, reprinted the false Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Ford publicly apologized to Jews.

American aviator Charles Lindbergh disparaged Jews at a critical debate over intervention in the war in Europe in 1940. He led the “America First” movement opposed to war. He suggested the drive to war was orchestrated by Jews and would hurt the U.S.

Following World War II there was a steady decline of anti-Semitism, and a virtual disappearance of discrimination against Jews, in North America and Western Europe. Despite an apparent resurgence in Russia and Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism and occasional outbreaks elsewhere, anti-Semitism outside the Middle East by the early 1990′s was only one – and a relatively minor – type of the xenophobia found in multiethnic, multicultural societies.

Anti-Semitism was in total disrepute after the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945. After 1945 Anti-Semitism was not significantly greater in Germany than in Britain or France. For some years after 1945 the overwhelming majority of Jews in Germany were refugees and displaced persons from the East. Most of them emigrated to Palestine, Israel, North and South America, or Australia, leaving behind small numbers who would not or could not leave. Some German Jews had “assimilated” and were criticized by Eastern Jews as being too lax in their religious observance, but all Jews faced problems arising from questions of reparations and remembrances of the Holocaust. West Germany admitted its guilt and made large scale financial reparations to Israel. East Germany, however, denied everything, opposed Israel and promoted anti-Semitism.

see American Jews

Republican President Richard Nixon hurt his reputation after recordings of informal conversations laden with racial slurs and invective known as the Watergate Tapes were made public. These informal comments about Jewish control of the media and calling Robert Vesco “a cheap kike” among other comments suggested to Nixon critics that his views were informed by a mistrust of Jewish culture. [3] Nixon defenders note his support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War and his many Jewish friends and associates such as Henry Kissinger, Herb Stein and others. [4]

In 1958 the American Nazi Party was founded by George Lincoln Rockwell, who is known for his holocaust denial and rasscist positions.

In 1984 Democratic presidential candidate, and noted liberal, Jesse Jackson uttered anti-Semitic slurs to reporter for the Washington Post when discussing the state of African-American and Jewish relations, which had been a key New Deal Coalition for half a century. Jackson is reported to have referred to Jews as “Hymies”, and to New York City as “Hymietown”. Jackson apologized, but it was never forgotten.[5] Mayor Ed Koch even said that any Jews who vote for Jackson in 1988 were “crazy”.

During the Gulf War of 1991 anti-Semites alleged the United States was being used to fight Israel’s wars.[6]

The U.S. State Department Report on Global Anti-Semitism in 2005 said this about the current state of anti-Semitism worldwide:

In the United States, Democratic Senator Ernest Hollings was recently ostracized for public criticism of the Bush Administration [8] considered to be anti-Semitic. [9] On March 3, 2003 Rep. James Moran (D-Va.) said, “If it were not for the strong support of the Jewish community for this war with Iraq, we would not be doing this”. [10] Moran has since made further anti-semitic comments. [11][12] Some supporters of the anti-Iraq War movement have been accused of anti-Semitism, including a group known as ANSWER-Act Now to Stop War and End Racism, one of the first organizations formed to protest the policies of the Bush administration after 9/11. [13][14]

Liberal activist Cindy Sheehan, though she found popular support among leftists and the mainstream media, was condemned for her outspoken anti-Semitic conspiracy theories. [15] Sheehan traveled to Venezuela [16] to appear with Venezuelan dictator, Hugo Chavez to denounce U.S. foreign policy which she blames as responsible for the death of her son.

Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter has recently come under much criticism for his writings and comments that have been viewed as anti-semitic. In his book, “Palestine Peace Not Apartheid”, Carter endorsed Islamic terrorism against Israel as a tactic to achieve political ends. The sentiment was widely criticized by people across the political spectrum. In early 2007, it was revealed that Carter once complained there were “too many Jews” on the U.S. government’s Holocaust Memorial Council. The council’s former executive director, Monroe Freedman, also revealed that a noted Holocaust scholar who was a Presbyterian Christian was rejected from the council’s board by Carter because the scholar’s name “sounded too Jewish.” [17]

While the contemporary American left’s hatred for Jews and Jewish traditions has been documented, others who were on the right have been ostracized by conservative commentators. William F. Buckley, Jr., founder and publisher of the National Review said of Reform Party presidential candidate and former Nixon speechwriter Patrick Buchanan, “I find it impossible to defend Pat Buchanan against the charge that what he did and said during the period under examination amounted to anti-Semitism” referring to comments Buchanan made regarding the U.S. involvement in the first Gulf War which lead to military action against Saddam Hussein and Iraq. [18]

The number of anti-Semitic incidents in Britain increased by 34 percent in 2006. [19]

Swastikas have been carved into several cornfields in the United States. A 130-foot-square swastika was carved into a field in July 1998. A bigger 600-by-600 foot version of the Nazi symbol was found in a nearby cornfield almost a year later. In September 2007, a giant swastika covering several acres was discovered. [20]

Anti-semitism has been growing rapidly at a phenomenal rate in Liberal countries, especially European countries.

It has also been growing amongst liberals in the United States of America, The Institute for Jewish & Community Research, did a study of who is anti-Semitic, and found that people who identify as Democrats are consistently more likely to believe any anti-Semitic belief than are Republicans. The data from the survey also revealed a connection between anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism. This is important since liberals are more likely to be anti-Zionist than conservatives. The study found that the young, who are more likely to be liberal, are also more likely to be Anti-semites than people over age 35. The study found that more than 75% of Democrats hold at least one anti-semitic belief. According to the study 20% of Democrats believe Jews care only about themselves[21]

Recently, liberal atheist Richard Dawkins came under criticism for saying that the Religious Jews monopolize control over the American government.

Read the rest here:
Anti-Semitism – Conservapedia

On Anti-Semitism | Commonweal Magazine

People don’t like being told of atrocities. They don’t like atrocious problems. They don’t like problems which might perchance result in some self-examination. They would prefer to ignore the problem of anti-Semitism, yet nazi ferocity obliges them to confront it. Indeed anti-semitism is at the very core of the outburst of barbarism which today makes bloody the world.

In order to propound some views on this problem, I shall avail myself of two recently published books, the contributors to which are tor the most part Jewish scholars and of the reflections that the reading of these books provoked in me. Such surveys are of interest both for the Jew and the Gentile. By endeavoring to analyze in a rational and objective manner a phenomenon of irrational emotionalism, which has today become a monstrous collective disease, the contributors to these two volumes, whose personal points of view and scholarly fields are widely diverse, offer rich material for thought. They do not pretend to provide us with an exhaustive solution. Yet the data which have been gathered by them are of real value for a more profound outlook.

Anti-Semitism may be considered as a problem for the Christian and as a problem for the Jew. In the first perspective, the general diagnosis is rather simple. Anti-Semitism has been, throughout the Christian centuries, the result of the entanglement of religious and spiritual matters with the flesh and blood trends which relate to the psychological, social, political, economic conditions of earthly life and depend upon what Saint Paul calls the animalis homo. Christianity, in its spiritual essence, has never been and cannot be anti-Semitic. Anti-Semitic abuses were among the blemishes which proceeded from the intermingling of human weakness or human sin with Christianity in the sacral regime of the middle ages. In this way the Jews bore the burden of that enormous bulk of human harshness which has not been renewed and purified by Christianity in Christian societies.

The genuine Christian interpretation of history, that is the Pauline one, is utterly repugnant to any anti-Semitism, as Carl Mayer points out. Anti-Semitism in the middle ages (above all in the later middle ages) and in the decay of feudalism was diametrically different in nature from the anti-Semitism of today, though it often aroused similar cruelties. Except in the degenerated passions of the mob, it did not involve any contempt for the very race from which Christ came forth and whose name, Israel, was looked upon as the most glorious among the earth’s peoples. In the background of anti-Jewish measures and antiJewish outbursts lay the great spiritual drama between the Church and the Synagogue, her “little sister,” soror nostra parva, as she was sometimes calledthe former worshipping that very Spouse and Messiah whom the latter ignored. The Jew, when baptized, was received with full rights into the Christian commonwealth; moreover, the Christian people awaited with impatient expectation that coming of the Jews, that reconciling of the Synagogue and the Church, which was to be, according to Saint Paul, the splendor of the world and life from the dead. The very name “anti Semitism” was unknown at that time. The religious-minded anti-Jewish prejudice and fanaticism of old was the shameful spot in Christian history, it was not a self-glorification and self delectation in animal blood and a helpless denial of mankind’s unity as is the racial-minded antiSemitism of today.

From the Jewish point of view

It is from the second point of view, from the point of view of anti-Semitism as a problem for the Jew, that the two books I am considering provide us with the most stirring questions. A first question concerns the impact of anti-Semitism upon some parts of the Jewish conscience itself, a sorrowful question to which I. S. Wechsler and Z. Diesendruch dedicate some weighty and valuable observations. The worst phenomenon here is that split attitude and that peculiar self-consciousness which sometimes lead the Jew to selfnegation. “Self accusation is inverted apologetics, and to the disillusionment of the latter corresponds the tragedy of self-condemnation. Both root ultimately in the experience of the inefficacy of the rational” (Diesendruck, “Essays,” p. 196-197) . In this respect it may be said that the atrocious German racism, revealing antiSemitism in all its nakedness, will free the Jewish conscience of diseases which were born out of the reverberation of the contemner’s baseness upon the soul of the humiliated. “The self-deriding Jewish comedian is out of work, and the atmosphere is certainly not favorable for the growth of a Maximiolian Harden or Karl Kraus or Otto Weininger. The German catastrophe is at least not reflected any more in a tragic conflict wi hin the Jew.”

Another question deals with the nature of antiSemitism itself. The hated, humiliated and hunted man cannot help but wonder what are the reasons for the iniquitous wound which is inflicted upon human nature within him. The answer was quite simple for the pious Jew of old, convinced as he was of the divine election of his people. Nat so for the rationalistic-minded Jew of today. It is sad to see how many of them f eel internally disarmed in the face of the very monstrosity, all the more crushing as it is rationally inexplicable. All the contributors to Essays and to Jews in a Gentile World point out quite rightly that anti-Semitism is a wild outburst of irrationality, a group neurosis. Yet the majority try to explain this very neurosis by means of the ordinary weapons of sociological, psychological, socialscientific, economic analysis, which are perhaps able to account for the crass imperialistic anti-Semitism of a Cicero (“religious scruples, my dear Laelius, are primarily national concerns…”), but which can touch only the externals of the world psychosis we are con fronted with today. A much more profound and realistic outlook is to be found in the views expressed by Carl J. Friedrich which seem to me entirely just, and in the chapter on “Religious and Political Aspects of anti-Judaism” by Carl Mayer. “In a sense,” he writes, “anti-Judaism is the expression of a fear of specters.” And the root of this fear is the obscure feeling that the Jews are set apart, that “they do not fit into any of the usual pigeon holes which we employ in our attempts at understanding”; for indeed “Jewish existence, in its ambiguity, strangeness and inconceivability must be understood as the most powerful expression of the fact that the world is still not yet the kingdom of God.” In short, such a fear is the very fear of Israel’s Messiahthis is how I understand the saying of Z. Diesendruck: “We are more feared for our strength than despised for our weakness. In the last analysis, as Carl J. Friedrich points out, “the haters of the Jews are in a very real sense the haters of Christ and Christianity.” Maurice Samuel’s book, “The Great Hatred,” bears testimony to the all important fact that the Jewish conscience becomes aware of this reality: “It is of Christ that the nazi-fascists are afraid; it is in his omnipotence that they believe; it is him that they are determined madly to obliterate. But the names of Christ and Christianity are too overwhelming, and the habit of submission to them is too deeply ingrained after centuries and centuries of teaching. Therefore they must make their assault on those who were responsible for the birth and spread of Christianity. They must spit on the Jews as the ‘Christ-killers’ because they long to spit on the Jews as the Christ-givers.”

Finally there is a third question, which is the most crucial and concerns the main issue: the attitude of the Jew himself in the midst of a Gentile world. If what is known as assimilation were completely to extinguish the Jewish problem, it would be in the sense indicated by Max Nordau, when he said that if there were no Jews there would be no anti-Semitism; that is to say: if the Jews give up their soul and the vocation of their people, the Gentile world would be placated. Such a solution, which is rather candidly suggested by one of the contributors to “Jews in a Gentile World” (Professor J. F. Brown) , is not a solution, but a disappearance, and it is moreover thoroughly impossible, as J. O. Hertzler clearly points out. Not only does human dignity oblige the Jew to preserve his identity, but this is the very condition of Israel’s survival. On this condition pressure itself becomes a factor “for, not against” preservation. Martin Buber was right in remarking, “The Jewish people has become the eternal people not because it was allowed to live, but because it was not allowed to live. Just because it was asked to give more than life, it won life.”

There is, moreover, no incompatibility between maintenance of self-identity and actual fellowship with others in a common life and a common work. The more you are yourself, the more you are able to cooperate.

But here the question is: What is this self? Who am I? This is the enigma which the sphinx of the Gentile world summons the Jew to answer. As far as a non-Jew is allowed to discuss the issue, I see four possible attitudes in this connection.

The pious Jew of old, with his uncut beard and his peis, the Chassid or his antagonist the Talmud lover, knew the answer, but this answer, which walled them up in their perpetual strangeness as a people, in their sacred seclusion from the world, was possibleat what a terrible pricein a “sacral” civilization like the medieval one; not only does it sound archaic in a lay or “profane” civilization like our own, but it runs the risk of playing the game of anti-Semitism, in cutting off the Jews from the common work of culture and human society, and in enclosing them within a kind of spiritual ghetto.

The use of persecution

The Christian Jew also knows the answer; moreover, as I believe, he knows the definitive answer. Yet for him the problem has been transcended. Belonging more than ever to his people and loving it more than ever, if he truly lives by faith, he nevertheless has entered the realm of Christ’s universality. Racist hat red provides him with the privilege of being persecuted with Israel, and of remaining, not only spiritually, but in his flesh too, in the communion of Israel’s sufferings, yet he is no longer involved, unless spiritually, in the problems of Israel’s earthly community.

The tragedy of the secularized Jew, of the Jew whom rationalism and positivism have deprived of the religious Jewish leaven, is that he can not find any answer. He looks around, wondering who he is, and asking history, sociology and psychology in vain for some suggestion. Sincere and honest-minded as he may be, he feels all the more helpless. If he endeavors to vindicate his identity, he veers toward an “ethnocentrism,” the raison d’etre of which he ceaselessly questions. Here appears the sorrowful internal conflict which the modern Jew suffers. “Actually the Jew tried to adapt himself without changing. He would be a Jew and non-Jew at the same time. He literally tried to eat the cake and to have it, and it simply cannot be done” (I. S. Wechsler, “Essays,” p. I73). Truth to tell, many modern Jewish intellectuals have adapted and assimilated themselves to the hard-boiled rationalistic mentality of the contemporary Gentile world with such success that they surpass any goysche kop in their attachment to the narrow-minded prejudices of a self -styled “science” which cuts itself off from wisdom. And what may become of a Jew if he does not long for wisdom? Thus not only do those secularized Jews keep on perpetuating old antagonisms in modern terms; not only are they unable to distinguish Christianity itself from that social impact of flesh and blood upon Christianity of which I spoke at the outset, and not only do they express themselves about religious matters, as some contributors to the books which I am reviewing occasionally do, in a manner which pains the faith of their Christian fellow men; but they remain impotent in the face of their own problems and renounce their very roots. It is disheartening to read such pages in which anti-Semitic rabidness and the fate of the Jewish people are explained in terms of social conditioning, and the divine election of the chosen people is “scientifically” looked upon as an illusory phenomenon of compensation, a superstitious heritage terribly burdensome indeed.

Judeo-Christian Civilization

There is a fourth attitude, which may be considered as a spiritualization and a widening of the first one. The Jew who is aware of the temporal mission of his people in human history, and who understands it in spiritual terms, is able to give answer as to his own identity. This answer pre supposes religious convictions, of course, or at least respect for and understanding of the world of spiritual realities. The Jew of whom I am speaking knows that by virtue of an ineradicable vocation he is a stranger to the world and none the less immersed in the world, and that Israel is assigned a task of earthly activation of the mass of the world, that Israel has to stimulate the movement of history, and to teach the world to be discontented as long as the world does not have God. As he has understood that the God of Israel is also the God of mankind, he has like wise understood that in the face of the tidal wave of pagan blood surging up today, our civilization is revealed as a Judeo-Christian civilization, and that this civilization will perish unless both Christian and Jew come better to perceive the vital part each one plays in its total pattern. By the same token, mutual understanding is required of them. Carl J. Friedrich (who is himself a non-Jew) is right in writing that “the ‘scientific’ cynicism about religion and morality has prepared the ground for the anti-Christian anti-Semitism of our day.” Prominent liberals like H. G. Wellsnot to speak of Voltairehave no small responsibility by their deriding of what the former calls “the dogmatic Judeo-Christian mythology.” As Carl J. Friedrich goes on to say, “the whole vast school of pragmatists, positivists, skeptics and gentle cynics is here involved. We have all had a share. The Jews have recognized to an increasing extent the paradox of emancipation in this respect. The crisis has brought to light, once again, that the Jews have a definite spiritual function. The role of Zionism appears particularly import ant as well as problematic in this connection. If Zionism is conceived according to a merely national and political pattern, it runs the risk of providing anti-Semitic fakers with the false-heartedand moreover unfeasiblesolution (all Jews sent back to Palestine or considered as Palestinian citizens) for which their hat red is searching. If Zionism is based above all on the consciousness of a great spiritual task, it may become an animating center for all dispersed Jewry.

Attacked and slandered everywhere in the most hideous fashion, the Jews have to defend themselves and to oppose fanaticism and calumny by appropriate means. Yet, though necessary, the best defensive efforts and organizations are quite insufficientin addition to the fact that the Jewish ones are often curiously awkward, ignoring their sincerest friends and sometimes choosing unfortunate supporters in the Gentile world. Merely defensive positions are always bad.

Doubtless, the Jews have also to conduct an examination of conscience and to find again the most genuine energies of their own soulssuch a work of “purifying the sources” imposes itself naturally upon everyone persecuted. What is the use of the persecutor, if not to make the victim more worthy of the human race, and nearer God? There are things wrong about the Jew, as about all men. But it is not these which create antiSemitism! Anti-Semitism fears and pursues and wishes to exterminate what is best in the Jews, the gift of God and the mission of God in them. If the Jew belittles himself and extenuates himself, his foes will strike him all the more relentlessly. Nothing is more absurd than trying to appease anti-Semitism, in giving up the privilege of being the “chosen people” and every kind of human pride. (Yet the notion of a “chosen people” is acceptable only from a religious and supernatural point of view, and here is the predicament for the irreligious Jew. If this notion comes down to a naturalistic level, it degenerates into racial pride: if there is to be found on the earth a monstrous corruption of the idea of a chosen people, it is indeed German and ”Aryan” racism.) The antagonism between Jew and Gentile is, moreover, inevitable. It should take on a shape worthy of ma n, appear in the form of that tension which develops within fellowship and cooperation, and which makes human effort more fruitful and noble. To the shame of our time, it assumes to day the bestial form of racism. Meanwhile, as Erich Kahler pointed out in 1933, “the Jewish man of today is the most endangered human being, spiritually, of our time.” The ordeals of our epoch are testing his strength. Another Jewish writer, Waldo Frank, recently emphasized the necessity for the Jews of rediscovering this strength and reawakening the spirit of Israel. They have to adopt an offensive position against anti-Semitism ; the only one which is left to them, yet not the weakest, and which will be victorious in the long run, is to overcome spiritually this unheard of evil, through the virtue of intelligence, wisdom and superiority of soul, through the old unshakable stand of their prophets and martyrs. In this way they have a chance of helping the Gentile world to become less ignominious, and the Christians to become aware of their own duties.

In concluding his essay, Zevi Diesendruch wrote: “Let us give up the apologetic squinting; let us free ourselves from the burden of proof for the right of our existence and also from the burden of finding and removing the causes of that which is itself a prime cause. When called to the last ac count-it is not we who are the defendants. Let us submit to our fate with reserve and dignity.” Yet submission to fate does not mea n enough. Israel’s conscience is able to overcome fate, through the fire of its indestructible hope.

Indeed the anti-Semitic corruption is more disastrous to the Christian world than to Jewry. The bloody atrocities that the Jews suffer throughout the world are a visible but weak image of the invisible devastation and degradation of souls that a Gentile world crazy with persecution or indifferent to justice and brotherhood is now suffering. Anti-Semitism is a crucial problem for the Christian as well as for the Jew. “Anti-Semitism, deeply rooted in the spiritual decadence of Western society, has a quadruple significance; though explicitly directed against the Jews, it is of much broader scope. Anti-Semitism is the core of an attack against (1) democracy (2) Christianity (3) the idea of right and wrong, law and ethics (4) civilization in any form. Whenever and wherever it appears, it should be viewed as a most definite danger sign” (Carl J. Friedrich). “Anti-Semitism clearly being a ‘disease’ of the Gentile nations, only a heal thy reaction of the non-Jewish body politic may effectively counteract the spread of its fatal germs” (Salo W. Baron). The emancipation of the Jews has been a conquest of justice and civilization not only as regards the Jews, but also, and above all, as regards the Gentile world. As for the Jews, “it has not ‘solved’ the Jewish problem, not even provisionally…. If emancipation has failed, it can be attributed to the fact that it tried to emancipate the Jews yet did not try to emancipate the Jewish people” (Carl Mayer). If nazism is defeated and if a more human world is to be built up, we must hope that a personalist and pluralist democracy will create among the diverse groups and traditions involved in the common welfare “an intercultural fellowship,” a pattern of which is offered by the American multi-national community, “which might go a long way toward alleviating the shock which their mutual impact inevitably produces.” It has been said that the tragedy of Israel is the tragedy of mankind. It may be said that “the Jew’s hope”-which in the mystical sense has been from the very beginning, and still remains, even in darkness, a hope for supreme liberationis humanity’s hope” (Jacob R. Marcus). It concerns also the present crisis of civilization and the present struggle for freedom in the world.

See the original post:
On Anti-Semitism | Commonweal Magazine

Anti-Semitism | Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs

UN member states, led by the Arab bloc, apply a radically different moral standard to IsraelReadMore

Husseini played a central role in shaping the anti-Semetic political tradition of Islamism.ReadMore

Palestinian Leaders Incitement Undermines their Sincerity as NegotiatorsReadMore

The claim that Palestinians and Arabs had nothing to do with the Holocaust is false.ReadMore

Clearly, and sadly, the issue of anti-Semitism has always been and remains a major recurring aspect in the international arena and narrative.ReadMore

Iran stages cartoon contest to deny and mock the Holocaust.ReadMore

The Jewish community in France currently is in the midst of one of its most difficult periods since the end of World War II. According to the Jerusalem Post, French aliya figures correlate with a spike in anti-Semitic attacks registered []ReadMore

The United Nations discussions on the Holocaust serve to mask underlying anti-Semitism.ReadMore

The appalling terrorist attack on the Jewish Museum in Brussels on May 24, 2014, was carried out as millions of Europeans registered an apathetic vote at the polling booths. The results illustrate the gradual breakdown of the European Union ideal []ReadMore

Overall, the cultural boycott of Israel appears to be losing ground.ReadMore

Resurgent Antisemitism: Global Perspectives, by Alvin Rosenfeld, ed., Indiana University Press, 2013, 561 pp. Reviewed by Catherine D. Chatterley Today, more than sixty years after the destruction of European Jewry, antisemitism is a globalized phenomenon and one that appears to []ReadMore

Timeline of Main Events in The History of IsraelReadMore

The Holocaust has become a symbol of absolute evil in Western society.ReadMore

Populations with lifetime exposures to messages demonizing other groups are more likely to engage in genocidal violence than populations not so exposed.ReadMore

There were nearly twice as many Jewish refugees as Palestinian refugees. ReadMore

Iran is using of the Palestinian issue and denial of Israels right to exist to win the hearts and minds of Muslims across the Middle East.ReadMore

The rise of the radical right in Europe.ReadMore

Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center, headquartered in Jerusalem, has been a persistent source of anti-Zionist agitation in mainline Protestant churches in the United States since its founding in 1994. The organization subjects Israel, Jews, and Judaism to intense scrutiny while remaining nearly silent about Arab and Muslim extremism in the Middle East. In addition to publicizing the writings of its founder, Anglican priest Naim Ateek, Sabeel broadcasts its message via regional conferencReadMore

Jewish Political Studies Review 23:1-2 (Spring 2011) The Book of Esther can be interpreted as a political work with its own inherent logic and integrity. While the existence of the divine is not denied in the narrative, it appears to []ReadMore

Jewish Political Studies Review 23:1-2 (Spring 2011) The exhibition held at the National Museum of Art of Romania in Bucharest is another milestone in the ongoing efforts to chronicle what happened during the Holocaust in that country. In the turbulent []ReadMore

Stephen D. Smith is a Christian theologian in his early forties. Together with his brother James, he founded the Beth Shalom Holocaust Centre near Nottingham, England, which opened in 1995. Smith presently heads the Shoah Foundation Institute in Los Angeles []ReadMore

They would, in effect, be strengthening the movements that are currently undermining their internal security most directly.ReadMore

Jewish Political Studies Review 23:1-2 (Spring 2011) Why has the position of Jews at American universities deteriorated in the past decade and what can be done about it? Understanding the history of this dilemma requires going back a number of []ReadMore

30 September 2000, Netzarim Junction in theGazaStrip. State-owned France 2 TV airs footage of the allegedly fatal shooting, in real time, of a Palestinian youth and the critical wounding of his father, targeted by gunfire from the Israeli position. The news report, distributed free of charge to international media, created the icon of the Second Intifada, Muhammad al-Dura.ReadMore

In Munich, the seventeen-month trial of ninety-year-old Ivan (John) Demjanjuk, which may have been one of the last trials dealing with Adolf Hitlers Third Reich, ended with Demjanjuks conviction in May 2011. This trial was a novelty, marking one of the first times in German legal history that a non-German national had to stand trial for the murder, during the Third Reich, of non-German nationals that took place outside of Germany proper. ReadMore

No. 115, 1 February 2012/ 7 Shevat, 5772 For some time now Switzerland has been at the forefront of the European debate on Islam, Islamism, and Islamization. The country is thereby abandoning its traditional approach of safeguarding its neutrality, staying []ReadMore

Poland presents the most advanced case of the transformation of the memory of Jews and the Holocaust in all of postcommunist Europe. For that reason, it can serve as a paradigm in comparative studies of the scope, dynamics, complexities, and challenges of this memory transformation. ReadMore

Reports of the commissions of inquiry revealed information about monies that had belonged to murdered Jews and were in the possession of the Dutch government, insurance companies, banks, and exchange brokers.ReadMore

Many thought Europe had progressed substantially following a greater understanding of the Holocaust, its causes and peoples behavior during it. There were several indicators for the thesis. This virtual trend is one likely explanation why the post-Holocaust period has not []ReadMore

A survey of several major churches in the UK reveals that Christian Aid, an aid organization of the World Council of Churches (WCC) that propagates far-left anti-Israel views and supports groups that promote the boycott, divestment and sanctions (BDS) agenda, determines the actual Middle East policy line for these UK churchesReadMore

In Wallonia the Socialists are the leading party and often take hostile positions toward Israel. Israels friends there are mainly among the Liberals, even if some of their leaders are also anti-Israeli. The major Walloon media also frequently display very problematic attitudes toward Israel.ReadMore

How anti-Semitism is manifesting itself in schools throughout Europe. A session of the November 8 2011 conference co-sponsored by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung ion Incitement to Terror and ViolenceNew Challenges , New ResponsesReadMore

No. 112, 1 November 2011/4 Heshvan 5772 Anti-Semitism and anti-Israelism in schools or places related to them are significant problems in a number of Western countries. A third related topic concerns Holocaust education in a variety of European schools. When []ReadMore

The Institute for Global Jewish Affairs, established in 2008, includes the Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism Project as well as Changing Jewish Communities.ReadMore

Anti-Semitism and anti-Israelism in schools or places related to them constitute a significant problem in a number of Western countries. In the coming years, this issue will have to be addressed internationally in much more detail. The major question is how much anti-Semitism do Jewish children encounter in schools? Other important issues are the nature of school curricula, the attitudes of the teachers, the presentation of the Holocaust in schools, security in and around Jewish schools, attacks on Jewish students outside of schools, and so on.ReadMore

A further attempt to re-legitimize the 2001 Durban Conference against Racism, which became an anti-Semitic and anti-Israel hate-fest, will take the form of a ten-year anniversary commemoration of the conference at the UN in New York on 22 September 2011. This event will coincide with the Palestinian attempt to have the UN recognize and accept a unilateral declaration of a Palestinian state, in violation of the peace negotiation process. This juncture of events confirms the interconnection between the Durban process and the ongoing international campaign to delegitimize Israel. ReadMore

In this book, thirteen essays and interviews discuss various aspects of the attitudes of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland toward Israel and the Jews.ReadMore

Israel, contrary to commonly accepted propaganda, is a positive model, a case study for anyone who finds himself living in a democratic society that must eventually confront a defensive war- one that encompasses the entire universe of Western democracy today.ReadMore

In an increasingly uncertain world, the Holocaust is likely to continue to play an important role as the metaphor of absolute evil. This is all the more so as threats of genocide again appear in public statements. Fighting the main manipulations of the Holocaust requires first understanding the nature of the abuses. This must be followed by exposing the manipulations of the perpetrators, who should then be turned into the accused.ReadMore

The World Council of Churches, an umbrella organization for 349 Protestant and Orthodox churches founded in 1948, has expressed concern for the safety and wellbeing of the Jewish people but has largely been hostile to their state, particularly during times of conflict. At these times, WCC institutions demonize Israel, use a double standard to assess its actions, and in some instances delegitimize the Jewish state. They have also persistently denied the intent of Israels adversaries to deprive the Jewish people of their right to a sovereign state.ReadMore

The Post-Holocaust and Anti-Semitism publication, initiated and directed by Dr. Manfred Gerstenfeld, includes conferences, research, lectures, interviews, and essays in English and French.ReadMore

The phenomenon of terrorism against Jewish communities and Israeli targets abroad represents the most violent aspect of contemporary anti-Semitism, and the greatest physical danger to Diaspora Jewish communities.ReadMore

The second flotilla is coordinated by Muhammad Sawalha, a senior Muslim Brotherhood figure connected to Hamas. Many of the participating organizations can be directly linked with the Union of Good (UoG), a coalition of European charities affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood, which in 2008 was designated as a terrorist organization by the U.S. Treasury, for transferring funds to Hamas.ReadMore

In recent decades, the Holocaust has become the major contemporary symbol of absolute evil. As such, it has acquired a central place in the collective memory of Western societies. This development has been accompanied by an ongoing intentional distortion of its meaning. Manfred GerstenfeldReadMore

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion a proven lie and forgery is being published around the world, with new editions in Arabic almost every year. ReadMore

The growth of Canadas Jewish population has followed the pattern of Canadas development: a shift from east to west. Until the mid-twentieth century, Montreal was the center of Canadian Jewish life; today that role is played by Toronto. About half of Canadas Jews reside in Toronto, a quarter in Montreal, and the rest in smaller communities such as Ottawa, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver.ReadMore

Jewish Political Studies Review 23:1-2 (Spring 2011) This issue begins with an essay by Dexter Van Zile in which he analyzes one of the major sources of anti-Zionist aggression in mainstream Protestant churches the Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center []ReadMore

The challenges facing British Jewry now are little different from those that have faced Diaspora Jewry generally over the past one hundred years or more, namely, the twin problems of assimilation and anti-Semitism. The interesting questions today are whether the nature and context of these challenges are different at present, in the second decade of the twenty-first century, and how effective the communitys response to these challenges is likely to be.ReadMore

For years al-Jazeera has sought to advance the interests of the Muslim Brotherhood against the Arab regimes. The PA success in gathering support for statehood recognition was turning Hamas rule in Gaza into a liability. Now, after al-Jazeera has brainwashed Arab minds with charges of PLO treason, no declaration of statehood can be expected.ReadMore

Muslims in the United States number slightly under three million according to the most accurate population studies.They are among the wealthiest, most educated, and most ethnically diverse Muslim communities in the world.Their integration into the United States is remarkably different than in European countries, most notably in the near-absence of Muslim ghettos or enclaves common across the Atlantic. Three well-organized and well-funded political and civil rights organizations form the core Muslim advocacy.They work within the American political process to advance Muslim interests, but frequently present their community as victims of widespread Islamophobia.Leaders in all three have drawn controversy for support of extremist groups, and are overall hostile to Israel.ReadMore

Turkeys Jewish community is one of the few remaining Diaspora communities in a country with a Muslim majority. Despite its apparent dynamism, its long-term viability is doubtful. The community does not have any influence or play any role worth mentioning in Turkeys cultural, political, or intellectual life. Furthermore, in recent years the entire community has become the target of much resentment and hostile rhetoric from the countrys Islamist and ultranationalist sectors.ReadMore

Over the last few years there has been a steady drumbeat of calls from leading figures in the international community for Israel to open a dialogue with Hamas. Unfortunately, there is no evidence of a new pragmatism among the Hamas leadership, but only greater indications of a much harder line, which is expressed by its adoption of expressions of genocidal intent in its war against Israel and the Jewish people.ReadMore

Over the past thirty years the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and member unions have regularly adopted resolutions containing anti-Israeli and pro-Palestinian rhetoric. A whole generation of British left-wing trade union activists has been raised on a diet of conference motions whose only mention of Israel is in connection with its brutality and oppression of the Palestinian people.ReadMore

Ottawa and London Interparliamentarian Statements, Prime Minister Stephen Harpers Speech at Ottawa Conference ReadMore

The current European politics of Holocaust remembrance, with its interplay of multiple perspectives of Holocaust history, is marked by the hijacking of the Jewish perspective by including numerous other real and self-claiming victim groups under the Holocaust definition, very general and superficial feelings of shame, and the ascription of a role-model character to the righteous among nations for present-day good citizenship behavior.ReadMore

In 1937 a national exhibition site opened in Belgrade. Originally intended to represent indigenous advancements, in 1941 it became a Nazi concentration camp called Sajmite and its main use became the extermination of Jewish women, children, and elderly. This was not recognized until the 1980s; until then the climate was one of socialism. During the nationalist era, history was propagandized by the state to suit its own purposes, and truth was concealed.ReadMore

Although anti-Israeli activity on campus was evident in the 1980s and 1990s, the resolutions at the notorious World Conference against Racism in Durban in August 2001 led to an upsurge in such efforts and also to the founding of three academic watch organizations in 2002. The largest of these organizations is the U.S.-based Scholars for Peace in the Middle East, which is run by the academic community itself. Campus Watch, also U.S.-based, is part of the well-established Middle East Forum and focReadMore

The last few years have witnessed an explosion of anti-Zionist rhetoric on university campuses across the United Kingdom. Encouraged by the University and College Unions annual calls for discriminatory measures against Israeli institutions and academics, the rhetoric has become even more strident since Operation Cast Lead. A recent boycott-divestment-sanctions campus tour explicitly invoked anti-Semitic tropes. The consequently hostile environment for Jewish students has jeopardized their educReadMore

Nazis, Jews, and Soviets The Jewish Factor in the Relations between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union 1933-1941, by Yosef Govrin, Vallentine Mitchell, 2009. Reviewed by Wolfgang G. SchwanitzReadMore

The Holocaust and Its Denial The Abuse of Holocaust Memory: Distortions and Responses, by Manfred Gerstenfeld, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, Institute for Global Jewish Affairs, Anti-Defamation League, 2009. Reviewed by Judith Tydor Baumel-SchwartzReadMore

Pertinent Questions for Germanys Allies Skyldig till skuld: En europeisk resa i Nazitysklands skugga (Guilty of Guilt: A European Voyage in the Shadow of Nazi Germany), by Henrik Arnstad, Norstedts, 2009, 200 pp. [Swedish] Reviewed by Mikael TossavainenReadMore

The New War against the Jews La nouvelle propagande anti-juive, du symbole al-Dura aux rumeurs de Gaza (The New Anti-Jewish Propaganda, from the Al-Dura Symbol to the Rumors of Gaza), by Pierre-Andr Taguieff, Presses Universitaires de France, 2010. Reviewed by Michelle MazelReadMore

Casting a Dark Light Judefrgan: Debatt om antisemitism i 1930-talets Sverige (The Jewish Question: A Debate about Anti-Semitism in Sweden in the 1930s), by Henrik Bachner, Atlantis, 2009, 382 pp. [Swedish] Reviewed by Mikael TossavainenReadMore

Rights as a Zero-Sum Game The Palestinian Right to Israel, by Alex Grobman, Balfour Books, 2010, 326 pp. Reviewed by Leslie WagnerReadMore

Between 1920 and 1970, 900,000 Jews were expelled from Arab and other Muslim countries. The 1940s were a turning point in this tragedy; of those expelled, 600,000 settled in the new state of Israel, and 300,000 in France and the United States. Today, they and their descendents form the majority of the French Jewish community and a large part of Israels population.ReadMore

Americas Jews: An Evolving Community American Jewrys Comfort Level: Present and Future, by Manfred Gerstenfeld and Steven Bayme, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and the American Jewish Committee, 2010, 263 pp. Reviewed by Sarah SchmidtReadMore

Anti-Semitism reemerged in Hungary after the transition to democracy in 1989. There is, however, a notable difference between its earlier manifestations in the 1990s and recent developments. Traditional anti-Semitism has resurfaced and received an institutional framework, while verbal and physical aggression against Jews and Roma has intensified.ReadMore

To observe the Jewish population in the successor states to the Soviet Union is to be bewildered, so numerous and complex are the variables that define this large and remarkable segment of world Jewry.ReadMore

Many engaged Jews under the age of forty emphasize, more than their elders and predecessors, Jewish purpose. They have created new minyanim, expanded social justice activities, engaged in various cultural endeavors, undertaken Judaic learning singly and in groups, and established a powerful and significant presence on the Internet and other new media.ReadMore

Political cartoons often have more of an immediate impact in reinforcing negative stereotypes about Jews than a lengthy essay. By far the largest output of anti-Semitic cartoons nowadays comes from the Arab and Muslim world. A yet uncharted field of hate cartoons against Jews is that in progressive blogs.ReadMore

The American Jewish community is rapidly aging. The absolute number of elderly Jews more than doubled from 1957 to 2000, reaching more than a million persons. Data are presented on Jewish elderly from both the 2000-01 National Jewish Population Survey and local Jewish community studies that are useful to Jewish community planners in prioritizing services for the Jewish elderly in an environment of both increasing numbers of elderly and increasing needs in other areas of Jewish communal concern.ReadMore

The New Historians disregarded and omitted the two most critical features of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war: the religious-jihadi nature of the Arab campaign and Arab rejection of the UN partition resolution. The narrative built by the New Historians changed the parameters of political negotiations: a peace agreement between the Palestinians and Israel is not meant to correct the 1967 “occupation” and create a framework for a territories-for-peace exchange but to atone for the alleged atrocReadMore

In Munich, in what is one of the last trials dealing with Adolf Hitlers Third Reich, the trial of ninety-year-old Ivan (John) Demjanjuk is now halfway through a good opportunity for an interim assessment. It is worth reviewing for what Demjanjuk was indicted; the role the victims and their advisers play; the issues now under discussion in the courtroom; and how the trial is likely to end.ReadMore

Israel, as a democratic State, looks for legal tools to curb such smuggling and respond to Hamas terrorist attacks against its citizens. One of the tools available under international law is the maritime blockade. Israel, finding itself in a state of armed conflict with Hamas, has opted to employ this legal measure.ReadMore

The number of Muslims in Canada has grown exponentially, while the size of the Jewish community has remained more or less stable. There are now 780,000 Muslims in the country, representing 2.5 percent of the total population, while the 373,000 Jews account for about 1 percent.ReadMore

The singling out of Zionism as a supposed form of racism was a device invented by the Soviet Union to justify its refusal to condemn anti-Semitism during the negotiation of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination in the mid-1960s.ReadMore

Holocaust awareness has become a worldwide phenomenon, and an international free republic of Holocaust researchers has emerged. Among long-term trends in the field of Holocaust studies are the universalization of victimhood and the extension of the circle of perpetrators. ReadMore

Numbering just under eighteen thousand, Jews constitute a tiny fragment of Switzerlands population of 7.7 million. Nevertheless, Swiss public discourse is preoccupied with things Jewish. This goes back at least as far as the first centralized Swiss state. The Helvetic Republic, founded in 1798, fell apart largely over the issue of Jewish emancipation. This issue remained at the very center of the Swiss political discourse up to 1868 when, under U.S. and French pressure, Switzerland granted equReadMore

At the beginning of 2008, a debate erupted in the Swedish media after members of the Swedish Arts Council (Kulturrdet) had, among other things, accused the left-wing journal Mana of anti-Semitism. Manas reaction was a categorical denial of all allegations, while suggesting it was the victim of a politically motivated witch-hunt. Although a survey of the journal shows that the accusations were justified, Manas claims that the criticism was policy-driven appealed to many of its defenders, andReadMore

America and the Third Reich Refugees and Rescue: The Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1935-1945, edited by Richard Breitman, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg, Indiana University Press, 2009, 359 pp. Reviewed by Wolfgang G. SchwanitzReadMore

Enemies in Washington Blowing the Whistle on Genocide: Josiah E. DuBois, Jr. and the Struggle for a U.S. Response to the Holocaust, by Rafael Medoff, Purdue University Press, 2009, 157 pp. Reviewed by Yisrael MedadReadMore

On First Looking into Wistrichs A Lethal Obsession A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad, by Robert S. Wistrich, Random House, 2010, 1,184 pp. Reviewed by Winston PickettReadMore

The battle for the future of a vibrant American Jewry begins with understanding the present better and continues with assessing what the future might bring. The need to develop tools to understand faster the changes that are occurring is perhaps the greatest challenge the community has to confront. The book contains essays by and interviews with Sylvia Barack Fishman, Steven Bayme, Steven M. Cohen, Arnold M. Eisen, Rabbi David Ellenson, Manfred Gerstenfeld, Rela Mintz Geffen, Daniel Parmer, Leonard Saxe, Marc B. Shapiro, Ira M. Sheskin, Chaim I. Waxman, Jack Wertheimer and Steven Windmueller.ReadMore

Nazis on the Run Nazis auf der Flucht. Wie Kriegsverbrecher ber Italien nach bersee entkamen (Nazis on the Run: How War Criminals Escaped Overseas via Italy), by Gerald Steinacher, StudienVerlag, 2008, 380 pp. [German] Reviewed by Wolfgang G. SchwanitzReadMore

The Jewish community in Scotland numbered eighteen thousand in the 1950s but has now shrunk to around ten thousand, largely through emigration. The community is overwhelmingly concentrated in the Greater Glasgow area with around a thousand Jews in Edinburgh and smaller numbers scattered around the country.ReadMore

Read more from the original source:
Anti-Semitism | Jerusalem Center For Public Affairs

Oberlin alums fight back against purported anti-Semitism …

Angry alumni at a prestigious Ohio college have had enough of what they consider anti-Semitism on campus, and have demanded the school put a stop to it.

Some 200 Oberlin College graduates signed an open letter to the northern Ohio school, blasting what they called a hostile environment for Jewish students and faculty on campus. The critics charged that the Boycott, Divest from, and Sanction Israel movement on campus has morphed into raw racism.

“Several student organizations at Oberlin have assumed the role as the mouthpiece of the BDS movement, which claims to be a defender of Palestinian rights, but whose inflammatory language falsely portraying Israel as an illegitimate, colonialist and murderous regime demonstrates that its primary goal is to demonize the Jewish state,” reads part of the letter.

It goes on to state that the campus BDS advocates send an implicit message to Jewish classmates to either forfeit your allegiance to Israel and join us, or we will brand you as an enemy of justice and complicit in the oppression of the Palestinian people.

Students are being personally attacked for their beliefs.This is quite different from a disagreement over ideas.

– Melissa Landa

The drafting of the letter was spearheaded by Melissa Landa, an instructor at the University of Maryland and graduate of Oberlin. Landa told FoxNews.com her group wants a task force formed to address anti-Semitism on campus carried out under the guise of pro-Palestinian activism.

The school’s graduates include actor and writer Lena Dunham, conservative commentator Michelle Malkin, actor Ed Helms and novelist and playright Eric Bogosian.

While current students can speak to the atmosphere on campus, alumni have an investment in the future of the college,” Landa said, adding that Oberlin President Marvin Krislov will meet with the group Jan. 26 to discuss the ongoing issue.

Members of Oberlin Students for a Free Palestine issued a statement rejecting the charge that members are anti-Semitic.

“We reject the idea that support for the Palestinian cause is anti-Semitic, read the statement. Criticism of Israel may challenge the political opinions of some students, but that is not a threat to their safety. We will continue to confront the realities of the occupation on our campus.”

Oberlin College officials did not immediately return requests for comment.

Over the past several years, Oberlin has had a slew of issues concerning Anti-Israel activism, according to legal blog, Legal Insurrection.

Most recently, there is even a belief among some that BDS activists have attempted to co-opt the Black Lives Matter movement on campus.

This past November, the Oberlin Black Student Union brought forth a petition regarding what they referred to as the cultural appropriation of ethnic foods and cultural insensitivity in the dining hall.

Among the list of 50 different demands was that the school divest from Israel. The 14-page list of demands was endorsed by Oberlin Students for a Free Palestine.

Anti-Semitism is on the rise on campuses across the country, often driven by BDS activists, said Brett Cohen, executive director of campus affairs for StandWithUs, an international education organization that attempts to ensure that the Israeli side of the debate is heard.

There is a direct correlation between efforts to boycott and divest from Israel on campus and increased hate crimes against Jews, including swastikas painted on Jewish centers and fraternities, Jewish students being harassed and intimidated, and several cases of outright violence, Cohen said.

The pseudo-academic delegitimizaton of Israel fuels this fire, and has created a situation where some pro-Israel students are afraid to voice their opinions in the classroom.

Perry Chiaramonte is a reporter for FoxNews.com. Follow him on Twitter at @perrych

View post:
Oberlin alums fight back against purported anti-Semitism …